Exodus And Memory 1 Heidelberg University-Books Pdf

Exodus and Memory 1 Heidelberg University
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4 J Assmann, Qui s quid ubl quibus auxiliis cur quomodo me irrefutable but I would no longer call it. quando mosaic,Who what where by what means why how. and when 1 It is true that the distinction between true and. false in religion seems somehow implied in the, This is not to say that there is no historical prohibition of the worship of other gods and. background at all behind the story of the Exodus images but it becomes a question of truth only. from Egypt and that it is futile to investigate all later in antiquity with a certain concept. possible sources On the contrary it is quite of revelation The Torah at Mt Sinai is not. probable that a great many historical experiences revealed but simply given and its power. and memories lie behind and went into the Bibli does not rest on its truth but on God s power. cal story though certainly not this one gigantic and authority that has delivered Israel from. and miraculous event of liberation election and Egyptian bondage Here Hobbes is right who. revelation It is only to say that the story acquired stated that auctoritas non veritas facit legem. its world changing momentum only in its recep In its aspect of law the torah is not about true. tion history and whereas the historical events and false but about right and wrong. behind it may turn out to be rather trivial its The story of the Exodus draws several. real importance is a question of memory rather distinctions that have nothing to do with true. than history cf Hendel 2001 see also Hendel and false In itself it is divided in two parts the. Chap 5 liberation from Egyptian bondage chs 1 15, The theme of this story is not only a the and the formation of the covenant on Mt Sinai. origin of a people that still exists as the only chs 19 40 This looks like another distinction. ancient people that survived with its ethnic and that of liberation and binding but the point of. religious identity through the fall of the Ancient the narrative is that this is one and the same. World but also what is even more decisive b liberation means binding and binding means. the origin of monotheism that has become the liberation The first part draws quite obviously. prevailing religious orientation in most parts of the distinction between bondage and freedom. the world The story itself has become the model whereas the second part the covenant draws. of many a story of liberation emancipation and first the distinction between the chosen and the. salvation including its secular transformations non chosen Israel and the peoples and second. such as Marxism and socialism see Walzer within the covenant the distinction between. 1985 and even psychoanalysis if we think of friend and foe those who love God and keep. the importance Sigmund Freud attached to his commandments and those who don t Both. Moses and Exodus distinctions are very firmly drawn Israel is. In my book Moses the Egyptian which I separated from the nations to become a kingdom. wrote in California 20 years ago I tried to define of priests and a holy nation Exod 19 6 and. the conceptual core of the Exodus narrative as to his friends God will show his mercy and. the Mosaic distinction between true and false loving kindness up to the 1000th generation. religion or true and false Gods Assmann 1997 but the sins of the second he will punish on the. see also Assmann 2007 2010 This theory has third and fourth generations because God is a. met with much criticism and I would not hold it jealous God Exod 20 5 6 Deut 5 9 10. any longer The distinction as such and as a There is no question of truth and falsehood. defining feature of monotheism still seems to here Decisive is the fact that the distinction. between friend and foe and God s jealousy and,wrath does only work within the covenant and.
must be carefully distinguished from the distinc, 1 The earliest exact quote is attributed to Cicero by. tion between Israel and the other peoples The, Aquinas Sum Theol II I Q7 3 cf Cicero De inv 1 27 other nations are neither foes nor their gods. 1 41 false and nonexistent On the contrary they,1 Exodus and Memory 5. are very existent and Israel must forswear The story of Exodus as we know it is a book of. worshiping them What God requests of his peo the Hebrew Bible the second book of Moses or. ple is faithfulness not truth and the metaphors the Pentateuch the Jewish Torah But it is quite. and models for this unprecedented concept of evident that before its integration into the Torah. covenant are sonship matrimony and political it must have led a literary life of its own. alliance If there is any Mosaic distinction it is and even before its literary life the story will. the distinction between matrimonial faithfulness certainly have circulated in oral tradition as a. and adultery political loyalty and apostasy filial myth 2 3. love and rebellion and in this sense between Taking Exodus as a myth does not mean. friend and foe love and wrath that we are dealing here with pure fiction without. There is however one very important case any historical core Myths may very well be. where the boundary between within and without based on historical experiences The decisive. is blurred and the distinction between friend and property of a myth is that it is a well known and. foe is extended to the outer however restricted widely shared foundational story irrespective of. sphere This is the concept of Holy War In the its historical or fictional base Golgatha is a myth. case of Holy War external peoples are promoted but few people doubt that a historical person by. to the rank of enemies of God and objects of his the name of Jeshua ha Nosri has in actual fact. wrath This extension however is very restricted been executed by crucifixion The same may. and concerns only the seven peoples who apply to the Exodus from Egypt of a tribe by. reside in the land that God has promised to give the name of Yisrael But this is exactly the kind. the Israelites Deut 7 1 6 For these peoples of question that I would like to put in brackets. the tolerance towards the other nations is My question again is not what really happened. suspended and the Israelites are not only allowed but who told the story why when to whom and. but bound by sacred obligation to expel and how, exterminate them The rules of Holy warfare The first allusions to the myth occur with the. are 1 the war is waged on divine command early prophets Hosea Amos and Micalr. 2 the enemy is consecrated to God nothing When Israel was a child I loved him and out of. must stay alive no bounty must be taken and Egypt I called my son Hosea 11 1. everything is to be heaped up and burned on the I brought you out of Egypt and led you 40 years. through the desert Amos 2 10,market place,Did 1 not lead you out of Egypt and released you.
This concept is specific neither to Israel nor from serfdom and send before you Moses Aaron. to monotheism In one form or the other it and Miriam Micah 6 4. is common in the ancient world Sa Moon,If we ask our mnemohistorical questions. 1989 von der Way 1992 Lang 2011 It may,who when why the answers are obvious. be characterized as occasional monolatry in,These prophets were ardent mono Yahwists. the sense of creating a specific and more intense,as I would like to call them They were certainly. even monolatrous relationship between a warlord,not monotheists because their core concept is.
and a specific deity In a certain situation,loyalty fidelity faithfulness and Hosea s core. which reminds one of Carl Schmitt s concept,metaphor for this loyalty is matrimony respective. of Emstfall see Schmitt 1996 a people or,to adultery What is the point of faithfulness if. a king puts all his hope on one singular deity,and ensures his or her support by forswearing. or consecrating the bounty herem in Hebrew, It is very probable that the specific form of 2 For the textual history of Exodus cf e g Schmid 1999.
monotheism that originated in Israel with the 3 If those Biblical scholars are right who date the Song of. the Sea Exod 15 to a very early date ninth century BC. early prophets at the end of the eighth century, and earlier because of its highly archaic language this. BC developed out of this custom of holy warfare poem should count for the oldest allusion to the Exodus. and occasional monolatry myth,6 J Assmann, there are no other gods What is the reproach of On the throne at Jerusalem sat Josiah a king. adultery if there are no other men with whom who was open to the new religious ideas He. to betray the bridegroom or husband Hosea s was presented a book that turned up in the course. concept of loyalty presupposes a world full of of restoration work in the temple and that is. other gods with whom Israel is all too prone to commonly identified with the first version of. commit adultery Another image is the sonship of Deuteronomy 2 Kg 22 23 This book gives. Israel and it is in this context that the Exodus the new idea of a monotheism of faithfulness. myth is alluded to When Israel was a child the form of a political treaty which the authors. I loved him and out of Egypt I called my son adapted from Assyrian loyalty oaths and vassal. Hos 11 1 4 treaties 5 It is the same politicized concept. What we may retain from this first allusion to of the ancient idea of faithfulness and love. the Exodus myth is the idea of a very close and between Yahweh and Israel that we meet with. intimate relationship between God and Israel in the Book of Exodus The treaty or covenant. based on an act of salvation from Egyptian is no longer a metaphor such as matrimony or. bondage and election out of other nations and sonship but the real thing The whole system. tribes The prophets preach what one could call of political relations between the gods and. a monotheism of faithfulness acknowledging the king the king and the subjects the king and. the existence of other gods but demanding exclu his vassals is now transformed into the religious. sive and absolute loyalty to one specific god who system of the monotheism of faithfulness and the. proved himself the savior and liberator from one relation of god and people i e the liberating. Egyptian bondage The prophets want to remind god and the liberated people. Israel especially the Northern Kingdom of this These political treaties are frequently based. singular relationship on a historical recapitulation that found the. When This is the decisive question in a actual alliance in a friendly past Baltzer 1964. time of utmost danger and affliction by the The Exodus myth fulfills this function of histo. hand of the Assyrians The prophets foresaw rical frame The various stipulations command. and witnessed the fall of the Northern Kingdom ments and prohibitions that form the body of the. If there ever was an Ernstfall in the Schmittian treaty receive their meaning from the story of. sense it was now at the end of the eighth century liberation from Egyptian bondage Against the. BC It was the hour of decision and of occa background of this story the covenant appears. sional monolatry to put all one s hope on the as an instrument of freedom. One god able to help to save to liberate A political alliance between a god and a. We must however not assume that this people is an absolutely new unheard of and. prophetic monotheism of loyalty and faithfulness unprecedented concept As such it requires. became the general religion of Ancient Israel a specific amount of historical motivation and. What we are reading in the books of the early explanation This is the reason why the story. prophets is the voice of an opposition that is told As stressed above we are dealing here. met with strong rejection and even persecution not with just a story but with THE story. see Smith 1971 The Exodus and Moses narra the foundation of the covenant that is the founda. tive was the foundational story of this movement tion of the people of Israel and of Jewish and. When 100 years later the Assyrian Empire Christian religion. collapsed there was a moment of hope The revolutionary concept of the covenant. between the people and God implies a triple, 4 Both images by the way come from the Egyptian and. Babylonian imagery of sacred kingship In Egypt Pha 5 See Otto 1999 Steymans 1995 King Manasseh must. raoh is held to be the son of god and in Babylonia the king have been among the vassals who swore loyalty to. is wedded to the divine world by a hieros gamos Esarhaddon see Steymans 2006 Otto 2007 119. 1 Exodus and Memory 7, process of theologization 1 the theologization that arose with the population that remained in. of the political concept of alliance 2 the the land and had in ignorance of this new code of. transformation of a secular law code into ius Jewishness adopted Canaanite customs formed. divinum the torah and of 3 human history mixed marriages and begot Jewish Canaanite. into sacred history 6 Therefore the torah has children The Exodus narrative with its strong. these three aspects and functions of a law code and exclusivist ideas of liberation election cov. a treaty and sacred historiography enant friend and foe now acquired a very deci. In Deuteronomy the Exodus narrative sive meaning provoking a more liberal counter. functions only as a frame The main theme narrative. of the book is the law of the covenant It is In the same way as the book of Ruth. however highly probable that at the same time may be read as a counter narrative to Ezra s. Exodus and Memory 1 Jan Assmann Abstract The Biblical Book of Exodus is the narrative version of the great transformation from polytheism to Biblical monotheism in the Ancient World The interest of the story in which ancient Egypt plays such an important and sinister role lies not in what really happened but how

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