Excerpted From The European Union And The Member States-Books Pdf

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Introduction, Eleanor E Zeff and Ellen B Pirro, THE EUROPEAN UNION EU progresses at an uneven rate On one. hand the great expansion worked wonderfully in May 2004 when 10. new members joined the group see Table 1 1 On the other hand the. dream of a United States of Europe hit a roadblock in the summer of. 2005 when France and the Netherlands voted down the proposed consti. tution for the European Union Of course it doesn t end there To suc. cessfully grow and develop the expanded European Union faces abun. dant challenges both major and minor Three areas illustrate the. complexity and significance of the decisions that must be made in the. near future, First there are a number of membership issues The full integration. of the 10 new members still needs to be accomplished In addition. Bulgaria and Romania are on the threshold of membership and Turkey. and Croatia are at the beginning of the accession process with much to. be accomplished before they join Equally important will be confronting. a European Union with member states vastly different in economic and. social development and trying to integrate each one at the same level. Already there has been talk of a two tier membership. A second set of challenges concerns security and immigration. issues In 2005 several EU members experienced racially based inci. dents targeting immigrants and naturalized citizens and illustrating the. dilemmas of EU immigration and nationality France faced several days. of rioting and car burnings over conditions in its immigrant communi. ties It has also become steadily apparent that the borders of the EU are. 2 Introduction, Table 1 1 The Ever Wider Union, Member First Second Third Fourth Fifth. States Enlargement Enlargement Enlargement Enlargement Enlargement. 1958 1973 1981 1986 1995 2004, Belgium Britain Greece Spain Austria Czech. France Denmark Portugal Finland Republic, Germany Ireland Sweden Cyprus.
Italy Hungary, Luxembourg Estonia, Netherlands Latvia. not secure and the resulting issues include criminality human traffick. ing smuggling and even terrorism The EU has only just begun to con. sider foreign policy for the whole EU The establishment of common. security and asylum policies for EU citizens are major components of. this emerging area, The economic arena also continues to pose challenges to the EU. The rigidity of the economic and welfare systems in many of the mem. ber states and continuing high levels of unemployment are only two of. many areas needing continuing attention While there is widespread. agreement on protection of the environment case after case continues to. emerge pitting environmental concerns against economic development. On the international level continuing EU objections to removal of agri. cultural subsidies have thwarted the World Trade Organization WTO. free trade agreement at the Doha Round and no comprehensive compro. mise has developed either within the EU or between the EU and the. WTO nations despite recent budget compromises Within the EU ongo. ing disregard of stringent deficit requirements by some of the main pow. ers threatens the continued financial stability of the whole organization. Despite these obstacles the European Union s development into a new. kind of supranational organization continues to be a path breaking. adventure of ongoing interest to researchers and politicians alike. As was suggested in the first edition of this book the we feeling 1. described by Karl W Deutsch remains a major objective but has proven. to be more elusive than previously expected The goal of Europeaniza. Introduction 3, tion is now considered widely in the literature but has proven harder to. achieve in fact The addition of 10 new members in 2004 has added an. even greater variety of people and ideas to the mix This second edition. of The European Union and the Member States assesses the new. enlarged Europe of 25 countries soon to include 27 member states in. order to shed some light on the direction of its policies and the progress. it has made toward Europeanization 2, Despite the new additions and the accompanying problems of. adding members with backgrounds of widely varying economic and. political systems great progress has occurred The successful introduc. tion of the euro and the meshing of the single monetary system has been. a notable achievement The European court system has also added a. layer of European policymaking that one could hardly have imagined. even 20 years ago and there are now steps being taken toward a joint. foreign policy including both defense and peacekeeping elements. The country chapters that follow analyze and discuss many of these. important concerns The reader will find all kinds of data and informa. tion about the contemporary EU pulled together and organized for com. prehension The book also illuminates what is actually happening in the. EU through concrete illustrations and case histories Each of the country. chapters discusses some specific events and their influence on either the. EU or the member states to help the reader get beyond dry theories to a. real sense of how the EU operates throughout contemporary Europe. Approaches to Studying Policy, in the EU and the Member States.
There are always questions about the best approach to studying the sig. nificant issues of the European Union While the individual country. chapters that follow incorporate several of the various theoretical. approaches developed to understand the policy process in the EU no. single theoretical approach is imposed on the data gathered here Instead. the reader finds a basic framework and abundant information within that. framework The scholar can utilize this database with different theoreti. cal models as desired, This edition takes a bottom up approach to studying the institu. tions and policies of the European Union in the early twenty first centu. ry A number of contemporary scholars have cited the importance of bot. tom up research Yet much recently published work still primarily. utilizes the top down approach focusing on EU institutions and poli. 4 Introduction, cymaking 3 However as do other authors 4 we maintain that member. states matter and that not only do the EU and its institutions affect. them but also the member states play an important role in shaping the. EU itself what it stands for what it does and how it operates Often. the policy feedback loop is completed as the member states seek to. influence EU policy in areas critical to their national futures Both. national institutions and the member states are important actors in mak. ing and implementing the policies designed by the EU institutions and. the directives imposed on the states 5 It is noteworthy that this process is. often problematic both at the EU level and within the member states. There are instances of failed and outdated strategies slow imperfect or. even failed implementation and unforeseen results, In the succeeding chapters each of the 25 member states receives. coverage Each chapter focuses on a set of questions concerning the. relationship between a particular member state and the EU institutions. While we ask the same questions for each country the authors discuss. the policy or policies that they feel best represent the problems faced or. solved by each member state or that best reflect the views and policy. trends in that state, The Questions Asked, 1 What is the background of each member state s interaction with. the EU How did the member state arrive at its current situation What. historical givens shape the ongoing interaction What are the legacies. of the secession process What were the key events along the way. 2 How and in what ways and areas does the EU influence the. member states It is apparent that the impact on policy and national. institutional development is profound for each and every member state. But for each member state some policies and directives have been easi. er to adapt and or incorporate into national laws while implementation. of other directives poses considerable difficulties To consider this. dilemma most country authors chose to discuss only a few or in a cou. ple of cases only one area of great significance for that member state. 3 How and in what areas do the member states influence EU poli. cies and implementation In what policy areas are the member states. making their views best known For the newest members the acceding. 10 this is a developing area and there are less data available For the. other member states it is very instructive to observe how and where. states have sought to apply their influence and where they have had dif. ficulty in exerting it, Introduction 5, 4 How does the member state implement and comply with EU.
policies and directives It is noteworthy that for the pre enlargement. members the process is key Most chapters detail what each member. nation has developed in terms of agencies and institutions that activate. EU policies and revolve around the hows and whys of implementa. tion For the 10 accession states the substance is more crucial The. process is still quite new and not always certain Many of the new mem. bers are still developing their infrastructures to deal with EU matters. Their concern is how to operate within these new circumstances So for. each country additional questions apply What institutions perform the. compliance Is it easy or difficult Does it require a long or short time. span How has compliance impacted the political life of the nation. Have compliance issues become political issues, 5 Where does each member state fit with respect to the proposed. constitution and its apparent failure following the No votes by France. and the Netherlands in summer 2005, 6 What are the trends and prospects for each member state in terms. of EU membership Does it have goals and objectives vis vis the EU. for the next several years How likely is the road ahead to be either. bumpy or smooth, Format of the Book, Following this introductory chapter which establishes the framework. for the book John McCormick in Chapter 2 provides an excellent. overview of the European Union and its institutions with regard to poli. cymaking and implementation The subsequent chapters are grouped. according to the time that each country joined the Union The first. grouping consists of the six original members Germany France. Luxembourg Belgium the Netherlands and Italy that signed the. Treaty of Rome which went into effect in 1958 The next members to. join were the United Kingdom Ireland and Denmark in 1973 and then. Greece in 1981 followed by Spain and Portugal in 1986 after a long. accession wait Finally in a 10 year period the EU witnessed 13 new. countries enter the EU first Austria Sweden and Finland in 1995 and. then in May 2004 Poland Hungary the Czech Republic Slovenia. Slovakia Lithuania Latvia Estonia Malta and Cyprus While there are. many options about how to group the countries we feel that the chrono. logical order in which the states joined the Union provides a valuable. historical view, The country chapters are as McCormick states in Chapter 2 an. attempt to pin down the nature of the EU policy process and of the poli. 6 Introduction, cy relationship between the EU institutions and the member states of the.
European Union The authors each build on past research while con. tributing new data in their attempts to shed more light on the ongoing. policy process in the EU McCormick argues in his chapter and many of. the authors demonstrate that the EU policy process is very diverse and. changeable because each member state has its own agenda and its. own special relationship with the EU The same policy is therefore. often implemented differently in each member state depending on a. number of variables such as different political ideologies and the com. petence of the member state s infrastructure Finding theories to help. understand this policy process has resulted in even more questions 6. Each chapter illustrates through case studies how the individual mem. ber states respond to various EU policies and also clarifies with con. crete examples some of the dilemmas resulting from the relationship. between the EU institutions and the member states and from the imple. mentation of policy at the nation state level The chapters demonstrate. the diversity of the member states and the difficulty of the process of. Europeanization under these challenging conditions They are a good. indicator of the several problems facing the EU as it attempts further. integration, Policy Issues Considered, The country chapters of this book reflect the challenges cited earlier All. of the chapters on the newest member states consider the membership. challenge They range from the Czech Republic s reluctant incorpora. tion of EU directives to Poland s enthusiastic participation in EU activi. ties As Sharon Fisher in Chapter 17 notes the Czech Republic was not. very well prepared to take on the pressures of EU accession and it. remains a somewhat reluctant member even today There are some. noteworthy considerations of how accession activities have had a lasting. impact on some states such as Malta s and Cyprus s need to create a. whole group of new governmental bureaucracies in order to facilitate. compliance with EU requirements In some cases such as the Baltic<. cultural subsidies have thwarted the World Trade Organization WTO free trade agreement at the Doha Round and no comprehensive compro mise has developed either within the EU or between the EU and the WTO nations despite recent budget compromises Within the EU ongo ing disregard of stringent deficit requirements by some of the main pow ers

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