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Evaluation of single carrier and multi carrier modulation
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Evaluation of single carrier and multi carrier modulation techniques for. digital ATV terrestrial broadcasting, This report presents results of computer simulations and laboratory tests conducted at the CRC to. investigate various channel coding techniques proposed for the terrestrial broadcasting of digital advanced. television ATV The system performance of these techniques is evaluated for various impairments such. as Gaussian noise and co channel NTSC and ATV interference The performance of NTSC with. interference from co channel ATV is also evaluated. The channel coding techniques investigated include conventional single carrier per channel SCPC. modulation using trellis coded QAM constellations and multi carrier modulation MCM such as. orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDM also with a trellis coded QAM constellation A. measure of the bit error rate BER performance is given for comparing the various configurations. Results indicate that both single carrier and MCM offer similar performance in noise and NTSC. interference but OFDM can have a considerable advantage in multipath. valuation des techniques de modulation simple porteuse. et multiporteuses appliqu es la radiodiffusion num rique. de signaux t l vision l aide d metteurs terrestres. Ce rapport pr sente les r sultats de simulations d ordinateur et de tests de laboratoires effectu s au CRC au. cours d une tude des techniques de codage canal propos es pour la diffusion terrestre d un service de. t l vision num rique de pointe Advanced Television ATV La performance des syst mes de ATV. utilisant les techniques consid r es est valu e pour diverses situations incluant du bruit Gaussien et de. l interf rence co canal de signaux NTSC ou ATV La performance d un syst me NTSC subissant une. interf rence co canal d un signal ATV est aussi tudi e. Les techniques de codage canal consid r es incluent la modulation conventionnelle utilisant une simple. porteuse modul e par une constellation QAM cod e par treillis ainsi que la modulation multiporteuse. commun ment appel OFDM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing qui utilise aussi une. constellation QAM cod e par treillis Une comparaison des diff rentes configurations est pr sent e bas sur. la mesure du taux d erreur binaire obtenu pour diverses difficult s de transmission. Les r sultats obtenus indiquent que les deux m thodes consid r es soit la modulation porteuse simple et. la modulation multiporteuse offrent une performance semblable pour un environnement de bruit ou. d interf rence d un signal NTSC mais que le OFDM peut offrir un avantage consid rable en pr sence. de multi trajet,CRC RP 94 004,Table of Contents,1 Introduction. 2 ATV Requirements,3 Channel Coding,3 1 Single Carrier Per Channel. 3 2 Multiple Carrier Per Channel,3 3 Performance Comparison of Both Techniques. 4 Simulation Procedure,4 1 TC32QAM Transmitter Receiver.
4 2 TCOFDM Transmitter Receiver,4 3 Transmission Channel. 5 Laboratory Test Procedure,5 1 Single Carrier Interference. 5 2 OFDM Interference,6 Results TC32QAM,6 1 Performance Results. a AWG Noise,b NTSC Interference,c ATV Interference. d Multipath,6 2 Analysis of Results,a AWG Noise,b NTSC Interference.
c ATV Interference,d Multipath,7 Results TCOFDM,7 1 Performance Results. a AWG Noise,b NTSC Interference,c ATV Interference. 7 2 Analysis of Results,a AWG Noise,b NTSC Interference. c ATV Interference,CRC RP 94 004,8 Results NTSC,8 1 Performance Results. a 16QAM and 32QAM Interference,b OFDM 16QAM Interference.
8 2 Analysis of Results,a 16QAM and 32QAM Interference. b OFDM 16QAM Interference,9 Comparing Conventional and TCOFDM Modulations. 9 1 Noise into ATV,9 2 NTSC Interference into ATV,9 3 Multipath into ATV. 9 4 ATV Interference into NTSC,9 5 Complexity,9 6 Flexibility. 10 TCOFDM Recommendations for Future Research,10 1 Carrier Separation.
10 2 Code Linking Versus Spectral Shaping,10 3 Reliability Weighting by the Viterbi Decoder. 10 4 Optimal Trellis Code,10 5 Perfect Interleaving. 10 6 Perfect Interference Estimation,10 7 Perfect Channel Response Estimation. 11 Conclusions,12 Acknowledgement, A Preliminary Investigation of Multi Layer Services for ATV. References,CRC RP 94 004,1 Introduction, Current advanced television ATV research for terrestrial broadcasting in the VHF UHF bands is.
converging toward fully digital implementation Selecting a scheme for digital channel coding to deal with. impairments such as noise co channel and adjacent channel ATV and NTSC interference and multipath is. currently the subject of some discussions Conventional single carrier per channel SCPC modulation. schemes are being considered by many while others prefer the alternative of multi carrier modulation. MCM implemented by the orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDM scheme. The requirements for a digital ATV system are presented in Section 2 followed by a brief description of. the channel coding techniques of interest namely conventional single carrier per channel and multi carrier. modulation in Section 3, The computer simulation work and laboratory test procedure are described in Section 4 and Section 5. Performance results are presented and discussed in Section 6 for the single carrier system in Section 7 for. the multi carrier systems and in Section 8 for conventional analogue NTSC. Advantages and disadvantages of multi carrier systems versus single carrier are considered in Section 9. while Section 10 discusses future work for ATV services relating to the channel coding Conclusions are. presented in Section 11,2 ATV Requirements, In the generic ATV system block diagram shown in Figure 1 the original audio and video HDTV material. which represents well over 1 Gbit s of data is compressed to about 20 Mbit s with the help of source. encoding This compressed data must then be channel encoded to fit within a 6 MHz bandwidth to allow. for terrestrial broadcasting of the information in conventional television channels within the VHF and UHF. HDTV SOURCE CHANNEL CHANNEL CHANNEL SOURCE HDTV, MATERIAL ENCODING ENCODING DECODING DECODING DISPLAY. Figure 1 ATV system block diagram, This modulated signal is transmitted over the terrestrial broadcast channel which suffers from various. impairments including multipath additive white Gaussian AWG noise and interference from co channel. and adjacent channel NTSC and co channel and adjacent channel ATV. Within the receiver the channel decoder demodulates the incoming signal while compensating as much as. possible for the channel impairments A bit error rate BER on the order of 10 9 needs to be achieved in. order for the source decoder to reconstruct audio and video data required to provide an acceptable. distribution quality HDTV service,CRC RP 94 004, Forward error correction FEC encoding is required to achieve this level of BER Typically two.
independent levels of coding are used an outer Reed Solomon RS code and inner trellis code modulation. TCM Interleaving between both levels ensures proper de correlation of the codes therefore maximizing. performance The inner code is designed to offer a BER of between 10 3 and 10 4 in the receiver which is. reduced to about 10 9 by the outer code, These and other details of channel coding are shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3 for a single carrier per. channel SCPC ATV system and a multi carrier modulation MCM ATV system using trellis coded. orthogonal frequency division multiplexing TCOFDM respectively. INNER OUTER INNER INNER MODULATOR,FEC ENCODER INTERLEAVER FEC ENCODER INTERLEAVER. Reed Solomon TC QAM,DEMODULATOR ADAPTIVE INNER INNER OUTER OUTER. EQUALIZER DE INTERLEAVER FEC DECODER DE INTERLEAVER DECODER. Viterbi RS,Figure 2 Single carrier ATV transmission system. INNER TIME INNER FREQUENCY GUARD, FEC ENCODER INTERLEAVER FEC ENCODER INTERLEAVER FFT 1 INTERVAL MODULATOR.
Reed Solomon TC QAM INSERTION,NORMALIZER,GUARD FREQUENCY INNER TIME OUTER. Channel Response, DEMODULATOR INTERVAL FFT DE INTERLEAVER FEC DECODER DE INTERLEAVER FEC DECODER. Estimation,REMOVAL Viterbi RS,Interference Estimation. Figure 3 TCOFDM ATV transmission system, For this study the assumption is made that an HDTV service requires 19 5 Mbit s of information after. source encoding and a 10 9 BER at the receiver after source decoding. The systems considered for this study are described in more detail in Section 4 and Section 5. CRC RP 94 004,3 Channel Coding, Two different channel coding techniques are considered in this study conventional single carrier per.
channel SCPC M QAM modulation where the signal bandwidth is occupied by one full width carrier. and multi carrier modulation implemented with TCOFDM where the signal bandwidth is occupied by. multiple fractional width carriers located side by side spectrally. 3 1 Single Carrier Per Channel, The performance of conventional single carrier modulation schemes is generally well known and has been. recently studied in an ATV context as part of the process undertaken by the Advisory Committee on. Advanced Television Service ACATS of the Federal Communications Commission FCC in the United. States of America Most ATV systems proposed to the ACATS use either M VSB or M QAM as a single. carrier scheme, For this study only coded 32 QAM is considered though some results for coded 16 QAM are presented. for comparison,3 2 Multiple Carrier Per Channel, Unfortunately the state of knowledge on MCM is very limited though it has been the subject of important. work over the last 30 years or so at Bell Telephone Laboratories 1 2 3 4 5 6 and has been. applied in military HF communication systems 7 such as the KINEPLEX system from Collins Radio Co. USA 8 9 the ANDEFT SC 320 system from General Dynamics Corp USA 10 and the. AN GSC 10 KATHRYN system from General Atronics Corp USA 11. MCM has since been considered for other interesting applications such as high speed voice band data. communication modems at NEC Corp Japan 12 13 where it serves to alleviate the degradations. caused by an impulsive noise environment and digital radio broadcasting at the CCETT France 14. 15 16 the Institute for Communications Technology Germany 17 18 the Communications. Research Centre 19 work that is now leading to CCIR standardization 20. With the arrival of affordable high speed VLSI technology to implement the FFT and the adjuncts of. interleaving and coding OFDM can now be considered a serious contender for single carrier schemes 21. Of more interest for this study OFDM is currently being studied for digital terrestrial television broadcast. DTTB as shown by recent work in various research groups including the CCETT France 22 23. Thomson CSF LER France 24 NTL UK 25 26 27 NHK Japan 28 HD DIVINE. Scandinavia 29 30 and the Communications Research Centre. A description of OFDM is not offered in this report the following papers are suggested as excellent. sources of such information 15 21 22 and 25,3 3 Performance Comparison of Both Techniques. From theory the performance of COFDM in noise is equivalent to that of SCPC modulation assuming the. same code and constellation are used in both systems and compensating for the power loss due to the guard. interval on one hand and the cutoff filter on the other. CRC RP 94 004, It is not as straightforward with frequency selective interference such as co channel NTSC or multipath.
With SCPC modulation the effect of such channel impairments can be minimized with an adaptive. equalizer 38 For COFDM the trellis code and Viterbi decoder can be optimally designed to deal. effectively with such impairments as long as proper frequency interleaving is used 15 22. It should be noted that an OFDM system without some form of coding will result in very poor performance. in the presence of frequency selective impairments Consequently this study is only concerned with coded. OFDM COFDM more specifically with trellis coded OFDM TCOFDM Using a trellis code to link the. interleaved carriers in the OFDM signal distributes the interfered symbols in a random fashion and offers. considerable performance improvement Whenever OFDM is mentioned in this report it refers to uncoded. 4 Simulation Procedure, The ATV systems implemented in the computer simulation work including SCPC modulation using. 32QAM and TCM and TCOFDM using QAM are shown in Figure 4 and Figure 5 respectively. INNER INNER MODULATOR,PRBS FEC ENCODER INTERLEAVER. ADAPTIVE INNER INNER BIT ERROR, DEMODULATOR EQUALIZER DE INTERLEAVER FEC DECODER COUNTER. Figure 4 TC32QAM ATV simulation setup, A pseudo random binary sequence PRBS is fed to the transmitter to generate the desired signal The. resulting coded interleaved and modulated baseband signal goes through a simulated channel where. impairments such as noise interference and multipath are injected The resulting received signal is. processed through demodulation de interleaving and decoding An adaptive equalizer is used in the. TC32QAM system The de modulation blocks differ for both systems The resulting decoded binary. stream is analyzed to determine the performance, For this study the outer RS code is not included in the simulation work as computer simulations for BER.
values in the 10 9 range would be too time consuming Suitable RS codes are readily available to reduce the. bit error rate BER at the receiver as required for adequate protection of the source coded data. CRC RP 94 004,INNER FREQUENCY GUARD,PRBS FEC ENCODER INTERLEAVER FFT 1 INTERVAL. TC QAM INSERTION,GUARD FREQUENCY INNER BIT ERROR,INTERVAL FFT DE INTERLEAVER FEC DECODER COUNTER. REMOVAL Viterbi,Figure 5 TCOFDM ATV simulation setup. Also this study has not considered impairment from adjacent channel interference because performance is. more dependant on the design of the out of band rejection filters than it is on the choice of modulation and. 4 1 TC32QAM Transmitter Receiver, The single carrier system implemented for the simulation work uses a trellis coded 32QAM TC32QAM. scheme with the characteristics presented in Table I based on the Digicipher system proposed to the. ACATS The 4 9 Msymbol s rate offers slightly more than the 19 5 Mbit s throughput targeted for this. study The modulator block includes a cutoff filter with a 21 roll off factor. Symbol rate 4 9 Msymbol s,Roll off factor 21,Constellation CROSS 32QAM.
Interleaving depth 32 symbols,Code Rate 4 5 trellis code optimized for noise. Equalization Adaptive 256 taps T 2 fractionally spaced. Table I TC32QAM system simulation parameters, The rate 4 5 8 state trellis code taken from Ungerboeck 31 is designed for use in a noise channel The. encoder output is mapped to a CROSS 32QAM constellation and the resulting symbols are interleaved. over a 32 symbol depth, In the receiver a T 2 fractionally spaced equalizer with 256 adaptive taps is used. 4 2 TCOFDM Transmitter Receiver, Two different TCOFDM configurations are considered for the simulation work The first configuration. with parameters presented in Table II offers a sufficient throughput for the study target of 19 5 Mbit s. CRC RP 94 004,Symbol rate 4 8 Msymbol s,Useful symbol duration 128 ms.
Guard interval duration 20 ms,Number of sub channels 749. Constellation Cross 32QAM,Interleaving depth 28 symbols. Code Rate 4 5 trellis code optimized for noise, Table II TCOFDM 32QAM system simulation parameters. The useful symbol has a 128 ms duration chosen to minimize interference to and from NTSC see Section. 10 The resulting carrier separation is 7 813 kHz with 768 carriers within the 6 MHz bandwidth By. forcing to zero 19 carriers at the band edges adjacent channel interference is reduced and 749 useful. carriers remain, A guard interval duration of 20 ms serves to reduce inter symbol interference from passive echoes due to. multipath and from active echoes generated by on frequency repeaters allowing for constructive power. addition of these echoes, The rate 4 5 8 state trellis code used in the SCPC system is also used here with a CROSS 32QAM.
constellation The resulting symbols are interleaved over a 28 symbol depth ensuring statistical. redistribution of burst errors occurring over adjacent subchannels. A second configuration was also studied System parameters are presented in Table III A trellis code. optimized for wideband frequency selective impairment such as NTSC interference or multipath distortion. is used with a slightly different mapping approach. The trellis code is optimized for narrow band flat fading impairments since the frequency selective. impairment over 6 MHz is relatively flat within one OFDM subchannel with a bandwidth on the order of a. few kHz The previous configuration is expected to achieve poorer BER performance in the presence of. such frequency selective impairments, To map the encoded data onto a constellation the conventional method is to code map both the in phase I. and quadrature Q components of the signal dependently as a QAM constellation Here the I and Q. components are coded mapped independently using a one dimensional AM constellation on each of I and Q. the two orthogonal AM constellations are then combined to achieve an effective two dimensional QAM. constellation,CRC RP 94 004,Symbol rate 4 9 Msymbol s. Useful symbol duration 127 ms,Guard interval duration 21 ms. Number of sub channels 730,Constellation 4AM 2,Interleaving depth 28 symbols. Code Rate 1 2 trellis code optimized for flat fading. Table III TCOFDM 4AM 2 system simulation parameters. The main advantage of such a technique is the reduced Viterbi decoder complexity And though in noise the. performance will not be optimal a performance roughly similar to that of the more elaborate two. dimensional 2D Ungerboeck codes is achieved 32 Furthermore using optimally designed codes in a. flat fading channel such an approach seems to offer slightly better performance than the conventional two. dimensional technique 33, This second configuration has a useful symbol duration of 127 ms with a guard interval duration of 21 ms.
This results in a carrier separation of 7 874 kHz with 762 carriers within 6 MHz With the removal of 32. carriers at the band edges to deal with adjacent channel interference 730 useful subchannels remain. The rate 1 2 64 state trellis code used in this system is designed for use in a flat fading channel with a. 4AM 2 constellation 34 On each of I and Q one bit is encoded with rate 1 2 and mapped to 4AM. resulting in an effective 16QAM constellation with a 2 bit s Hz capacity The symbols are interleaved at a. depth of 28, The drawback of this second configuration is the low throughput only about half of the target 19 5 Mbit s. throughput is achieved A higher rate code such as 2 3 applied to 8AM 2 is thus required This is. discussed further in Section 10, To help determine TCOFDM s robustness to the presence of NTSC interference a system that assumes. perfect channel response estimation perfect interference estimation and perfect interleaving is. implemented The trellis code which may be the most critical block for such impairment can then be. studied independent of other system weaknesses, The channel response information obtained at the receiver by analyzing the received signal associated with. transmitted pilot tones serves to normalize the received data symbols on a subchannel basis to compensate. for attenuation and phase shifts, The interference information obtained by analyzing the received signal associated with a transmitted null. symbol provides the Viterbi decoder with reliability information on the data symbols on a subchannel. Finally interleaving serves to redistribute error bursts so they appear as periodic single errors. CRC RP 94 004, With the above perfect implementations single erasures are introduced at regular intervals at the receiver.
to simulate binary weighting in the Viterbi decoder This simulates a situation with actual NTSC. interference where the decoder erases all interfered carriers using the perfect estimations and redistributes. evenly the erasures with the help of the perfect interleaver Of course multi level weighting in the Viterbi. decoder is expected to offer somewhat better performance but always at the expense of increased. complexity,4 3 Transmission Channel, The transmission channel is shown in Figure 6 with impairments including noise co channel analogue. NTSC interference and co channel ATV interference,WHITE CO CHANNEL NTSC CO CHANNEL. GAUSSIAN 75 COLOUR BARS ATV,NOISE GENERATOR,W STEREO AUDIO. Figure 6 ATV transmission channel, The noise used in the simulations is modeled as additive white Gaussian noise. The co channel NTSC interference signal comes from a 75 color bars software generator developed as. part of this study The signal also contains a sound carrier modulated by stereophonic audio according to. the BTSC specification using pink noise as the source. The co channel ATV interference signal is generated the same way as the desired ATV signal using a. similar transmitter differing only in the seed used by the pseudo random binary sequence generator this. ensures that the desired and undesired transmitted signals are uncorrelated. 5 Laboratory Test Procedure, The laboratory test setup shown in Figure 7 consists of a waveform generator programmed to produce an.
ATV signal which is then added at RF channel 12 to an NTSC signal whose source includes both fixed. test patterns and live video signals, The NTSC picture with resulting interference is then viewed by an expert viewer at a distance of 5H on a. high end consumer television receiver The same viewer was used throughout the tests The desired to. undesired signal ratio is varied to determine the threshold of visibility TOV and threshold of audibility. TOA that is the points at which the interference starts to be perceptible in the video and audio. programme respectively,CRC RP 94 004,TRANSMITTER,MODULATOR RECEIVER. Figure 7 NTSC laboratory test setup,5 1 Single Carrier Interference. The SCPC signal generated is an uncoded 32QAM with a symbol rate of about 4 9 Msymbol s The. absence of coding here is not important since it does not affect the 32QAM constellation to which NTSC is. Interference from an uncoded 16QAM single carrier system with the same symbol rate as the uncoded. 32QAM system is also considered for comparison,5 2 OFDM Interference. The signal generated is an uncoded OFDM 16QAM with parameters in Table IV The absence of coding. has again no effect on the performance of NTSC,Symbol rate 5 15 Msymbol s.
Useful symbol duration 100 ms,Guard interval duration 0 20 ms. Number of sub channels 512,Constellation 16QAM,Spectral holes A None. B 21 carriers,C 41 carriers,Table IV OFDM system laboratory test parameters. Two values of guard interval duration namely 0 and 20 ms are considered to study its effect on the TOV. Three spectral shaping configurations are considered to study the effects on TOV and TOA of removing. carriers from the OFDM signal The configuration labeled A has no hole that is no carriers are removed. The other two configurations have holes of differing widths centered at the NTSC vision carrier The holes. are created by forcing to zero several adjacent carriers in the OFDM spectrum The B hole is 21 carriers. wide which is more than 200 kHz whereas the C hole is 41 carriers wide or more than 400 kHz. CRC RP 94 004,6 Results TC32QAM, Performance results from computer simulation of the TC32QAM single carrier per channel system are. presented and analyzed A description of this system was given in Section 4 1. 6 1 Performance Results, BER performance results obtained from the computer simulations of the TC32QAM single carrier system.
are presented for various impairments including noise interference and multipath. a AWG Noise, For a channel impaired by additive white Gaussian noise the BER performance of TC32QAM is presented. in Figure 8 which also includes performance results of the TCOFDM 32QAM configuration for. comparison Results for TCOFDM 4AM 2 are also presented but are discussed later. b NTSC Interference, For a channel suffering from analogue NTSC interference the BER performance of TC32QAM is shown. in Figure 9 with and without adaptive equalization The SNR is set at 40 dB so the effect of noise is. negligible, The BER performance of TC32QAM when both noise and NTSC interference are present is shown in. Figure 10 for different values of C I ranging from 8 to 12 dB Figure 11 gives the performance threshold. of TC32QAM for combined impairments of noise and NTSC interference with and without equalization. c ATV Interference, For a channel suffering from co channel ATV interference the BER performance of TC32QAM is. presented in Figure 12 with and without adaptive equalization and time and frequency offsets Offset in. time with the interfering signal offset by a half symbol and offset in frequency with the interfering signal. offset by 10 kHz are considered,d Multipath, Four multipath distortion models described in Table V are considered for the simulation work these.
models were developed for NTSC ghost canceling tests 35 The BER performance is shown in the table. for a given SNR near threshold for two different values of adaptive equalization step size D. Performance threshold of TC32QAM with combined impairments of noise and NTSC interference using. adaptive equalization with step size D 100 x 10 6 for fast convergence is presented in Figure 13 for the. different multipath models of interest, The effect of the adaptive equalization step size on the performance threshold of TC32QAM in combined. impairments and multipath is considered in Figure 14 where multipath model D is used. CRC RP 94 004,TCOFDM 4AM,1 0E 06 TCOFDM 32QAM,TC32QAM SCM. 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20,Figure 8 Performance of ATV in noise. 1 0E 06 w EQ,0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8,Figure 9 TC32QAM performance in NTSC interference.


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