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CO2CRC PARTICIPANTS,Core Research Industry Government Supporting. Participants Participants Participants,CSIRO ANLEC R D CanSyd Australia. Curtin University BG Group Charles Darwin University. Geoscience Australia BHP Billiton Government of South Australia. GNS Science BP Developments Australia Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Monash University Brown Coal Innovation Australia Process Group. Simon Fraser University Chevron The Global CCS Institute. University of Adelaide State Government Victoria Dept of State University of Queensland. University of Melbourne Development Business Innovation. University of New South Wales INPEX,University of Western Australia KIGAM. NSW Government Dept Trade Investment,Western Australia Dept of Mines and Petroleum. Evaluation of CO2 capture with high,performance hollow fibre membranes from.
Final Report,ANLEC Project 3 1110 0087,Dr Hongyu Li Professor Vicki Chen Jingwei Hou. and Dr Guangxi Dong,February 2015,CO2CRC Report No RPT14 5254. Acknowledgements, The authors wish to acknowledge financial assistance provided to the CO2CRC by the Australian. Government through its CRC program and through Australian National Low Emissions Coal Research. and Development ANLEC R D ANLEC R D is supported by Australian Coal Association Low. Emissions Technology Limited and the Australian Government through the Clean Energy Initiative. CO2CRC Limited,School of Earth Sciences University of Melbourne. Level 3 253 283 Elgin Street VIC 3010,PO Box 1182 Carlton VIC 3053.
p 61 3 9035 9729,www co2crc com au, Reference Li H Chen V Dong G and Hou J 2015 Evaluation of CO2 Capture with High. Performance Hollow Fibre Membranes from Flue Gas Final Report ANLEC report Cooperative. Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies Canberra Australia CO2CRC Publication. Number RPT14 5254 pp 109,CO2CRC 2015, Unless otherwise specified the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies. CO2CRC retains copyright over this publication through its incorporated entity CO2CRC Ltd You. must not reproduce distribute publish copy transfer or commercially exploit any information. contained in this publication that would be an infringement of any copyright patent trademark design. or other intellectual property right, Requests and inquiries concerning copyright should be addressed to the Commercial Manager. CO2CRC PO Box 1130 Bentley WA 6102 AUSTRALIA Telephone 61 8 6436 865. Executive Summary, This final technical report is prepared for ANLEC R D Project 3 1110 0087 This project. aimed to fabricate high performance hollow fibre membranes for CO2 capture from flue gases. and to assess their performance with both a laboratory synthesised gas mixture and real flue. gases from a power plant In concluding this project we were expected to. 1 Select one or two polymers and additives commercial polymers as materials for. production of hollow fibre membranes with potential for superior performance based on. the CO2 permeability and CO2 N2 selectivity, 2 Develop 2 hollow fibre membranes with improved CO2 permeability of at least 50.
higher and comparable CO2 N2 selectivity compared to benchmark hollow fibre. 3 Evaluate the tolerance of the hollow fibre membranes to impurities in flue gas with the. objective of achieving stabilised selectivity and permeance over one month operation. 4 Test the performance of membranes developed in this project with real flue gas on site. a power plant, The project started with an extensive State of the Art assessment of material selection and. baseline performance criteria that considered the major techno economic issues for large. scale deployment Fundamental technology background for membrane gas separation and. its application in CO2 capture particularly in post combustion flue gas CO2 capture were. reviewed This was followed by identification of benchmark membrane performances based. on materials that are currently being synthesised and fabricated at scale in hollow fibre. configurations Those materials were poly p phenylene oxide polyimide Matrimid and. polyethersulfone PES They exhibit a permeance in the range of 50 GPU and CO2 N2. selectivity of 25 In conjunction with the good mechanical properties and manufacturing. maturity of these materials and in line with the use of MEA as the solvent benchmark for CO2. capture these polymers were considered to be the benchmark materials in this study As. such the CO2 N2 separation target for this project was set as the CO2 permeance surpassing. 50 GPU and CO2 N2 selectivity over 25, Based on the extensive review screening and selecting benchmark polymer materials we. selected two materials for hollow fiber membrane development for laboratory and on site. tests with flue gas, 1 the 1st generation membrane hollow fiber membranes fabricated using Matrimid. blended with selected PEO and PEO PDMS copolymer additives with improved. separation performance and long term performance sustainability. 2 the 2nd generation membrane composite hollow fibre membranes developed in this. study with multi layer coating using selected CO2 philic PEO PA block copolymers. PEBAX as selective layer, Membranes of both generations were fabricated in house with their separation performance. tested with clean CO2 and N2 pure gases no impurities and CO2 N2 gas mixture in the. laboratory For the 1st generation membranes improved CO2 permeance between 24 34. GPU and CO2 N2 selectivity between 30 40 than commercially available products were. For the 2nd generation membranes a new protocol for dissolving Pebax 1074 grade polymer. using simple and environmentally friendly mixed solvent solution was developed followed by. systematic studies on the phase structure of Pebax dense membranes including blended. membranes and their related gas separation performances Based on this fundamental. knowledge composite hollow fiber membrane development was conducted through selection. of suitable microporous substrates selection of materials for protective gutter layer and. design and construction of a unique dip coating facility funded by CO2CRC suitable for. hollow fiber composite membranes At the best combination of the conditions screened in. this study CO2 permeance up to 560 GPU and CO2 N2 selectivity above 46 was achieved at. room temperature whereas 950 GPU and CO2 N2 selectivity of 30 was achieved at the. commonly reported temperature of 35 C This performance was better than the best. reported results for composite hollow fibers for CO2 capture. In the Phase 2 membrane development the separation performance of the candidate. Matrimid hollow fibre membrane was evaluated in the laboratory for tolerance to NO. impurity the primary impurity present in the flue gas after the pre treatment column and. water by testing with a synthesised CO2 N2 NO gas mixture with addition of water vapour. The test results indicated that the trace amounts of NO only had minor impact on the CO2 N2. separation performance for the Matrimid hollow fibre membrane with 4 Silwet L 7607. Both CO2 permeance and CO2 N2 selectivity dropped less than 10 compared with the. mixed gas permeation results without NO However the performance tested with humidified. gas gas feed passing through a water humidifier to add water vapour to the feed to the. membrane indicated severe reduction in CO2 N2 selectivity 70 and limited CO2. permeance up to 16 at water vapour activity between 0 6 and 0 86 stressing the. importance of water removal pre treatment process in membrane applications for flue gas. In evaluation of the composite hollow fiber membranes we observed that similar to that of. Matrimid based hollow fiber membranes the presence of NO did not affect the membrane. separation performance significantly The presence of a small amount of water at low activity. of 0 08 and 0 16 had an insignificant influence on the separation performance while the. evaluation at higher water activity level was not conducted due to the restricted resource in. the lab environment, With the purpose designed and constructed mobile membrane test unit the on site test with.
the 1st generation Matrimid hollow fibre membrane was conducted at Delta Electricity at. Vales Point with untreated flue gas as the expected pre treatment facility linked to the other. capture plant on the same site was unavailable Seven membrane modules were prepared. with 5 modules tested on site A decrease in both CO2 permeance 15 GPU at the highest. and CO2 N2 selectivity up to 15 in comparison with the results obtained with pure gases in. the laboratory was observed However 2 of them both with 4 Silwet additive fabricated. with 15 cm air gap exhibited minimal loss of separation performance after 3 days operation. with untreated real flue gas indicating good integrity against real industrial conditions. Despite the good chemical and mechanical stability of the 1st generation membrane. prolonged tests with flue gas on site was discontinued due to the interrupted supply of flue. gas caused by power plant maintenance, When the flue gas supply was resumed the subsequent on site tests were conducted with. the 2nd generation composite hollow fiber membranes because much better performance had. been observed for the second generation membranes in lab tests The on site test of the 2nd. generation membrane composite hollow fiber membranes made with polyvinylidene fluoride. PVDF microporous fiber as substrate coated with multiple Polymer poly 1 trimethylsilyl. 1 propyne PTMSP as gutter layer and PEBAX as selective layer were conducted with. three membrane modules that had been evaluated in lab tests In the first 14 days of tests. minimal pre treatment of the flue gas feed was facilitated through regular change of the. desiccant column and draining of the water trap bottle used for collection of condensed. water in the piping line Relatively stable permeance and selectivity were observed with all. three modules with CO2 permeance of 90 120 GPU and CO2 N2 selectivity of 3 5 While the. CO2 permeance and the CO2 N2 selectivity was lower than what was achieved in the lab with. synthetic gas mixture the mechanical integrity of the membrane was maintained through the. flue gas exposure in that when the membrane module was brought back to the UNSW and. dried followed by testing with pure gas only 12 reduction of CO2 permeance from 500 to. 441 GPU and 5 reduction in CO2 N2 selectivity 31 2 to 29 6 was experienced. When the membrane was subjected to the flue gas without pre treatment severe loss of. permeance and selectivity of all three modules were observed and permanent damage to. the membrane mechanical integrity was suspected as evidenced by the irreversible reduction. of membrane selectivity after drying tested in the lab The damage to the membrane was. most likely due to flooding of the membrane module by condensed water in the feed line. In conclusion 2 generations of membrane were developed and tested with both lab and on. site conditions Improved CO2 separation performance was achieved with the first generation. membrane compared with existing membranes while the 2nd generation composite. membrane achieved excellent separation performance with potential to make a membrane. process competitive for CO2 capture On site test results for both generation membranes. demonstrated that the stable membrane separation performance could be achieved but. performance was severely impacted when subjected to flue gas without pre treatment. Flooding of the membrane module by condensed water in the pipeline could cause. irreversible damage to the membrane fibers, These observations suggest that pre treatment of flue gas particularly removal of water is. essential prior to feeding to the membrane system Systematic evaluation of the influence of. membrane performance by water vapour should be conducted through well controlled. experiments In addition the stable performance of the hollow fibre membranes in the field. indicate that further development of membranes with improved characteristics is highly likely. to lead to a membrane process with suitable separation performance for flue gas treatment. Executive Summary i,List of Tables iii,List of Figures iv. 1 Introduction 1,1 1 Description of the project 1,1 2 Milestones and deliverables 3. 1 3 Layout of this report 4, 2 Membrane Gas Separation for CO2 Capture A state of the art review 6.
2 1 Membrane separation mechanisms 8,2 2 Membrane structures 9. 2 3 Selection of membrane materials 10,2 4 Membrane fabrication process 16. 2 4 1 Phase inversion 17,2 5 Hollow fiber membrane fabrication 18. 2 6 Fabrication of composite membranes 19, 2 6 1 Fabrication of thin film composite TFC membrane 19. 2 7 Evaluation of membrane performance 21,2 8 Constraints of large scale implementation 22.
2 8 1 Physical ageing 22,2 8 2 Membrane plasticization 24. 2 9 Effect of minor components 25,Water vapor 25,2 10 Economic considerations 26. 2 11 Membrane process design 27,2 12 Research benchmarks 30. 3 Development Hollow fiber membranes using Matrid blended with selected additives. 1st generation membrane 32,3 1 Hollow fiber membrane fabrication 32. 3 2 Gas permeation tests 35, 3 2 1 Evaluation of PEG additive on gas separation performance 35.
3 2 2 Evaluation of PEG PDMS additive on gas separation performance 37. 3 3 Effect of additive on membrane CO2 plasticization 38. 4 Development of composite membrane for CO2 capture from flue gas 2nd generation. membrane 41, 4 1 Fabrication and evaluation of PEBAX dense film 41. 4 2 The effect of blending on PEBAX dense membrane structure and separation. performance 45, 4 2 1 The effect of pressure and the performance with mixed gas 51. 4 3 Development of thin film composite TFC membranes 53. 4 3 1 Flat sheet TFC membrane 53,4 3 2 Composite hollow fiber membranes 54. 4 3 3 Screening the substrate 55,4 3 4 Stability of PTMSP gutter layer 60. 4 3 5 Comparison with TFC membranes in literature 61. 5 Membrane performance in the presence of NO and water vapour 63. 5 1 Matrimid blended hollow fiber membranes 63,5 1 1 Effect of NO in the feed mixture 63.
5 1 2 The effect of water vapour and temperature 67. 5 2 Pebax composite hollow fiber membranes 70,6 Pilot Plant Design 74. 6 1 Feed composition property 74,6 2 Selection of equipment 75. 6 3 Nomenclature 83, 7 On site tests in Vales Point Power Plant Milestone 4 84. 7 1 On site installation 84, 7 2 Floor Plan for the CO2CRC Membrane CO2 Capture Facility 86. 7 3 On Site Test of the 1st Generation Membrane Milestone 5 87. 7 3 1 Raw Flue Gas Composition 87, 7 3 2 On Site Tests of blended Matrimid hollow fiber membranes 89.
7 3 3 Results from On site Test 1st generation membrane 90. 7 3 4 Modifications on the Flue Gas Feed Inlet Connection 93. 7 4 On Site Test of the composite hollow fiber Membranes Milestone 6 94. 7 4 1 Modifications on the membrane unit for the 2nd generation membrane test 94. 7 4 2 Results from on site test 2nd generation membrane 95. 8 Conclusions and recommendations 101,8 1 Conclusions 101. 8 2 Recommendations 104,9 References 105,List of Tables. Table 1 1 Key milestones and specific tasks 3, Table 2 1 Membrane materials used in industrial scale gas separation applications 6. Table 2 2 CO2 N2 gas separation properties for variety of membrane materials 13. Table 2 3 Maturity of membrane development in gas separation applications 15. Table 2 4 Packing density of typical membrane module configuration 17. Table 2 5 Summary of the polymeric membrane materials for CO2 capture from flue gas 31. Table 3 1 Gas permeation test results for Matrimid hollow fibers with 0 4 8 and 12 wt PEO PDMS. Copolymer conducted using pure gases 37, Table 4 1 CO2 permeability and CO2 N2 selectivity of Pebax 1657 and 1074 membranes cast with. different polymer concentration solutions Gas permeation tests conducted at 200 psi and 35 C 43. Table 4 2 CO2 permeability and CO2 N2 selectivity of Pebax 1657 and 1074 dense membranes cast. with different solvent evaporation rate 200 psi and 35 C 44. Table 4 3 Thermal properties of Pebax 1657 blend membranes with IM22 and Silwet 49. Table 4 4 Thermal properties of Pebax 1074 blend membranes with IM22 and Silwet 50. Table 4 5 CO2 separation performance of PES PEBAX composite membrane 54. Table 4 6 Water flux of hollow fibre substrate pump rate 20mL min 55. Table 4 7 CO2 permeability and CO2 N2 selectivity of PES and PVDF substrates coated with gutter. layers only tested at room temperature 56, Table 4 8 Gas permeation test results of composite hollow fibers with PES and PVDF substrates 57.
Table 4 9 CO2 permeability and CO2 N2 selectivity of composite hollow fiber membranes using. PTMSP as gutter layer 60, Table 5 1 Percentage change in CO2 and CO2 N2 selectivity for humidified pure gas 69. Table 6 1 Flue gas composition at the Vales Point Power Station 74. Table 6 2 Specifications of the major equipment 76. Table 6 3 Potential hazards causes consequences and controls 77. Table 6 4 Operating conditions of the membrane capture pilot plant 78. Table 6 5 Process conditions and gas composition for each line 79. Table 7 1 Flue gas composition at Vales Point Power Station 88. Table 7 2 CO2 N2 separation performance of the selected membrane modules 90. Table 7 3 Composite hollow fiber membranes developed in this study Selected modules for. tests on site with flue gas were highlighted 96, Table 7 4 Comparison of the membrane pure gas test results in lab before and after the on site test 99. List of Figures, Figure 2 1 Mass transport mechanisms in pressure driven membrane systems 8. Figure 2 2 Physical structure and morphologies of common membranes 10. Figure 2 3 Robeson upper bound correlation for CO2 N2 8 12. Figure 2 4 Methods of membrane fabrication process 16. Figure 2 5 SEM image of in house fabricated Matrimid asymmetric hollow fibre membrane 17. Figure 2 6 Schematic of a typical hollow fiber spinning process 18. Figure 2 7 Structure of multilayer TFC membrane and scheme of dip coating facility for hollow fibre. production developed during this project 20, Figure 2 8 SEM image of a hollow fibre membrane with a coated dense layer formed using a dip. coating technique 21, Figure 2 9 O2 flux profile of PES hollow fibre membrane as a function of time 57 23.
Figure 2 10 CO2 permeation isotherm as a function of feed pressure pure CO2 feed stream 66 24. Figure 2 11 Effect of Membrane selectivity on capture cost of CO2 4 27. Figure 2 12 Effect of CO2 permeability on the cost of CO2 capture for different vacuum membrane. systems single stage membrane system two stage cascade membrane system and two. stage cascade membrane system RR 86 28, Figure 2 13 Stage gates to large scale implementation 29. Figure 3 1 Chemical structures of Matrimid Silwet L 7607 and PEG 400 33. Figure 3 2 Laboratory scale hollow fibre spinning equipment located at UNSW 34. Figure 3 3 In house fabricated Matrimid hollow fibre membrane and membrane module with 4 to 5. strains of fibers potted inside the stainless steel tube 34. Figure 3 4 Schematic representation of gas permeation test rig 35. Figure 3 5 Gas separation performance for Matrimid hollow fibers with 0 4 8 and 12 wt PEG The. gas permeation tests for CO2 and N2 were conducted at 6 bars at room temperature 36. Figure 3 6 CO2 N2 mixed gas 22 78 vol separation performance closed symbols are pure gas. results and open symbols indicate the mixed gas results 36. Figure 3 7 CO2 N2 mixed gas 22 78 vol separation performance closed symbols are pure gas. results and open symbols indicate the mixed gas results 38. Figure 3 8 CO2 permeance as a function of feed pressure for Matrimid hollow fibers with different. PEG contents The arrows indicate the estimated plasticization pressure 39. Figure 3 9 CO2 permeance as a function of feed pressure for Matrimid hollow fibers with different. PEO PDMS copolymer contents the arrows indicate the estimated plasticization pressure 39. Figure 3 10 CO2 permeance over time under a constant pressure 20 bar for pure Matrimid. Matrimid with 8 wt PEG and Matrimid with 8 wt PEO PDMS copolymer membranes 40. Figure 4 1 Chemical structure of general PEBAX PA and PE changes with the grades of particular. products 41, Figure 4 2 Phase images of Pebax 1657 a and 1074 b dense membranes obtained from SPM. scanning 43, Figure 4 3 CO2 and N2 permeability of Pebax 1074 membrane in gas mixture solid line compared. with pure gas dash line the initial value the value at 24hours 44. Figure 4 4 CO2 N2 selectivity of Pebax 1657 and 1074 membrane in gas mixture Pebax 1657. Pebax 1074 45, Figure 4 5 Chemical structure of PEO PDMS additives a IM22 m n 15 b Silwet 46. Figure 4 6 Phase images of Pebax 1657 blend membranes obtained from SPM 48. Figure 4 7 SPM phase images of Pebax 1074 blend membranes 48. Figure 4 8 CO2 permeability a and selectivity b of Pebax 1657 blend membranes with 10 50 wt. IM22 and Silwet conducted 35 C and 4 bars The dash line indicated the theoretical prediction of CO2. permeability contributed by the miscible PEO in IM22 and Silwet co polymer 51. Figure 4 9 CO2 solid line and N2 dash line permeability of Pebax 1074 blend membranes with. 10 40wt IM22 and Silwet 35 C and 200psi 51, Figure 4 10 CO2 permeability a and CO2 N2 selectivity b of Pebax 1657 blend membranes with.
20 IM22 30 and 50 Silwet at different measurement pressure operated at 35 C 52. Figure 4 11 CO2 permeability a and CO2 N2 selectivity b of Pebax 1657 blend membranes with 20. IM22 and 30 Silwet in pure gas dash line and CO2 N2 mixture solid line as a function of pressure. tested at 35 C 53, Figure 4 12 SEM image of the PES composite membrane with PEBAX as the coating layer 54. Figure 4 13 Schematic representation of the dip coating facility and the sandwich like coating layer. structure of a composite membrane 55, Figure 4 14 Relative silicon concentration profile within 10 m depth obtained from EDX analysis for. TFC membranes coated with two gutter layers 57, Figure 4 15 Chemical structure formular of PTMSP 123 58. Figure 4 16 SEM outer cross section images of TFC membranes with PVDF substrate 59. Figure 4 17 SEM images of out surface of PVDF hollow fiber substrates coated with PDMS and. PTMSP with 2 and 4 layers of coating 59, Figure 4 18 CO2 permeance and CO2 N2 permselectivity of TFC membrane measured during the. extensive period room temperature 61, Figure 4 19 High performance TFC membranes reported in literatures hollow fibre 31 52 125.
126 flat sheet 4 34 48 50 108 127 this study at room temperature the grey frame indicates. the target region defined by MTR for high performance TFC membrane 62. Figure 5 1 Schematic representation of the membrane permeation set up for the pure and mixed gas. as well as for water vapour tests 63, Figure 5 2 Comparison of the CO2 N2 gas separation performance with without NO from Matrimid. hollow fibre membranes with 4 Silwet L 7607 The numbers show on the top of each column are. the actual permeance and selectivity with without NO A CO2 permeance and B CO2 N2 selectivity. Figure 5 3 Simulation results of the CO2 concentration in permeate as function of CO2 N2 selectivity. CO2 permeance is assumed at 20 GPU 67, Figure 5 4 Schematic representation of competitive sorption caused by water vapour 68. Figure 5 5 The effect of temperature and water vapour activity on separation of humidified CO2 69. Figure 5 6 The effect of water vapour in the feed evaluated with gas mixture The legends in both. figures are the same 70, Figure 5 7 Comparison of the CO2 N2 gas separation performance with pure gas and mixed gas. CO2 N2 20 80 vol under 35 C dash line pure gas solid line mixed gas 71. Figure 5 8 Comparison of the CO2 N2 gas separation performance with NO and water under 35 C. dotted line without NO solid line with NO dashed line with water vapour water activity between 0 1. to 0 17 73,Figure 6 1 Legend for the P ID and PFD 80. Figure 6 2 P ID of the membrane capture pilot plant at he Vales Point Power Station 81. Figure 6 3 PFD and stream tables for the membrane capture pilot plant at the Vales Point Power. Station 82, Figure 7 1 Overall dimensions of the mobile membrane unit 84.
Figure 7 2 Sampling side of the mobile membrane unit 85. Figure 7 3 The system control side of the mobile membrane unit 85. Figure 7 4 Floor plan for the CO2CRC mobile membrane unit at Vales Point 87. Figure 7 5 CO2 permeance profiles over 3 days on site operation 91. Figure 7 6 CO2 N2 selectivity profiles over 3 days on site operation 91. Figure 7 7 Permeation flux profile of Module 2 over 3 days operation 93. Figure 7 8 Modification of flue gas in let pipe connection 94. Figure 7 9 Modifications of the on site membrane unit for the 2nd generation membrane testing. upper gas flow rate monitor and lower 2 L water trap 95. Figure 7 10 The membrane performance profiles for the composite hollow fiber or 2nd generation. membrane over 17 days on site operation module 1 upper permeance and permeation flux lower. CO2 N2 selectivity 97, Figure 7 11 The 2nd generation membrane performance profiles over 17 days on site operation. module 1 3 upper CO2 permeance lower CO2 N2 selectivity 98. Figure 7 12 Corrosion of the copper membrane module fitting after membrane flooding 100. 1 Introduction,Description of the project, This research aimed to fabricate high performance hollow fiber membranes for CO2 capture. from flue gas and to compare their laboratory performance using synthesised gas mixtures. with real flue gas streams in power plants and to demonstrate the feasibility of membrane. application for CO2 capture in black coal fired post combustion flue gas Through this study. issues related to translating lab performance to industrial applications such as the influence. of pre treatment processes the minor components in the flue and effects of long term. exposure are highlighted The outcomes of this project contribute to advancing technology. development for successful demonstration of low emission coal technology in Australia by. identifying and developing appropriate membrane materials and optimising future process. configurations, The challenges for post combustion capture include maintaining acceptable CO2 N2. separation while achieving ultra high permeabilities for low feed pressures and relatively low. CO2 concentration in the feed Recent research and development around the world have. reported the potential of new polymeric materials and modules in gas separation membrane. systems to achieve significantly higher CO2 permeance by two to three orders of magnitude. compared to conventional gas separation membranes In conjunction with smart design of. multi cascade systems it is anticipated that the costs of CO2 capture from flue gas using. membranes could be significantly reduced to provide a significant cost advantage with much. fewer environmental issues compared to MEA solvent adsorption processes. This research study utilised our capacity in fabricating polymeric hollow fibres membranes. with high selectivity and our extensive experience in evaluation and understanding the. performance of membrane systems in gas separation applications We have also embarked. on development of new generation composite hollow fiber membranes with high permeation. rate to handle post combustion flue gas CO2 capture in this project Hollow fibres provide. high surface area and flexible module configurations adaptable to a number of flue gas. separation processes and rapid scale up,The project was defined into three phases.

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