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Evaluating Active Transport Benefits and Costs
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Evaluating Active Transport Benefits and Costs, Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Executive Summary 2, Introduction 3, Active Transport Demand and Modeling 5. Evaluating Active Travel Conditions 10, Benefit and Cost Categories 11. User Benefits 13, Option Value 15, Social Equity Benefits 15. Physical Fitness and Health 17, Vehicle Savings 20.
Reduced Chauffeuring Burdens 20, Congestion Reduction 21. Barrier Effect 24, Roadway Costs Savings 25, Parking Cost Savings 25. Traffic Safety Impacts 26, Security Reduced Crime Risk 28. Energy Conservation 29, Pollution Reduction 29, Land Use Impacts 31. Economic Opportunity and Resilience 33, Economic Development 33.
Facility Costs 39, Vehicle Traffic Impacts 39, Equipment and Fuel Costs 40. User Travel Time Costs 40, Benefit and Cost Summary 41. Improved Active Travel Conditions 43, Increased Active Travel Activity 44. Reduced Automobile Travel 44, Land Use Impacts 45, Active Transport Costs 45. Active Transport Improvement and Encouragement Strategies 46. Evaluating Specific Active Mode Improvements 49, Determining Optimum Investments 53.
Active Transport Evaluation Examples and Case Studies 55. Recommendations for Comprehensive Evaluation 64, Criticisms 65. Conclusions 67, References and Information Resources 68. Evaluating Active Transport Benefits and Costs, Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Executive Summary, Active transport also called non motorized transport or NMT and human powered. transport refers to walking cycling and variants such as wheelchair scooter and. handcart use Active transport plays important and unique roles in an efficient and. equitable transportation system It provides basic mobility affordable transport access to. motorized modes physical fitness and enjoyment Improving active conditions can benefit. users directly plus provide various indirect benefits so even people who do not use a. particular sidewalk crosswalk path or bike rack often benefit from their existence. This report describes the impacts benefits and costs of policies and projects that improve. active transport conditions and increase active mode use It discusses factors that affect. these impacts describes methods for quantifying and monetizing measuring in monetary. units them Table ES 1 lists various categories of active transport benefits and costs. Conventional transport economic evaluation tends to overlook and undervalue active. benefits and so tends to undervalue walking and cycling improvements. Table ES 1 Active Transportation AT Benefits and Costs. Improved AT More Active Transport Reduced Automobile More Compact. Conditions Activity Travel Communities, Improved user Reduced traffic Improved accessibility.
convenience comfort User enjoyment congestion particularly for non. and safety Improved public fitness Road and parking facility drivers. Improved accessibility and health cost savings Transport cost savings. for non drivers which More local economic Consumer savings. supports equity Reduced sprawl costs, activity Reduced chauffeuring. objectives Openspace, Increased community burdens preservation. Option value cohesion positive Increased traffic safety More livable. Higher property values interactions among, neighbors Energy conservation communities. Improved public realm, more attractive More neighborhood Pollution reductions Higher property values. streets security Economic development Increased security. Equipment costs shoes, Facility costs bikes etc Increases in some.
Lower traffic speeds Increased crash risk Slower travel development costs. Active transport has various benefits and costs, Some of these impacts are relatively easy to measure Economists often monetize facility. costs traffic congestion vehicle operation crash damage and pollution costs Methods. also exist for evaluating health impacts social equity affordability and option value the. value of maintaining a currently unused option benefits user enjoyment and additional. environmental benefits such as habitat preservation This guide describes these methods. and how they can be used for more comprehensive evaluation of active impacts. This report should be of interest to transportation policy analysts planners economists. and engineers plus active transport advocates, Evaluating Active Transport Benefits and Costs. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Introduction, Active transportation also called non motorized transport NMT and human powered transport. refers to walking cycling and variants such as wheelchair scooter and handcart use It includes. both utilitarian and recreational travel activity plus stationary uses of pedestrian environments. such as standing on sidewalks and sitting at bus stops In this report pedestrian walker cyclist. and non driver refer to active mode users whereas motorist and driver refer to automobile users. although most people fall into multiple categories. These modes play important and unique roles in an efficient and equitable transport system. Typically 10 20 of local trips are entirely by active modes and most trips involve active links. for example to access public transit and from parked cars to destinations. Improving active transport can achieve transport planning objectives including reduced traffic. and parking congestion energy consumption and pollution emissions and helps create more. compact smart growth development, Walking and cycling provide affordable basic transport Physically economically and socially. disadvantaged people often rely on walking and cycling so improving active transport can help. achieve social equity and economic opportunity objectives. Active transport is the most common form of physical exercise Increasing walking and cycling. is often the most practical way to improve public fitness and health. Pedestrian environments sidewalks paths and hallways are a major portion of the public. realm Many beneficial activities socializing waiting shopping and eating occur in pedestrian. environments Residential and commercial districts and resort communities depend on good. walkable environments to attract customers, Walking and cycling are popular recreational activities Improving walking and cycling.
conditions provides enjoyment and health benefits to users and supports related industries. including retail recreation and tourism, Many planning decisions affect walking and cycling conditions and therefore the amount of active. travel that occurs in a community To the degree that a planning process undervalues active. transport it will underinvest in these modes which reduces overall transport system diversity and. efficiency, Conventional transportation economic evaluation tends to overlook and undervalue many active. transportation benefits This report describes methods for more comprehensive evaluation of. these impacts Because active travel is diverse some analysis in this report only applies to certain. conditions modes or trips For example some analysis applies primarily to walking others. primarily to cycling some to certain users such as people with disabilities and some to certain. conditions such as active access to public transit Users should use judgment to determine what. is appropriate for their analysis, Evaluating Active Transport Benefits and Costs. Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Active Transport and Transport Diversity. Many communities are to various degrees automobile dependent meaning that their transport. systems and land use patterns favor automobile access and provide relatively poor access by other. modes The alternative is generally not a car free community where driving is forbidden rather it. is a community with a diverse or multi modal transport system which provides various. accessibility options including good walking cycling public transit automobile ridesharing taxi. and ridehailing telework and delivery services, Active modes play important roles in a diverse transport system Where walking and cycling.
conditions are good typically 10 20 of local trips are by these modes Walking and cycling. provide access to public transit often the best way to improve and encourage public transit travel. is to improve local walking and cycling conditions Walking provides connections between parked. vehicles and destinations so pedestrian improvements can help reduce parking problems. Physically economically and socially disadvantaged people tend to rely significantly on active. modes so they provide equity value If walking and cycling conditions are inadequate non drivers. must rely either on taxi travel or chauffeuring special trips made to transport a passenger which. is costly and inefficient particularly because such trips often involve empty backhauls so each. passenger mile generates two vehicle miles of travel. Because transport demands are diverse different people areas and trips have differing travel. needs and abilities increasing transport system diversity tends to increase efficiency and equity. by allowing each mode to be used for what it does best For example it is inefficient if physically. able people who enjoy walking and cycling are forced to drive for short trips due to poor active. travel conditions Similarly it is inefficient if people who would like to use public transit cannot. due to poor walking and cycling access to bus stops or train stations. A transportation system is an integrated network its efficiency depends on the quality of modes. and the links between them For example a person s ability to commute without a car may. depend not only on the quality of transit services but also on the perceived safety of bus stops. and train stations the quality of walking and cycling conditions the ease of obtaining information. about these travel options the ease of paying a fare and the social acceptability of commuting by. transit Because of these relationships it can be difficult to value a single system change for. example in one location improving walking and cycling access to a bus stop may significantly. increase ridership but in another location have much smaller impacts. Evaluating Active Transport Benefits and Costs, Victoria Transport Policy Institute. Active Transport Demand and Modeling, Transport demand refers to the amount and type of travel people would choose in specific. conditions Surveys indicate growing consumer demand for walkability For example the National. Association of Realtor s 2017 National Community Preference Survey found that 80 of. respondents enjoy walking the most of all travel modes a majority of households prefer living in a. walkable urban neighborhood over automobile dependent sprawl and walkable community. residents are also more satisfied with their quality of life NAR 2018 Various demographic. geographic and economic factors affect active travel demands Table 1. Table 1 Active Transport Demand Factors Dill and Gliebe 2008 Pratt et al 2012. Factors Impacts on Active Travel, Age Young people and some seniors have high walking and cycling rates. Some people with impairments rely on walking and cycling and may require facilities. Physical Ability with suitable design features such as ramps for walkers and wheelchairs. Income and Many lower income people tend to rely on active modes for transportation Bicycle. Education commuting is popular among higher income professionals. Dogs Daily walking trips tend to be higher in households that own dogs. Vehicles and People who do not have a car or driver s license tend to rely on walking and cycling for. Drivers Licenses transportation, Travel Costs Active travel tends to increase with driving costs parking fees fuel taxes road tolls etc. Facilities Walking and cycling increase where there are good facilities sidewalks crosswalks etc. Roadway Walking and cycling tend to increase in areas with narrower roads and lower vehicle. Conditions traffic speeds, Trip Length Walking and cycling are most common for shorter less than 2 mile trips.
Walking and cycling tend to increase in areas with compact and mixed development. Land Use where more common destinations are within walking distances. Promotion Walking and cycling activity may be increased with promotional campaigns. Public Support Cycling rates tend to increase where communities consider it socially acceptable. Many factors can affect active travel demand, Various methods are used to measure walking and bicycling activity including travel surveys and. pedestrian and cycling traffic counters Charlier Associates Krizek and Forsyth 2012 Kuzmyak et. al 2014 FHWA 2012b Minge et al 2015 Nordback Sellinger and Phillips 2017 Renne and. Bennett 2014 Ryan and Lindsey 2013 Some consider more qualitative factors that affect. pedestrians travel experience NZTA 2019 Conventional statistics tend to underreport active. transport because most travel surveys undercount trips that are shorter within a traffic analysis. zone off peak and non work trips travel by children and recreational travel ABW 2010 Stopher. and Greaves 2007 Sullivan and C O Fallon 2010 Many surveys ignore active links of motor. vehicle trips for example a bike transit walk trip is often classified simply as a transit trip and a. motorist who walks several blocks from a parked car to their destination is classified as an auto. user More comprehensive surveys indicate that active travel is three to six times more common. Evaluating Active Transport Benefits and Costs Victoria Transport Policy Institute 2 Executive Summary Active transport also called non motorized transport or NMT

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