Ernest Hemingway S Fathers And Sons An Evasive -Books Pdf

Ernest Hemingway s Fathers and Sons An Evasive
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49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. unrepresented unsaid elements draw attention to themselves The author redefines modernist. standards through his technique of narrative estrangement and thus challenges the status of. the white heterosexual American male in the 1930s Focusing primarily on the ambivalent. relationship of the central protagonist Nick Adams and his own father the text portrays the. psychological trauma of having a physically present yet emotionally unavailable paternal. figure resulting in subjectively developed coping mechanisms Nick s frustration finds an. outlet in covertly rebelling against normativities forced upon him. Fathers and Sons follows the path of Nick as he returns to his hometown in Northern. Michigan 4 He drives through the countryside with his young son sleeping next to him in the. car Nick tells most of the story through memories of his own childhood The homecoming. evokes in him feelings that he suppressed a long time ago As he recalls his past he. articulates his anger and shame about his father who not only left a negative impact on his. son s development but who also scarred him for life Examining the portrayal of Nick s. frustration as well as his anxious masculinity I shall interrogate such psychoanalytic. concepts as trauma abjection and coping mechanisms which appear to govern the entire. Hemingway delves into the fragility of conventional images of masculinity which. appear to correlate with the figure of the father in several of his stories One of the most. comprehensive Nick Adams collections entitled In Our Time 1925 addresses this issue. directly The book introduces the reader to Nick Adams charting his development including. that of the father son relationship from childhood innocence to adult understanding. Distress based attachments underpin Indian Camp the second tale in the cycle of In Our. Time 1925 The narrator juxtaposes the other against the idealised American father who. eventually fails to live up to fathers expected role As a child Nick accompanies his father a. medical doctor to an Indian5 camp to deliver a baby The young boy is in shock while he. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. witnesses the brutal albeit successful operation He becomes upset when he realises that. his father is oblivious to the suffering mother s screams His father distances himself from the. woman which does not only imply a professional distance but also a more obvious. distancing by physical retraction from her Dr Adams treats the woman s body as a territory. without agency or voice a kind of uninhabited land he takes possession of and must control. His mark is left on the Indian woman s body As a supposedly superior white man according. to contemporary social norms promoted by White Anglo Saxon Protestants he uses his. power to regulate Native American affairs including the subordination of Indian women. Indian Camp explores domination on several levels We can see that a white man dominates. in a non white camp a doctor controls the body of a patient and a father gives orders to his. In the story the father is portrayed as an individual who enjoys playing an important. role in both his son s life and that of the entire society Thomas Strychacz 1989 claims that. his behaviour is equivalent to a professional artistic performance similar to that of an actor. or director and that he desires approval of his talent Most of all he wants to perform in front. of his son Young Nick is the most important audience who can either validate or reject his. father s manhood 7 The place where the Indian baby is being born in Indian Camp is. essentially a feminine and emotional territory This womb space is transformed into a. male arena as soon as Nick s father enters He represents authority even over the Indian. father who stays in his bed helplessly The doctor invites his son to watch him as he performs. his role expecting admiration from the child Yet when the white doctor finds the Indian. father s corpse he commits suicide during his wife s operation he becomes an observer. himself Ironically Nick also turns his eyes from his father to the Indian man The audience s. Nick s attention is diverted to the Indian man denying Nick s father any confirmation of. his manliness and power Hence the father s authority becomes unstable 8. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. Nick may have felt safe in his father s company at first but we can see that his sense. of security is only temporal This is further emphasised in The Doctor and the Doctor s Wife. the third story in the collection which reflects the complexity of the child s role In this. narrative the doctor is humiliated by Indians while most probably his son hears everything. Here the Indians speak and theirs is the last word and the white doctor is silenced. Hemingway thus reverses power relations in The Doctor and the Doctor s Wife 9 The father. figure who initially attempted to provide physical security to the child in Indian Camp is. gone now it is the child who has to attain power to shield the father When Nick s father. instructs his son to see his mother the boy objects I want to go with you Nick said 10. Strategically positioned Nick must come to his father s rescue. In both Indian Camp and The Doctor and the Doctor s Wife the father is dismissed. as inadequate powerless and incapacitated Paternal roles are mocked The texts identify the. father as an incompetent role model challenging and questioning the validity of. heteronormative masculinity prevailing in America at the time Existing psychological. research pertaining to the multiple roles of the father draws attention to the connection. between paternal absence and the child s gender development and social functioning 11 The. impact of fatherlessness in the psychological and emotional sense is given prominence in. Fathers and Sons too through the conflicted relationship of Nick and his father who like in. the aforesaid stories may be a resident parent here but who avoids genuine emotional. involvement with his son, The first sentence of Fathers and Sons already speaks volumes about Nick s. background and the environment that he used to inhabit As he travels home he discusses the. landscape and a town that he goes through at great length. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794.
There had been a sign to detour in the center of the main street of this town but. cars had obviously gone through so believing it was some repair which had been. completed Nicholas Adams drove on through the town along the empty brick. paved street stopped by traffic lights that flashed on and off on this traffic less. Sunday and would be gone next year when the payments on the system were not. met on under the heavy trees of the small town that are a part of your heart if it is. your town and you have walked under them but that are only too heavy that shut. out the sun and that damped the houses for a stranger out past the last house and. onto the highway that rose and fell straight away ahead with banks of red dirt. sliced cleanly away and the second growth timber on both sides 12. Similar to the abovementioned duality that characterises the relationship of Nick and his. father dichotomy dominates several areas of life in their neighbourhood too The traffic. lights flash on and off the highway rises and falls the street offers comfort a part of your. heart if it is your town 13 but at the same time it creates apprehension in that the trees shut. out the sun and that damped the houses for a stranger 14 The unusually long sentence alludes. to the volatility of the town but more importantly it warns Nick about the unpleasantness. ahead if he moves on physically as well as in memory There is a sign to detour 15 but Nick. refuses to follow it He insists on facing whatever is ahead of him because the landscape. promises hope banks of red dirt 16 are swept aside and young second growth trees line the. road It signifies that the filth and immorality of the past became marginalised and a fresh. new life has commenced, While the environment may have changed Nick voices his own transformation too. he establishes his foreignness It was not his country but it was the middle of fall and all of. this country was good to drive through and to see 17 Nick may assert his otherness but he. is too familiar with the land to convince the reader that it has not been his country He carries. on observing and narrating the place in meticulous detail He introduces its agriculture to the. reader cotton corn sorghum soy beans peas and he starts hunting the country. in his mind 18 revealing childhood memories evidently linked to this wildlife environment. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. In shooting quail you must not get between them and their habitual cover once. the dogs have found them or when they flush they will come pouring at you. some rising steep some skimming by your ears whirring into a size you have. never seen them in the air as they pass the only way being to turn and take them. over your shoulder as they go before they set their wings and angle down into the. thicket 19, The level of detail Hemingway puts into describing the hunting experience dramatically. changes the tone of the story Hunting this country for quail as his father had taught him. Nicholas Adams started thinking about his father 20 As soon as his father enters his thoughts. the implied meaning of Nick s words transforms from anxious and complex to blatantly. aggressive The concealed implication of the passage of hunting for a bird corresponds to. Nick s desire to hunt down his father in a similar manner Later on in the memoir he recalls. an experience of angering his father as a child the image of hassling the birds thus echoes. Nick s getting between his father and his habitual cover 21 Nick remembers how his father. used to flush and come pouring at him whirring into a size you have never seen 22 His. father s presence is not comforting but physically threatening and predatory 23 The small child. supposedly realises that the only way of surviving the father s violence is by taking him over. your shoulder 24 or shooting him, The method of eliminating the father may be compared to hunting for a bird but in. addition to desire for revenge the imaginary fight also triggers anxiety in Nick He. remembers his father having t he big frame the quick movements the wide shoulders the. hooked hawk nose the beard that covered the weak chin you never thought about it was. always the eyes They saw much farther and much quicker that the human eye sees. His father saw as a big horn ram or as an eagle sees literally 25 Although Nick often. mentions that the only feature he liked about his father was his finest pair of eyes 26 or. wonderful eyes 27 in general he considers him a fearsome beastlike and disgusting subject. Nick places great emphasis on his sense of physical revulsion towards his father s body. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794.
odour His father sweated very much when working in hot weather and Nick hated the. smell of him 28 O nce when he had to wear a suit of his father s underwear that had gotten. too small for his father it made him feel sick and he took it off and put it under two stones in. the creek and said that he had lost it 29 The narrator reveals that Nick had made his father. sniff the underwear to prove he was right about the smell but his father remained adamant. that it was clean forcing Nick to wear it After pretending to have lost the garment Nick. was whipped for lying 30 The function of the father s wonderful eyes 31 now connotes a. colonial gaze Nick stands in for the colonised other substandard childlike being and thus. he is repeatedly infantilised in the text His inferior position contributes to the reinforcement. of the white American father s man s superiority As Thomas Strychacz 1989 describes it. in his analysis of performativity white American men need an audience that sees and thus. confirms their superior masculine status 32, His father s imposition of power upon his child by making him wear his used and. smelly underwear infuriates Nick The narrator continuously reveals that Nick s father was. only armed with superior physical strength not with superior intelligence or honesty thus he. lost his credibility in his son s eyes, Afterward he had sat inside the woodshed with the door open his shotgun loaded. and cocked looking across at his father sitting on the porch reading the paper and. thought I can blow him to hell I can kill him Finally he felt his anger go out of. him and he felt a little sick about it being the gun that his father had given him 33. This passage represents the only moment in the text when Nick manages to articulate his. frustration directly The narrator frequently admits that Nick was very grateful to his father. for bringing him to know 34 how to use a gun Nick s father was a great hunter and. fisherman 35 who taught his son what Midwestern fathers ought to teach to their offspring. He was sound on those two things 36 and even his own father Nick s grandfather was a. great wing shot too 37 Nick mastered the art of shooting from his father Nonetheless he. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. now considers turning against his tutor by using his own manly power the gun to kill him. He contemplates utilising the very object that his father provided him with His father gave. him only three cartridges a day to hunt with and he had a single barrel twenty gauge shotgun. with a very long barrel 38 Instead of shooting his father or feeling remorseful for the thought. however he decides to dispose of the man in an alternate way Then he had gone to the. Indian camp walking there in the dark to get rid of the smell 39 Nick recedes into the. The recurring illustration of darkness in a figurative sense as well dominates the. episodes to follow It is intentional that the narrator emphasises hunting and guns here Not. only is he communicating Nick s fury and violent tendencies by listing images linked to the. reign of darkness and thus the destruction of innocence when remembering the father he is. also eager to demonstrate Nick s desperate attempt to prove his bravery and manly worth The. complex era of the 1920s 1930s that witnessed the reconfiguration of gender stereotypes. created a sense of urgency to maintain manly control Phallic images enforce Nick s. anxious desire to establish and verify his manliness shotgun loaded and cocked very long. barrel long splintered pieces of wood hard hot trail flag pole log and jack. lights 40 He also parades his masculine power in the Indian camp he has sexual intercourse. with Trudy a Native American woman several times and he also threatens to kill her brother. if he dares to visit Nick s sister If Eddie Gilby ever comes at night and even speaks to. Dorothy you know what I d do to him I d kill him like this 41 says Nick showing off his. manly fighting skills As masculine gender identity is a social construction the surface of. the text conforms to contemporary Midwestern definition of manhood Masculinity as it. emerges in the author s fiction was defined by societal expectations and cultural. assumptions The dominant model of Midwestern masculinity included physical ability. outdoor living and a courageous disposition In his 1929 memoir John Emmett Nelligan. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. 1969 summarised this sentiment about exemplary Midwestern men as follows They were. strong and wild in both body and spirit with the careless masculine beauty of men who live. free lives in the open air They seemed the finest specimens of manhood I had ever seen. Drunk or sober they would fight at the drop of a hat and fight to a bitter finish They had. their code 42, Fishing like hunting is an activity that characterises Midwestern masculinity in.
America 43 Hemingway often connects these leisure interests to the bonding process of. fathers and sons Yet in the same way as other Hemingway stories where the father is either. physically or emotionally absent Fathers and Sons highlights disillusionment in the father. son dynamic and anxiety about preconceived gender roles For young Nick masculinity. seemed to be primarily defined not by society s set of expectations but by that of his own. father Nick confesses He was always very disappointed in the way I shot 44 This cathartic. statement reveals much more than a father s disapproval of his son s method of hunting. though The story makes it clear that Nick s father has extraordinary vision Nick cannot see. as his father sees One may suggest that the father s disappointment is therefore related to. Nick s less than ideal vision not his hunting skills and by extension not his masculinity. Considering that the doctor is an intelligent man however we may conclude that he surely. understands the given inborn and in most cases unchangeable nature of physical features. His disappointment in his son thus underlines much more than dissatisfaction with a simple. bodily characteristic Accordingly Nick s statement implies that he was never good enough. as a male in his father s eyes hence the man s emotional departure and lack of intimacy with. his son The father may never have appreciated and worst still never considered his son a. Paternal acceptance or rejection and frail father child relationships have a predictive. power on future adult outcomes Not only does the exploration of fatherhood extend the. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. investigation on narrative portrayals of anxious masculinity but delving into men s studies. from a parental developmental perspective generates a particularly complex interdisciplinary. inquiry Fathers and Sons directly illustrates the difficulty of coming to terms with the. eternal void that the absent father creates in his son Nick gives examples of withdrawn love. struggle for acceptance and multiple regression through characteristically upsetting images. The struggles that his character is portrayed to convey depict a straightforward and. observable psychological fact that Ronald Rohner 2012 summarises as follows if. children s need to be loved by their parents is not satisfied adequately children tend to. respond in a corresponding way The negative effects such as the development of inadequate. behaviour or excessive dependence are the consequences of feeling rejected 45 The warmth. dimensions of parenting must be considered in Nick s case too Jerome Kagan 1978 claims. that parental rejection is not a specific set of actions by parents but a belief held by the. child 46 Parental acceptance rejection is therefore studied as either a perceived subjective. experience or a phenomenon reported by an outside observer Parental behaviours. regardless if those are real or perceived can produce negative emotions in children If they. feel unloved and rejected their need for positive responses increases Should their emotional. yearning whether subconscious or admitted for comfort support and care remain. unfulfilled in childhood the need becomes more complex in adult life Rejected subjects. often seek out surrogate attachment figures from whom they expect and get positive. Nick who fails to receive appreciation and acceptance from his father becomes. defensively independent People who experience rejection in their childhood tend to grow up. to be less emotionally expressive adults This signifies their defence mechanism against. further pain They become less emotionally responsive they have difficulty accepting as well. as expressing love The great amount of psychological hurt generates defensive independence. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. in some affected individuals Defensive independence similarly to healthy independence. contains relatively few indications of yearning for positive response Nonetheless. defensively independent people continue to crave warmth constant reassurance and stable. emotional support without consciously recognising it They also often display signs of. counter rejection where they reject the people who rejected them 48 The simultaneous albeit. subconscious existence of counter rejection and yearning the duality of feelings the conflict. of ambivalence shape Nick s mindset The relationship between him and his father keeps. changing Nick contemplates taking revenge on his father for the lack of support and. guidance he rejects principles that his father holds sacred A metaphorical statement signifies. Nick s rejection of his father at one stage The towns he lived in were not towns his father. knew After he was fifteen he had shared nothing with him 49. Following the humiliation to which the father subjected his son Nick moves from his. father s terrain to that of Indians 50 The camp experience crystallises his thoughts on. masculinity relationship and sexuality He elevates himself and ridicules his father by. exposing the old man s incompetence in terms of sexual education The narrator verbalises. that Nick s father was unsound on sex and Nick s own education in those earlier matters. had been acquired in the hemlock woods behind the Indian camp 51 Nick recounts the. overflow of misleading messages from his father A bugger is a man who has intercourse. with animals Mashing is one of the most heinous crimes and His father had summed. up the whole matter by stating that masturbation produced blindness insanity and death. while a man who went with prostitutes would contract hideous venereal diseases and that the. thing to do was to keep your hands off people 52 The false explanations obviously did not. make sense to young Nick His imagination was both stirred and horrified 53 by his father s. teachings He thought of various animals but none seemed attractive or practical and he. pictured the great tenor Enrico Caruso doing something strange bizarre and heinous with. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. a potato masher to a beautiful lady 54 Nick concluded that when he was old enough he. would try mashing at least once 55 We witness the failure of an authority figure who is. unable to offer substantial advice to his son leaving it to the young boy to lean on his own. understanding 56, The combination of Victorian primness and misinformation that Nick s father adheres. to confuses his son 57 Susan F Beegel 1998 argues that Nick s childhood innocence or. ignorance about homosexuality may sound comic to the reader but it is very tragic for Nick. When Hemingway uses the terms bugger and mashing he is representing moments in a. young boy s normal emerging sexual curiosity but the boy s development is disturbed by. lacking an adequate role model and honest instruction The word bugger refers to anal. intercourse but it only involves animals in criminal law Making animals the object of. homosexual desire the father s teachings become odd and ambiguous in a story where. hunting fishing and the father son bond are of key importance There is no reference to. homosexual incest on the father s part in Fathers and Sons but we do witness the exposure. of his sexual frustration He is portrayed to suffer from urges masturbation prostitutes. same sex eroticism that cannot be relieved 58, Hemingway refrains from openly describing homosexual relationships Yet it is male.
sexuality that deviates from the stereotypical that informs his characterisation His. representation of heterosexuality seems to be limited to portraits of eternally dysfunctional. people and couples The consciousness of Hemingway s texts is troubled by the manly. hero s constant ultimately doomed quest for desire In the case of Fathers and Sons Nick. does not dare to delve into the interrogation of his father s repressed erotic yearnings When. he thinks about his father s anxieties he immediately intends to divert his attention from him. He wants to forget and write his father out of his system. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. He had died in a trap that he had helped only a little to set and they had all. betrayed him in their various ways before he died All sentimental people are. betrayed so many times Nick could not write about him yet although he would. later Now knowing how it had all been even remembering the earliest. times before things had gone badly was not good remembering If he wrote it he. could get rid of it He had gotten rid of many things by writing them But it was. still too early for that There were still too many people So he decided to think of. something else 59, Several crucial details are omitted from this passage We never actually find out about the. suicide of Nick s father per se and the reasons behind it are also undisclosed Hemingway s. method of silencing creates confusion for the reader The painstaking choice of words. signifies meaning that differs markedly from the commonsensical readings that emerged in. the twentieth century Repressing and silencing sexual frustration draws attention to itself in. this text and invites the reader to discover more than what is displayed on the surface. Hemingway preferred to call his literature instructive and not didactic 60 We can see that he. teaches but his teaching method is indirect He refrains from overt moralisation. Submitting ourselves to Hemingway s guidance we may soon discover a clear. direction despite encountering silenced elements and narrative manipulation For example. many of Hemingway s texts employ the technique of in medias res which is a narrative hook. for eliciting the reader s interest Using this literary device results in the lack of formal. introductions and closures Accordingly stories with an in medias res start only seem to be. partially completed which similarly to the characters themselves gives the cycle a sense. of deficiency Hemingway presents the reader with journeys back and forth in time. insufficient information about and gaps in the protagonist s life who is sometimes an adult. and other times a child but the experiences fail to add up to a satisfactory whole 61 We do not. see Nick s growth clearly as significant phases of his adolescence are missing from the story. The developmental period in between childhood and adulthood is never properly detailed. Through Hemingway s narrative technique and guidance we can see that the story therefore. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. functions as a cluster of fragments akin to the fragmented identity of the main character. himself There is a constant battle between Nick and the roles son father lover he has to. play His self presentation is unstable Hemingway foregrounds the difficulty of identity. construction through Nick s experience, Hemingway always assigns to his characters their functional roles according to scenes. and points of view instead of endowing them with permanent identities His narrator reports. events with figurative details shifting from terse language and indirect depiction to. employing several literary devices such as repetition or meaningful names The manipulated. narrative allows readers to become aware of different subplots expressed in multi modal. language The genre of the short story enables Hemingway to silence in swift momentary. motions what he wishes but is prohibited to parade the insecure nature of Midwestern. masculinity melancholic desires highlighting a constant sense of lack and a sincere. criticism of America s hypocrisy He applies redundancy a form of repetition of details. and silencing a conscious concealment of knowledge in his narration in order to guide the. reader to uncover the truth about preconceived ideals of American manliness including. fatherhood, Rhetorical analysis of Hemingway s texts however poses a question in terms of the.
literary function of silence The concept of narrative competence implies what the author. spells out and what the readership implicitly know about the basic shape of a story 62. Hemingway s technique of textual manipulation disturbs this knowledge The redundancy in. his stories influences reader response and interpretation Hemingway manipulates the. chronological order of events in Fathers and Sons too applying a wealth of prolepses. flashforwards and analepses flashbacks in order to produce sequences of montage in the. plots Several crucial links and direct revelations are left missing though. 49th Parallel Vol 34 Autumn 2014 Domotor,ISSN 1753 5794. Adrienne Rich 1994 rightly emphasises in Blood Bread and Poetry that we begin. to understand the importance of silence once we learn to watch for what is left out to listen. for the unspoken to study the patterns of established science and scholarship with an. outsider s eye 63 She also warns us in Cartographies of Silence that silence can be a plan. rigorously executed Do not confuse it with any kind of absence 64 Cheryl Glenn 2002. agrees that silence is not necessarily a sign of emptiness and therefore is not the same as. absence Like the zero in mathematics silence is an absence with a function 65 Silencing is. not a form of erasing The primary function of silence and silencing is to transform the. traditional discipline of rhetoric It makes one question whether rhetoric can only be delivered. by words and whether conventional rhetoric is the only means of signifying a form of power. in communication Fundamentally purposeful silence carries the same significance of. meaning and intention as the spoken word 66 Hemingway masterfully utilised the narrative. technique of silencing Fathers and Sons demonstrates that unspoken words often. communicate implied meaning much more effectively By noticing the evasive quality of the. author s narrative we encounter his assertive standpoint about exposing American masculinity. and what it promotes His text negotiates the desire to conform as well as the inability to do. In Fathers and Sons Nick s father wears a socially prescribed mask His sexual. frustration and the trap 67 that eventually leads to his suicide insinuate the presence of a. harmful partner regardless if he she is a wife or a homosexual lover Female characters. seldom receive full attention in Hemingway s fiction Women seem to be either marginalised. or ignored altogether Accordingly the wife is omitted from Fathers and Sons Silence about. her in the storytelling voice however draws attention to men s fear of feminine influence on. defining masculinity When the development of masculinity is challenged by a feminine. identification it triggers a negative attitude in the male towards the female within himself and.

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