Environmental Review Starlab Site On Ascension Island-Books Pdf

Environmental Review Starlab Site on Ascension Island
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ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW,STARLAB SITE ON ASCENSION ISLAND. 28 August 1990,Prepared for,DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE. HEADQUARTERS SPACE SYSTEMS DIVISION,ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING DIVISION. Point of contact HQ Space Systems Division DEV,ATTN John Edwards. P O Box 92960,Worldway Postal Center,Los Angeles CA 90009.
Prepared by,OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY,Oak Ridge Tennesee 37831. Operated by,MARTIN MARIETTA ENERGY SYSTEMS INC,U S DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY. Contract No DE AC05 84OR21400,LIST OF FIGURES vii,LIST OF TABLES vii. ACRONYMS and ABBREVIATIONS ix,SUMMARY xi,1 INTRODUCTION 1 1. 1 1 PURPOSE AND NEED 1 1,1 2 SCOPE 1 2,2 PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES 2 1.
2 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION 2 1,2 1 1 General Description of the Starlab 2 1. 2 1 2 Ground Operations 2 5,2 1 3 Starlab Experiments 2 5. 2 1 4 Ground Calibration Engagements 2 8,2 1 5 Mitigation Measures 2 13. 2 2 ALTERNATIVES TO THE PROPOSED ACTION 2 13,2 2 1 No action Alternative 2 13. 2 2 2 Alternative Ground Calibration Locations 2 14. 2 2 3 Alternative Sites at Ascension Island 2 16,2 2 3 1 Cross Hill 2 16.
2 2 3 2 Pyramid Point 2 16, 2 2 3 3 Comparison of the Cotar Hill and West Central Sites 2 17. 3 AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT 3 1,3 1 INTRODUCTION 3 1,3 2 PHYSICAL SETTING 3 1. 3 3 LAND USE 3 2,3 4 SHORT WAVE ADAPTIVE TECHNOLOGY EXPERIMENT 3 7. 3 4 1 Terrestrial Resources 3 7,3 4 1 1 Vegetation 3 7. 3 4 1 2 Fauna 3 7,3 4 2 Cotar Hill 3 8,3 4 3 West Central 3 8.
3 4 4 Aquatic Resources 3 8,3 4 5 Threatened and Endangered Species 3 9. 3 5 CULTURAL RESOURCES 3 9,4 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSEQUENCES AND MITIGATION 4 1. 4 1 INTRODUCTION 4 1,4 2 EFFECTS OF LASERS 4 1, 4 2 1 Potential Human Health and Safety Concerns 4 1. 4 2 2 Potential Laser Effects on Wildlife 4 2,4 3 IMPACTS ON LANDS USE 4 5. 4 3 1 Cotar Hill 4 5,4 3 2 West Central 4 5,4 4 IMPACTS ON ECOLOGICAL RESOURCES 4 6.
4 4 1 Terrestrial Resources 4 6,4 4 1 1 Cotar Hill 4 6. 4 4 1 2 West Central 4 6,4 4 2 Aquatic Rescues 4 6. 4 4 3 Threatened and Endangered Species 4 7,4 5 IMPACTS ON CULTURAL RESOURCES 4 7. 4 6 IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH AND SAFETY 4 7,4 7 CUMULATIVE IMPACTS 4 9. 5 CONSULTATION AND COORDINATION 5 1,6 REFERENCES 6 1.
7 LIST OF PREPARES 7 1,LIST OF FIGURES,Figure Page. 1 The Space Shuttle Orbiter 2 2,2 Typical orbit and Starlab ground sites 2 3. 3 The Starlab payload 2 4,4 Location of sites on Ascension Island 2 9. 5 General layout of the Cotar Hill site on Ascension Island 2 10. 6 Generalized layout of equipment at a ground calibration site 2 11. 7 Boundaries of the Cotar Hill site on Ascension Island 2 15. 8 View of the Cotar Hill site on Ascension Island 3 3. 9 Surface features of the Cotar Hill Site 3 3, 10 Sooty tern nesting habitat on Ascension Island 3 5. 11 View of the West Central site on Ascension Island 3 5. LIST OF TABLES,Table Page,1 Characteristics of Starlab Lasers 2 6.
2 Summary of Proposed Starlab Experiments Engagements 2 7. August 1990,ACRONYMS AND ABBREVATIONS,AFOSH Air Force Occupational Safety and Health. AFR Air Force Regulation,AMOS Air Force Maui Optical Station. ANSI American National Standards Institute,ATP acquisition tracking and pointing. Cm centimeter,DOD U S Department of Defense,EA Environmental Assessment. ETR Eastern Test Range, IRPA International Radiation Protection Association.
Km kilometer,LMSC Lockheed Missile and Space Company. MPE Maximum permissible exposure, NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory,POCC Payload Operations Control Center. SDI Strategic Defense Initiative,SDIO Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. STO Space Test Object,SWAT Short Wave Adaptive Technology.
USAF U S AIR FORCE,USASDC U S Army Strategic Defense Command. USFWS U S Fish and Wildlife Service,August 1990, This Environmental Review has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Defense. Directive 6050 7 and Executive Order 12114 Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions as. implemented by Air Force Regulation 19 3 Environmental Impact Analysis Process Overseas The. Proposed action evaluated in this Environmental Review is to construct and operate a ground calibration. site at Cotar Hill on Ascension Island a dependency of the British Island of St Helena The ground. calibration site would be used during a portion of the British Island of St Helena The ground calibration. site would be used during a portion of the Starlab Program experiments that have been described in a. previous Environmental Assessment USAF 1990 The purpose of these engagements and experiments is. to advance the research program of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization SDIO particularly that. involving the acquisition tracking and pointing capabilities of Electro optical and laser systems. The proposed ground calibration experiments would use the green and red Starlab lasers on the. Space Shuttle to locate and actively scan a site on Ascension Island The experiments would demonstrate. tracking and pointing accuracy of the laser system prior to conducting other Starlab experiment. The most significant issue addresses in this Environmental Review is the potential exposure of. people and or wildlife to laser beams The USAF has prepared extensive analyses of potential laser effects. which provide critical input to the evaluation in this Environmental Review Detailed safety analyses of the. effects of laser systems conducted by the USAF and independent calculators done in preparing the Starlab. Program EA USAF 1990 indicate that no significant impact to humans or wildlife would occur from. exposure to lasers because the probability of people or wildlife seeing one plus is so small 1x 10 9 and the. duration of exposure would be so short 25 nanoseconds. Other issues that are discussed and evaluated here are the potential environmental impacts of. constructing and operating the ground calibration site on land use ecological resources endangered and. threatened species and cultural resources Construction and operation impacts of a ground calibration site. on Ascension Island have little potential for causing adverse environmental impacts The Cotar Hill site is. already disturbed and supports other U S Air Force facilities A population of the rare plant Euphoria. origanoids is located on the slopes of Cotar Hill about 360m from the proposed site No direct impacts of. construction on this population would occur and indirect impacts are unlikely because mitigative measures. would be implemented to keep construction personnel and activities away from the population A sooty. tern rookery about 900m from the site would also be unlikely to be affected by construction activities If. the laser apparatus were to malfunction and the beam were to travel across the rookery it is highly unlikely. that any birds would be adversely affected ETR personnel would consult with local officials and experts. to identify any additional local concerns prior to initiating any construction activities. August 1990,1 INTRODUCTION, This environmental Review has been prepared to identify and evaluate potential environmental. issues associated with the proposed construction and operation of a ground calibration site on Ascension. Island Ascension Island is a dependency of St Helena which is itself a member of the British. Commonwealth The proposed site would be used during a series of laser experiments that are part of the. Starlab Program and are described in a separate Environmental Assessment USAF 1990. 1 1 PRUPOSE AND NEED, Former President Reagan announced on March 23 1983 that he was directing a comprehensive. and intensive effort to define a long term research and development program to begin to achieve our. ultimate goal of eliminating the threat posed by strategic nuclear missiles To implement this directive the. President created the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization SDIO which was charted to oversee. activities related to the Strategic Defense Initiative SDI. The Starlab program is an SDI activity that consists of a dedicated Space Shuttle mission having. the objectives of demonstrating proof of concepts for several space based defense experiments and new. concepts for performing strategic space experiments using the Space Shuttle Spacelab capability Under a. Memorandum of Agreement between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA and. DOD NASA will provide launch services for the Space Shuttle and overall Starlab mission coordination. and support SDIO is the DOD sponsor for the Starlab program NASA and DOD 1989 AND THE u s. Air Force USAF is responsible for developing the Starlab payload and conducting the experiments The. U S Army Strategic Defense Command USASDC is responsible for the ground launch vehicles i e. Project Starbird associated with Starlab The Eastern Test Range ETR is responsible for preparing and. operating the ground calibration sites, The Starlab program includes a serious of experiments that use Electro optical and laser systems.
aboard the Space Shuttle and on ground These experiments are designed to 1 demonstrate acquisition. tracking and pointing ATP of laser systems 2 collect plume and background information to narrow. phenomenology uncertainties and 3 provide a basis for making an informed decision on the design of a. weapon ATP system Starlab includes experiments that use laser beams propagated by equipment from the. orbiter and to and from the ground The laser experiments involve 1 calibration of the Electro optical. systems using objects deployed from the orbiter i e space test objects and scoreboards at ground. calibration sites on Antique in the Caribbean and Ascension Island in the Atlantic Ocean 2 ATP activities. associated with Starbird test vehicle launches from Wake Island in the Pacific Ocean and Cape Canaveral. Florida 3 participation in Short Wave Adaptive Technology SWAT experiments at the Air Force Maui. Optical Station AMOS Hawaii and 4 wave front control experiments In addition to these laser. experiments background data on the composition of visible and other spectral radiation from planets and. stars would be collected during the Starlab mission to assist in calibrating the Electro optical systems. August 1990, This Environmental Review evaluates potential environmental effects of developing and operating. a ground calibration site for Starlab experiments on Ascension Island a dependency of the British Island of. St Helena The Environmental Review addresses site specific activities on Ascension Island that are not. addressed in the Environmental Assessment EA on the Starlab Program USAF 1990 This document. has been prepared pursuant to DOD Directive 6050 7 and Executive Order 12114 environmental Effects. Abroad of Major Federal Actions as implemented by Air Force Regulation AFR 19 3 Environmental. Impact Analysis Process Overseas Executive Order 12114 is applicable because the Starlab programs. involve activities in a foreign country and over international waters The Purpose of an environment. review AFR 19 3 6 is to identify the important issues of a proposed action in a foreign country and to. review what if any consideration has been or can be given to the environment by the United States and. by any foreign government involved in taking the action. A major issue addressed in this document and in Starlab Program EA is the potential exposure of. people and or wildlife to laser light The USAF has prepared extensive analyses of potential laser effects. Payload Experiment Package PEP 20 LMSC 1989 which provide critical input to the evaluation in. this Environmental Review to verify conclusions reached in the PEP 20 analysis Other issues that are. evaluated include the potential impacts of constructing and operating Starlab facilities on land use. ecological resources endangered and threatened species and cultural resources. August 1990,2 PROPOSED ACTION AND ALTERNATIVES,2 1 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION. The proposed action would use the Space Shuttle Fig 1 to conduct and complete SDI. experiments within a scheduled 7 day mission in the second quarter of 1992 These experiments would use. Spacelab hardware located in the obiter bay to interact with ground sites missiles in flight and space test. objects STOs deployed from the orbiter, The experiments are primarily designed to demonstrate the feasibility of using space based. Electro optical and laser systems for the acquisition subsequent tracking and marking of missiles from. space Some of the proposed experiments use the Electro optical system in a passive fashion while others. use it in a mix of active and passive modes A passive experiment uses the Electro optical system camera to. capture images with available light e g the calibration and background experiment described. inSect 2 1 3 1 An active segment of an experiment uses lasers to provide the necessary illumination e g. acquiring and tracking a ground launched Starbird vehicle and its plume Sect 2 1 3 4 Approximately 20. separate events or engagements are scheduled for Starlab as parts of six experiments. Figure 2 shows a typical earth orbital path for the orbiter and indicates the ground sites involved in. the experiments These sites include Wake Island Cape Canaveral and the Hawaiian Island of Maui as. well as Antigua and Ascension Island,2 1 1 General Description of the Starlab. Figure 1 shows the orbiter with its bay doors open and the experimental Starlab payload exposed. The major components of the payload Fig 3 include the Spacelab module and the Spacelab pallet As. shown in Fig 3 the crew via an umbilical connection i e egress tunnel accesses the Spacelab module. located forward of the pallet Primary tasks of the payload specialists include observing and evaluating the. Starlab experiments and being ready to correct problems with the equipment should arise In this capacity. the specialist will serve as systems safety officer by having the ability to shut down any experiment or. modify experimental operating parameters The specialist will observe and control the experiments through. devices contained in the experiment control racks Fig 3. August 1990, The module will contain the optical bench that houses the maker laser and associated electronics.
Fig 3 The marker laser will be used to mark experimental objects once they have been identified and are. being tracked The Spacelab module and pallet are Electro optically linked and will function in a. coordinated fashion during the experiments with the marker beam traveling through the optical viewpoint. into the Spacelab pallet, Major elements contained within the Spacelab pallet Fig 3 will be the illuminator laser a 31 5. in 80 cm telescope ultraviolet acquisition video and infrared cameras a 5 ft 1 5 m pointing mirror. and STOs The Spacelab pallet will be open to space The marker laser beam passes through the optical. viewpoint is routed through the telescope and is subsequently reflected by the pointing mirror to its. destination All other optical beams and images are reflected by the pointing mirror The cameras are used. for initial acquisition and during the passive portions of experiments to assist in identifying experimental. test objects under a variety of conditions The illuminator laser will be used in active mode to illuminate. and track experimental objects, The two types of lasers that will be transmitted from the orbiter are the marker red and. illuminator green lasers A back up to the illuminator laser will be provided Some general. characteristics of the lasers are given in Table 1 A more detailed technical description of the lasers is. provided in Appendix E of the Starlab Program EA USAF 1990. 2 1 2 Ground Operations, Ground operations include 1 experiment command control and configuration 2 experiment. performance assessment 3 data analyses and 4 dedicated planning Operations during the mission will. be controlled from and coordinated with the NASA Marshall Space Flight facility at Huntsville Alabama. Ground control facilities will be located at Cape Canaveral and Wake Island for the Starbird engagements. and at Maui for the SWAT experiments These control facilities will be in continuo communication with. NASA throughout the 7 day mission,2 1 3 Starlab Experiments. The experiments and engagements included in the proposed action Table 2 can be grouped for. discussion as passive and active experiments Passive experiments do not involve lasers and are used to. gather background data and calibrate equipment Active experiments use lasers include the Ground. Calibration engagements Experiments other than ground calibration are described in detail in the starlab.

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