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Environmental Pollutants and Their Control EOLSS
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POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION LOCAL EFFECTS AND IT S CONTROL Vol II Environmental Pollutants and Their. Control Gang Yu and Junfeng Niu, Environmental management can be directed to the various aspects of environmental. performance As toxics are a main concern for companies reduction of toxics has to be. one of these aspects To achieve a substantial reduction in toxics companies should. develop a strategy with clear targets a program and an evaluation procedure for toxics. reduction and integrate toxics reduction in all components of the EMS. Monitoring including materials accounting of toxic chemical use and by product. generation and requirements for purchased products and raw materials should be part of. the activities The toxics reduction strategy should be extended to the whole field of. potential impacts of toxics the general environment the working environment and. 2 Effects of toxic chemicals, The development of modern technology has brought a dramatic increase in the production. and consumption of chemicals In a few cases the benefits of chemical use have been. accompanied by unexpected adverse effects Although some of these everyday. chemicals e g pharmaceutical and cosmetic products food additives are not of direct. environmental concern numerous compounds are continuously introduced into the. environment in large quantities e g solvents components of detergents dyes and. varnishes additives in plastics and textiles chemicals used for construction antifouling. agents herbicides insecticides and fungicides, The persistence and bioaccumulation of mercury PCBs kepone and dioxins are classic. examples Such cases have led to public concern that chemicals be fully evaluated in. terms of potential risk before being approved for use Some examples of such toxic. chemicals are given in Table 1,Structural types Compound name Sources. Pesticides HCH Parathion Carbaryl Chlordane Chlordane. Trans nonachloride 1 2 dibromo 3 chloro propane, DDT DDE DDD Carbatyl Dicofol Kelthane Insecticide and.
Aldrin Endrin Dieldrin Endosulfan Heptachlor metabolites. Heptachlorepoxide Malathion EI 4049 Methomyl,Lannate Methoxychlor Toxaphene. Simazine 2 4 5 T 2 4 D Atrazine ATA Alachlor, Lasso Lazo Nitrofen Trifluralin Simetryn Herbicide. Metribuzin Chlordecone,HCB Benomyl Mancozeb Maneb Metiram Zineb. Bactericide,Ziram Vinclozolin Ronilan, Industrial PCP Tributyltin Triphenyltin Preservatives. chemicals DEHP BBP DBP DCHP DEP DAP,Plasticizers,Di 2 ethylhexyl adipate D n HP Dipropylphthalate.
Alkyl phenol C5 C9 Nonyl phenol Octyl phenol Surfactants. Heavy metal,Methylmercury Cd and its complex compounds Pb. and its complex,and its complex compounds,2 4 Dichlorophenol Benzophenone 4 Nitrotoluene. Intermediates,n Butylbenzene Bis Phenol A,Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS. POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION LOCAL EFFECTS AND IT S CONTROL Vol II Environmental Pollutants and Their. Control Gang Yu and Junfeng Niu,Aspartame Food additives. PCBs PBBs PBDEs CPs flame retardants, Trichlorofluoromethane Dichlorodifluoromethane Aerosol.
Chlorodifluoromethane propellants,refrigerants and. blowing agents,for plastic foams,Dichloromethane Trichloroethene Tetrachloroethene. 1 1 1 Trichloroethane, Pharmaceuticals Ethinyl estradiol carbamazepine Norfloxacin Human. and metabolites Ciprofloxacin medicine,Enrofloxacin Veterinary use. By products PCDD Fs Industrial,processes and,urban wastes.
incineration,Incomplete,PAHs combustion of,fossil fuel. Table 1 Examples of important toxic chemicals, In 1976 the U S Congress enacted the Toxic Substances Control Act which requires the. testing of chemical substances and mixtures for assessment of risk to human health or the. environment Public concern regarding environmental chemicals is usually centered upon. their potential to cause cancer, However researchers do not focus solely on possible carcinogenic effects Scientists. recognize that problems associated with reproduction including those that induce birth. defects are equally characteristic in animals exposed in experiments to large. concentrations of environmental chemicals, Recently research has been initiated to discover whether humans who have been exposed. to the same chemicals albeit at lower levels are also subject to reproductive problems In. order to detect the rather subtle effects likely to occur in humans it is necessary to find. and study human populations whose geographic location employment or diet may. subject them to higher than average amounts of the chemicals of concern. In addition to environmental concerns dangerous levels of exposure which can threaten. the health of workers must be prevented Many workers die each year as a result of. physical and chemical hazards at work and the long term effects of certain occupational. conditions are unknown, Protecting against potential public health hazards requires widespread knowledge about.
commercial chemicals their mixtures by products and uses We must know more about. their persistence and fate in the environment what effects they will have and most. importantly how we can minimize the risks they pose. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS, POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION LOCAL EFFECTS AND IT S CONTROL Vol II Environmental Pollutants and Their. Control Gang Yu and Junfeng Niu,TO ACCESS ALL THE 10 PAGES OF THIS CHAPTER. Visit http www eolss net Eolss sampleAllChapter aspx. Bibliography, Bailey R E 2001 Global hexachlorobenzene emissions Chemosphere 43 167 182. Baird C 1995 Environmental Chemistry W H Freeman and Co New York. Bishop P L 2000 Pollution prevention fundamentals and practice McGraw Hill Boston. Blumenstock M Zimmermann R Schramm K W Kettrup A 2000 Infuence of combustion conditions. on the PCDD F PCB PCBz and PAH concentrations in the post combustion chamber of a waste. incineration pilot plant Chemosphere 40 987 993, Boening D W 1998 Toxicity of 2 3 7 8 tetrachlorodibenzo p dioxin to several ecological receptor. groups a short review Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 39 155 163. Calder n M J Ortega M Hermos n M C Garc a Baud n J Cornejo J 2004 Hexazinone and simazine. dissipation in forestry field nurseries Chemosphere 54 1 8. Crosby D G Moilanen K W Wong A S 1973 Environmental generation and degradation of. dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans Environmental Health Perspectives 5 259 266. Czuczwa J M Hites R A 1986 Airborne dioxins and dibenzofurans sources and fates Environmental. Science and Technology 20 195 200, Dale A Robinson J B 1996 Achieving sustainable development University of British Columbia Press.
de Fur P L Foersom L 2000 Toxic Chemicals Can What We Don t Know Harm Us Environmental. Research 82 113 133, Donohoe R M Curtis L R 1996 Estrogenic activity of chlordecone o p DDT and o p DDE in juvenile. rainbow trout induction of vitellogenesis and interaction with hepatic estrogen binding sites Aquatic. Toxicology 36 31 52, Fattore E Benfenati E Mariani G Fanelli R 1997 Patterns and sources of polychlorinated. dibenzo p dioxins and dibenzofurans in sediments from the Venice Lagoon Italy Environmental Science. and Technology 31 1777 1784, Freeman D J Cattell F C R 1990 Woodburning as a source of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic. hydrocarbons Environmental Science and Technology 24 1581 1585. Fromme H K chler T Otto T Pilz K M ller J Wenzel A 2002 Occurrence of phthalates and. bisphenol A and F in the environment Water Research 36 1429 1438. Gabos S Ikonomou M G Schopflocher D Fowler B R White J Prepas E Prince D Chen W 2001. Characteristics of PAHs PCDD Fs and PCBs in sediment following forest fires in northern Alberta. Chemosphere 43 709 719, Goerss A L Wagner G C Hill W L 2000 Acute effects of aspartame on aggression and. neurochemistry of rats Life Sciences Including Pharmacology Letters 67 1325 1329. Hallgren S Darnerud P O 2002 Polybrominated diphenyl ethers PBDEs polychlorinated biphenyls. PCBs and chlorinated paraffins CPs in rats testing interactions and mechanisms for thyroid hormone. effects Toxicology 177 227 243,Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS.
POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION LOCAL EFFECTS AND IT S CONTROL Vol II Environmental Pollutants and Their. Control Gang Yu and Junfeng Niu, Kodama T Ding L Yoshida M Yajima M 2001 Biodegradation of an s triazine herbicide simazine. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B Enzymatic 11 1073 1078. Koh I O Rotard W Thiemann W H P 2002 Analysis of chlorinated paraffins in cutting fluids and. sealing materials by carbon skeleton reaction gas chromatography Chemosphere 47 219 227. LaBuda C J Fuchs P N 2001 A comparison of chronic aspartame exposure to aspirin on inflammation. hyperalgesia and open field activity following carrageenan induced monoarthritis Life Sciences 69. Miller G T 2003 Environmental science working with the Earth ed 9th Wadsworth Publishing. Company Belmont California, Misra K B 1996 Clean production environmental and economic perspectives Springer Verlag Berlin. Mocarelli P Brambilla P Gerthoux P M Patterson D G J Needham L L 1996 Change in sex ratio. with exposure to dioxin The Lancet 348 409, Morimoto K Tatsumi K 1997 Effect of humic substances on the enzymatic formation of OCDD from. PCP Chemosphere 34 1277 1283, Pellikaan H van der Veen R J 2002 Environmental dilemmas and policy design Cambridge University. Press Cambridge New York, Powell R L 2002 CFC phase out have we met the challenge Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 114.
Rejon L Ortiz Aguilar B de Alba H Manero O 2004 Rheological and dielectric behavior of. electrorheological emulsions Colloids and Surfaces A Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 232. Rogers P J Burley V J Alikhanizadeh L A Blundell J E 1995 Postingestive inhibition of food intake. by aspartame importance of interval between aspartame administration and subsequent eating Physiology. Behavior 57 489 493, Roos G 1999 Environmental economics in the chemical processes industry Water Science and. Technology 39 25 30, Salminen J Haimi J Sironen A Ahtiainen J 1995 Effects of Pentachlorophenol and Biotic Interactions. on Soil Fauna and Decomposition in Humus Soil Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 31 250 257. Smith A G 2000 How toxic is DDT The Lancet 356 267 268. Staples C A Peterson D R Parkerton T F Adams W J 1997 The environmental fate of phthalate esters. a literature review Chemosphere 35 667 749, Strandberg M T Scott Fordsmand J J 2002 Field effects of simazine at lower trophic levels a review. The Science of the Total Environment 296 117 137, Teinemaa E Kirso U Strommen M R Kamens R M 2002 Atmospheric behaviour of oil shale. combustion fly ash in a chamber study Atmospheric Environment 36 813 824. Tomy G T Billeck B Stern G A 2000 Synthesis isolation and purification of C10 C13. polychloron alkanes for use as standards in environmental analysis Chemosphere 40 679 683. Tsai P J Shieh H Y Hsieh L T Lee W J 2001 The fate of PAHs in the carbon black manufacturing. process Atmospheric Environment 35 3495 3501, Tuppurainen K Halonen I Ruokoj rvi P Tarhanen J Ruuskanen J 1998 Formation of PCDDs and.
PCDFs in municipal waste incineration and its inhibition mechanisms a review Chemosphere 36. Uso J L Villacampa Y Brebbia C A Us J L 2001 Ecosystems and sustainable development III. WIT Southampton, Van Zwieten L Ayres M R Morris S G 2003 Influence of arsenic co contamination on DDT. breakdown and microbial activity Environmental Pollution 124 331 339. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS, POINT SOURCES OF POLLUTION LOCAL EFFECTS AND IT S CONTROL Vol II Environmental Pollutants and Their. Control Gang Yu and Junfeng Niu,Biographical Sketches. Dr Gang Yu is a professor and the Deputy Head Department of Environmental Science and Engineering. Tsinghua University Beijing China He received an M Sc 1989 degree in Environmental Chemistry from. Nanjing University and a Ph D 1992 in Environmental Chemistry from the Research Center of. Eco environmental Science Chinese Academy of Science His current interests focus on persistent organic. pollutants including analytical method behavior in multiple media disposal technology remediation. technology and control strategy, Dr Junfeng Niu is a post doctoral in the Department of Environmental Science and Engineering Tsinghua. University Beijing China He received a Ph D 2002 in environmental science from Dalian University of. Technology His current interests focus on behavior and quantitative structure activity relationships. QSARs of persistent organic pollutants,Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems EOLSS.

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