Engineering Economics 4 1 Valparaiso University-Books Pdf

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Engineering Economics 4 2a1, Discount Factors and Equivalence. Present Worth P present amount at t 0, Future Worth F equivalent future amount at t n of any present. amount at t 0, Annual Amount A uniform amount that repeats at the end of each. year for n years, Uniform Gradient Amount G uniform gradient amount that repeats at. the end of each year starting at the end of the second year and. stopping at the end of year n, Professional Publications Inc FERC.
Engineering Economics 4 2a2, Discount Factors and Equivalence. NOTE To save time, use the calculated, factor table provided. in the NCEES FE, Professional Publications Inc FERC. Engineering Economics 4 2b, Discount Factors and Equivalence. Example FEIM, How much should be put in an investment with a 10 effective annual.
rate today to have 10 000 in five years, Using the formula in the factor conversion table. P F 1 i n 10 000 1 0 1 5 6209, Or using the factor table for 10. P F P F i n 10 000 0 6209 6209, Professional Publications Inc FERC. Engineering Economics 4 2c, Discount Factors and Equivalence. Example FEIM, What factor will convert a gradient cash flow ending at t 8 to a future.
value The effective interest rate is 10, The F G conversion is not given in the factor table However there are. different ways to get the factor using the factors that are in the table For. F G i 8 P G 10 8 F P 10 8, 16 0287 2 1436, F G i 8 F A 10 8 A G 10 8. 11 4359 3 0045, NOTE The answers arrived at using the formula versus the factor table. turn out to be slightly different On economics problems one should not. worry about getting the exact answer, Professional Publications Inc FERC. Engineering Economics 4 3, Nonannual Compounding, Effective Annual Interest Rate.
An interest rate that is compounded more than once in a year is. converted from a compound nominal rate to an annual effective rate. Effective Interest Rate Per Period, Effective Annual Interest Rate. Example FEIM, A savings and loan offers a 5 25 rate per annum compound daily over. 365 days per year What is the effective annual rate. ie 1 1 1 1 0 0539, Professional Publications Inc FERC. Engineering Economics 4 4, Discount Factors for Continuous Compounding. The formulas for continuous compounding are the same formulas in the. factor conversion table with the limit taken as the number of periods n. goes to infinity, Professional Publications Inc FERC.
Engineering Economics 4 5a, Comparison of Alternatives. Present Worth, When alternatives do the same job and have the same lifetimes. compare them by converting each to its cash value today The superior. alternative will have the highest present worth, Example EIT8. Professional Publications Inc FERC, Engineering Economics 4 5b1. Comparison of Alternatives, Capitalized Costs, Used for a project with infinite life that has repeating expenses every.
Compare alternatives by calculating the capitalized costs i e the. amount of money needed to pay the start up cost and to yield enough. interest to pay the annual cost without touching the principal. NOTE The factor conversion for a project with no end is the limit of the. P A factor as the number of periods n goes to infinity. Professional Publications Inc FERC, Engineering Economics 4 5b2. Comparison of Alternatives, Example EIT8, Professional Publications Inc FERC. Engineering Economics 4 5c, Comparison of Alternatives. Annual Cost, When alternatives do the same job but have different lives compare the. cost per year of each alternative, The alternatives are assumed to be replaced at the end of their lives by.
identical alternatives The initial costs are assumed to be borrowed at. the start and repaid evenly during the life of the alternative. Example EIT8, Professional Publications Inc FERC, Engineering Economics 4 5d. Comparison of Alternatives, Cost Benefit Analysis, Project is considered acceptable if B C 0 or B C 1. Example FEIM, The initial cost of a proposed project is 40M the capitalized perpetual. annual cost is 12M the capitalized benefit is 49M and the residual. value is 0 Should the project be undertaken, B 49M C 40M 12M 0. B C 49M 52M 3M 0, The project should not be undertaken.
Professional Publications Inc FERC, Engineering Economics 4 5e. Comparison of Alternatives, Rate of Return on an Investment ROI. The ROI must exceed the minimum attractive rate of return MARR. The rate of return is calculated by finding an interest rate that makes the. present worth zero Often this must be done by trial and error. Professional Publications Inc FERC, Engineering Economics 4 6a. Depreciation, Straight Line Depreciation, The depreciation per year is the cost minus the salvage value divided by. the years of life, Professional Publications Inc FERC.
Engineering Economics 4 6b, Depreciation, Accelerated Cost Recovery System ACRS. The depreciation per year is the cost times the ACRS factor see the. table in the NCEES Handbook Salvage value is not considered. Engineering Economics 4 1 Cash Flow Cash flow is the sum of money recorded as receipts or disbursements in a project s financial records A cash flow diagram presents the flow of cash as arrows on a time line scaled to the magnitude of the cash flow where expenses are down arrows and receipts are up arrows Year end convention expenses occurring during the year are assumed to occur at the

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