Energy Efficiency In-Books Pdf

Energy Efficiency in
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Table of Contents,1 Executive Summary 1, 2 Introduction Definition of Scope and Existing Efforts 3. 2 1 Introduction and Legislative Mandate 3,2 2 Definition of Scope 3. 3 Benefits of Achieving Energy Efficiency in Tenant Spaces 4. 3 1 Energy and Emissions in Tenant Spaces 4,3 2 Potential Benefits 5. 3 3 Effects of Energy Efficiency on Employment 5, 4 Feasibility of Achieving Energy Efficiency in Tenant Spaces 6. 4 1 Challenges 6,4 1 1 Timing Process 6, 4 1 2 Education Awareness and the Role of the Broker 11.
4 1 3 Tenant Market Demographics 13,4 1 4 Cost Structures 14. 4 1 5 Data Availability 16, 4 2 Technical Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency in Tenant Spaces 18. 4 2 1 Analysis of High Efficiency Technologies 23, 4 3 Market Opportunities to Improve Energy Efficiency in Tenant Spaces 23. 4 3 1 Processes 23,4 3 2 Programs 28,4 4 Measurement Verification 43. 4 4 1 Current Application of Feasibility of M V in Tenant Spaces 43. 4 4 2 M V Gaps Needs 44,5 Acknowledgements 45,6 Appendix 46.
6 1 Energy Efficiency Employment Impact Multipliers 46. 6 1 1 Modeled Energy Efficiency Scenarios 46,6 1 2 Further Sources 47. 6 2 Analysis of High Efficiency Technologies Continued 48. 6 2 1 High Efficiency Lighting 48,6 2 2 Lighting control technologies 48. 6 2 3 Daylighting 49, 6 2 4 ENERGY STAR Certified Appliances and Office Equipment 50. 6 2 5 Plug and Process load PPL inventory and reduction strategies 51. 6 2 6 Point of use domestic water heating 52, 6 2 7 Energy management and information systems EMIS 53. 6 2 8 Optimization of outside air volumes according to tenant occupancy 54. 6 2 9 Data centers and IT server room best practices 55. 6 2 10 Improving Building Envelope Performance 55,6 2 11 HVAC zoning 57.
6 2 12 Window attachments 58,6 2 13 Utility Metering and Submetering 59. Energy Efficiency in Separate Tenant Spaces A Feasibility Study 1. 1 Executive Summary, Commercial buildings account for 20 of energy used in the United States economy 1 with leased spaces. representing approximately 50 of all commercial building energy use 2 Increasingly market pressures such. as rising energy costs new requirements to publicly disclose energy usage and increased attention on. energy efficiency as a means to combat climate change are motivating tenants building owners and other. commercial building stakeholders to explore new ways to reduce energy consumption. Traditionally efforts to encourage energy efficiency in commercial buildings have focused on building. owners rather than tenants While building owners generally have control over building systems and. operations tenants play a critical role in achieving lasting reductions in energy intensity In recognition. of this collaborative role the Energy Efficiency Improvement Act of 2015 mandated the development of. a voluntary tenant space recognition system similar to the successful ENERGY STAR buildings program. Additionally the legislation mandated a feasibility analysis presented here regarding the implementation. of tenant specific energy efficiency measures In response this paper presents best practices resources. and policies that could serve as the backbone for future tenant energy efficiency programs. The energy consumption at a representative large multi tenant building can be partitioned into energy. attributable to common areas such as atriums lobbies and garages shared mechanical systems such as. central heating fans and cooling towers and tenant spaces In a typical arrangement certain segments. are clearly controlled by the owner such as the garage lighting Other segments are clearly controlled by. the tenant such as plug loads in tenant spaces However ultimate responsibility for managing the energy. consumed in a multi tenant space is often balanced between tenants and owners Circumstances differ. based on lease structure but in a typical arrangement neither owner nor tenant has complete control 3. Instead the energy usage and associated emissions are under the joint control of the owner and tenant. and the significant reductions in energy consumption require collaboration between the two parties. Achieving greater levels of energy efficiency in tenant spaces is feasible through the use of technologies. that exist in the market today However historic challenges have prevented wide spread adoption of. separate space efficiency measures First the timing and process of leasing characterized by infrequent. design windows multiple stakeholders design and budget constraints and the dynamics of fluctuating. negotiating leverage between owners and tenants have largely prevented rapid advancement of energy. efficiency in separate tenant spaces Second many owners tenants and brokers remain unaware or. uninterested in the financial benefits and opportunities afforded by energy efficiency within leased spaces. Third the majority of tenants in the market are small disparate and hard to reach with overarching energy. efficiency strategies Fourth owners and tenants are hesitant to invest in tenant space energy efficiency. measures due to the split incentive problem This split incentive refers to the financial disconnect. of investments in energy efficiency that can result from how costs and benefits of energy efficiency are. allocated to different parties And fifth the inability to collect tenant specific energy data from whole. building consumption in order to validate the benefits of energy efficiency investments limits owners and. tenant insight into the value of energy efficiency further dampening interest. 1 U S Energy Information Administration 2006 2003 CBECS Detailed Tables Table C4A Expenditures for Sum of Major Fuels for All. Buildings https www eia gov consumption commercial data archive cbecs cbecs2003 detailed tables 2003 2003set14 2003html. 2 NRDC 2013 High Performance Tenant Demonstration Project http www josre org wp content uploads 2013 02 CMI PPT on Tenant. Energy Performance pdf, 3 As an example while the owner may select and maintain the central heating system the tenant may have control over the thermostat. controlling the leased space and the adjoining common corridor Together the choices made by the owner and tenant determine the. energy consumption at the building, Energy Efficiency in Separate Tenant Spaces A Feasibility Study 2. Increased education and awareness materials collection of tenant specific energy consumption data and. a re alignment of leasing cost structures targeted toward building owners tenants and brokers may help. overcome these challenges and encourage widespread uptake of tenant space energy efficiency measures. This paper highlights a variety of potential ways to address these needs including. Submetering of tenant spaces Metering tenant specific energy use offers the ability to separate out. individual tenant level energy usage from common area usage This submetering helps ensure that each. tenant pays for their own energy consumption and receives the full benefit of energy cost reductions on. their part, Easy comparison of energy efficient technologies Technologies exist to increase the energy efficiency.
of tenant spaces However understanding the costs and benefits of utilizing such technologies is often. complicated and time consuming requiring tenants to understand not only the energy saving attributes. of individual products but also interactive effects between technologies Improving the ability to readily. compare packages of technologies through interactive tools or build out guidance checklists is one. potential way to increase the uptake of energy efficient technology in tenant spaces. Recognizing the business case for energy efficiency Many businesses recognize the ways in which. energy efficiency can improve their bottom line There are opportunities to help even more businesses see. these benefits including the role of energy efficiency in reducing total cost of occupancy making spaces. more comfortable and attractive contributing to improved worker performance and increasing asset value. at time of sale Even in lease structures with a split incentive for energy efficiency building owners can. benefit from increased energy efficiency through market differentiation and in certain markets command. higher rents and longer tenures A growing body of research has shown that energy efficient buildings rent. for an average premium of 2 6 4 can sell for a premium of as much as 16 5 attract high quality tenants 6. and have lower default rates for commercial mortgages 7. Low cost energy simulation models for tenant spaces Tenants can compare different energy efficiency. measures through energy simulations and decide which options are most appropriate for the individual. space Energy modeling is most often used today in large spaces greater than 20 000 square feet where. the return on investment from energy efficiency measures more than covers the upfront costs of modeling. Continued investments in both guidance and software to make advanced modeling more accessible and. targeted at tenant spaces will help smaller tenant applications less than 20 000 square feet to use designs. that benefit from energy modeling, Improving leasing language and broker engagement energy efficiency aligned language can be added. to traditional building leases to create green leases that mitigate the landlord tenant split incentive. problem To increase the use of green leases which in turn can help tenants realize financial benefits. industry trade organizations can continue to highlight examples of successful green leases collect and. publish best practices and create case studies that illustrate the benefits and market opportunity for green. leasing strategies Education that increases energy efficiency literacy among real estate brokers will help. them to better respond to tenant requests for energy efficient spaces and leases. 4 Eichholtz P Kok N Yonder E 2012 Portfolio greenness and the financial performance of REITs Journal of International Money. and Finance 31 7 1911 1929 http www fir pri awards org wp content uploads Article Eichhiltz Kok Yonder pdf. 5 Eichholtz P Kok N Yonder E 2010 Doing Well by Doing Good American Economic Review http urbanpolicy berkeley edu. pdf AER Revised Proof 101910 pdf, 6 Eichholtz P Kok N Quigley J M 2009 Why do companies rent green Real property and corporate social responsibility Real. Property and Corporate Social Responsibility August 20 2009 Program on Housing and Urban Policy Working Paper W09 004. http www ucei berkeley edu PDF EPE 024 pdf, 7 An X Pivo G Default Risk of Securitized Commercial Mortgages Do Sustainability Property Features Matter 2015 http. capla arizona edu sites default files faculty papers Default 20Risk 20of 20Securitized 20Commercial 20Mortgages 20and 20. Sustainability 20Features 2C 202015 pdf, Energy Efficiency in Separate Tenant Spaces A Feasibility Study 3. Creation of a federal tenant space recognition system By allowing for direct peer to peer comparison. of buildings based on energy or sustainability performance recognition systems provide the market with. greater insight to evaluate building performance This can help owners tenants and brokers to broadcast. the value of energy efficiency measures and distinguish high performance buildings from the rest of the. market Simplifying efficiency to an accessible metric can give market participants a scorecard to measure. higher levels of performance and often drives activity across the industry as a whole through competitive. forces and peer comparison There will be several possible ways to design a recognition program for. leased spaces Options range from recognition based on outcome focused gross metrics like those used. by the Australian government energy use intensity to detailed metrics focused on design and operational. inputs like the government in Singapore lighting level temperature ranges to energy simulation based. approaches or simpler checklist based approaches Further research is warranted to assess the metrics. structure and market viability of a potential system to best support the U S market. 2 Introduction Definition of Scope and Existing Efforts. 2 1 Introduction and Legislative Mandate, Over the past 20 years many of the energy efficiency gains in commercial buildings in the United States.
have occurred as a result of a focus on improved technologies and owner oriented tactics while tenants. have so far received relatively little pressure or support to improve energy efficiency measures within their. spaces As such congress passed the Energy Efficiency Improvement Act of 2015 on April 23 2015 to. foster greater attention and collaboration on tenant space energy management. The Energy Efficiency Improvement Act requires completion of this study to determine the feasibility of. 1 significantly improving energy efficiency in commercial buildings through the design and construction. of separate spaces with high performance energy efficiency measures and 2 encouraging owners and. tenants to implement such measures in separate spaces The legislation also requires the Secretary to. publish this study on the website of the Department of Energy DOE. 2 2 Definition of Scope, This study investigates the feasibility of significantly improving energy efficiency in commercial buildings. through the design and construction by owners and tenants of separate spaces with high performance. energy efficiency measures For the purposes of this study significan. High Performance Tenant Demonstration Project Even in lease structures with a split incentive for energy efficiency building Energy Efficiency in

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