Energy Efficiency Audit Report-Books Pdf

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AUDIT REPORT
22 Dec 2019 | 31 views | 0 downloads | 63 Pages | 1.81 MB

Share Pdf : Energy Efficiency Audit Report

Download and Preview : Energy Efficiency Audit Report


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Energy Efficiency Audit Report



Transcription

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AUDIT REPORT,BISHKEK HEATING SYSTEMS ENTERPRISE. Bishkek Kyrgyzstan,INTERNATIONAL RESOURCES GROUP LTD. Washington DC,U S Energy Efficiency Market Reform Project. New Independent States Task Force,U S Agency for International Development. Washington DC 20523,Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan.
TABLE OF CONTENTS,Acknowledgements,Executive Summary. 1 Background 3,1 1 Project Orgin and Rationale 4,1 2 Participating Entities and Roles 5. 1 2 1 Audit Process,1 2 2 Equipment Procurement and Installation 5. 1 2 3 Seminar,1 3 Background on Kazakhstan,1 4 Audit Methorology and Scope 9. 1 5 Completed Activities, 2 Description of Facilities within the Bishkek District Heating System 11.
2 1 Heat Production Power Plants Heating Boilers 11. 2 1 1 Bishkek Thermal Plant 11,2 1 2 Management arid Organization 12. 2 1 3 Operation and Maintenance 14,2 1 4 History of Energy Efficiency Efforts 14. 2 2 District Heating System, 2 2 1 Management Organizaion Staffing Customers 15. 2 2 2 Distribution System Peaking Plants 15,2 2 3 History of Energy Efficienicy Efforts 17. 2 3 End Use Systems,2 3 1 Industrial Customers 26,2 3 2 Residentia Customers 27.
3 Description of Audited Facilities,3 1 System Slice Audit. 3 1 1 General Descrption and Scope 28,3 1 2 Proauction and Peaking Plants 28. 3 1 3 Distribution System,3 1 4 End User Customer Systems 34. 1 Industrial Customer Bishkek Wool Fabric Factory,2 Commercial Customer Tieplitshnyl Greenhouse 37. 3 Residential Customer Multi unit Apartment Buildings 38. 3 2 General Total System Audit 39,International Resources Group Ltd.
Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan,4 Findings and Recommendations 41. 4 1 G eneral,4 1 1 Boilers,4 1 2 Insulation 41,4 1 3 Instruments and Measurements 41. 4 1 4 Cost Accounting and Performance Criteria 41,4 1 5 Long Term Energy Outlook and Policy 41. 4 1 6 Underlying Social and Economic Problems 42,4 2 System Slice Audit 43. 4 2 1 Concept of Free Market System 43,4 2 2 Revolutions In Energy Billing 43.
4 3 Low Cost Equipment Recommendations 43,4 3 1 BHSE Equipment Recommendations 43. 4 3 2 Boiler Room Equipment Recommenrdations 47,4 3 3 IRG Equipment Recommendations 48. 4 4 Medium Long range Projects 49, 4 4 1 Original Plans for the Construction of TES 2 49. 4 4 2 Current and Future Directions for TES 2 52,4 5 Replication Potential 52. 4 5 1 System Level 52,4 5 2 National Level 53,Appendix I IRG Energy Questionnaire.
International Resources Group Ltd,Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan. TABLES AND FIGURES, Table 1 Energy Production Levels In Kyrgyzstan for 1992 by fuel type 0. Table 2 Kyrgyzstan Energy Consumption 1992 8, Table 3 Average Heating Value of Fuels Utilized by Blshkek Thermal Plant 12. Table 4 Fuel Input Prices for Bishkek Thermal Plant 1991 12. Table 5 Energy Production for Bishkek Thermal Plant 1992 12. Table 6 Heat Delivery Distribution Blshkek District Heating System 17. Table 7 Proposed Energy and Operational Efficiency Projects Bishkek. District Heating System, Table 8 Relevant Temperat a Measurements Taken of TES 1 During 1992. IRG Energy Audit 29, Table 9 Steam and Hot Water Tariffs at Bishkek Wool Fabric Factory 35.
Table 10 Bishkek Wool Fabric Factory Steam and Hot Water Consumption 35. Figure 1 Kyrgyzstan An Overview 6, Figure 2 General Organizational Structure of Bishkek Heat and Power Plant 13. Figure 3 Organizational Chart of Bishkek District Heating System 16. Figure 4 Main Pipeline Network Bishkek Heating System Enterprise 18. Figure 5 Flow Rate Hourly Curve Makeup Water Demand 32. Figure 6 Simplified Scheme Proposed Mazut Flow Meters Bishkek Heat and. Power Plant 44, Figure 7 Proposed Information Processing Scheme Bishkek Central Thermoelectric. Power Plant Pollutant Discharge into Atmosphere 50. International Resources Group Ltd,Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS,A I D Agency for International Development. atm atmospheres,bid barrels per day,Btu British thermal unit.
0C degrees Celsius,Gcal gigacaories,GJ gigaJoules,IRG International Resources Group. m3 cubic meters,MT metric ton,MW megawatt,NIS Newly Independent States. NMP Net Material Product, rb rubles unit of urrency in NIS countries As of March 1993 420 rubles. International Resources Group Ltd,Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, The International Resources Group IRG District Heating Audit Team for Kyrgyzstan would.
to express sincere thanks to the management and technical staff of the Bishkek. Systems Enterprise BHSE and Bishkek Thermal Plant Extensive preparation. commitment to the audit work by the plant staff facilitated a productive exchange of ideas. experiences in energy management BHSE provided valuable assistance to the. project by, supplying engineers to assist with the energy audits throughout the Bishkek District. IRG would also like to thank the U S Agency for Intfrmational Development Newly Independent. States NIS Task Force Office of Energy and Infrastructure for coordinating the activities. the Energy Efficiency and Market Reform Project It is the hope of the IRG Energy Audit. that the initiatives implemented under this project will contribute tc improvements. efficiency and economic development throughout Kyrgyzstan. International Resources Group Ltd,Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, As part of the U S Agency for International Development A I D funded Energy Efficiency and. Market Reform project the International Resources Group IRG Energy Audit Team visited. Kyrgyzstan In April 1992 During this time Team members spent approximately one week. conducting an energy efficiency audit of various facilities within the Bishkek Heating Systems. Enterprise BHSE and Bishkek Thermal Energy Station 1 TES 1 in Bishkek Kyrgyzstan The. overall purpose of this audit was to assist BHSE and TES in Identifying and implementing low. and no cost opportunities for energy savings Team members also trained key plant personnel. in energy management techniques practiced in the United States. To accomplish these objectives the IRG Energy Audit Team collected data at each of the. facilities selected for the audit to make informed decisions regarding energy saving. opportunities Data were compiled using plant instrumentatioi audit measurements with A I D. funded infrared thermometers plant records and personal interviews Following the audit. Team members returned to the U S to develop the specifications for and procure energy. efficiency equipment to be used within the BHSE system to implement the initiatives identified. Unlike other technical assistance projects the Energy Efficiency and Market Reform Project is. an action oriented project designed to demonstrate the potential for energy savings in the. Newly Independent States through the implementation of appropriate energy efficiency projects. This audit report is designed to provide the reader with a background against which to view the. activities initiated under this project,Background. Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan has a highly developed district heating system unlike. any found in the U S and is unique in both its supply and end use configurations The heart. of this system is a large cogeneration plant which feeds process steam and hot water to users. The supply configuration utilizes hot make up water from the heated cooling water generated. by the steam turbine condensers at the plant For end users of system heat the circulated. water serves both space heating and domestic consumption functions. The cogeneration plant began operating In 1961 as a small unit originally designed to meet the. specific needs of a wool fabric factory As local industrial and residential sectors grew the plant. expanded its capacity to its present size of 24 boilers and 11 steam turbines which produce 574. megawatts MW of electricity and supply 1 600 gigacalories GcaJ per hour of heat at its. maximum output, As a whole the system is relatively inefficient Due to both Institutional and technical factors.
such as government ownership of the system energy subsidies and centralized planning the. importance and significance of Individual metering has long been ignored Similarly the billing. system used by BHSE which is based on estimated average use within the entire district has. further eliminated incentives for end users to implement meaningful energy conservation. International Resources Group Ltd,Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan. Most equipment within the audited facilities is relatively outdated There are. devices or Instruments for monitoring either supply or end use demand energy measuring. demand side litte Individual metering is Installed and in working order and. even where, monitoring Instruments are available few have been utilized on a regular basis. On the supply, side monitoring and control equipment for automatic combustion are absent from. the thermal, power plant and pollution monitoring and control equipment are also nonexistent. Audit Findings Recommendations and General Outlook. In April 1992 the IRG Team initiated the first segment of the Energy Efficiency. and Market, Reform Project by assisting the Power Generating Company of Bishkek in.
improving the, operational efficiency of their plants This segment of the project Involved. developing, specifications for purchasing and assisting in the installation of gas analyzers heat. meters flow, meters and other conservation and energy efficiency equipment to demonstrate. the potential, savings from such measures To further improve energy efficiency among. end users the, installation of thermostatic valves and controls and metering devices for residential.
buildings is also being considered, The IRG Energy Audit Team examined BHSE s cogeneration system and found. tremendous, potential for energy savings in all segments of system operation for example the. power plant, contains boilers whose only current function is to heat water There are also. opportunities to, satisfy the growth In demand for power through the cogeneration of electricity. Further since, most hot water boilers within the system are fired by natural gas they would.
be better suited, for gas turbines with combined cycle capabilities Although the current artificially. low electricity, prices and the uncertainty of future natural gas prices and supplies appear to make. investments, in combined cycle gas turbines unfeasible in the short term the long term outlook. for this option,is very attractive, Energy conservation which will be encouraged through the removal of energy. subsidies and, the institution of rational individual billing has the potential to achieve an energy savings.
among all end users On the production side improvements in efficiency resulting. installation of modem instrumentation and controls could achieve savings from the. of almost 20, offering a total reduction of approximately 50 in overall energy use to Bishkek. district heating, In addition new privatization laws were passed by the Kyrgyzstan government in. 1992 to attract, foreign companies and to facilitate their investment in the country Under this. legislation it is, now possible for foreign investors to repatriate profits in hard currency. International Resources Group Ltd,Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan.
1 BACKGROUND, In the aftermath of the collapse of the Soviet Union its former republics are faced with a host. of economic and political crises the most serious of which Is energy The energy sector has. historically been plagued by inefficiencies resulting from subsidized pricing lack of. Instrumentation and control for energy inputs and the overall aging of the sector s infrastructure. However during the past few years the perennially inefficient economic system of the former. Soviet Union has deteriorated further dramatically decreasing production throughout the region. This situation adversely affected the energy sector by adding production and distribution. bottlenecks to the already difficult task of procuring raw material inputs particularly coal and. natural gas for the generaition of electrcity and heat. After the termination of the Soviet Union in December 1991 long standing inter republic supply. arrangements for energy Inputs were disrupted due to political considerations At that time it. became necessary for most republics to pay for energy supplies with scarce hard currency or. through barter aggravating the cash flow situation even further As a result a number of energy. enterprises faild during the 1991 1992 heating season causing tens of thousands of people. to go without heat or electricity for significant periods of time. 1 1 Project OrigIn and Rationale, The Washington Coordinating Conference of January 1992 which Included representatives. from more than 50 nations and international donor agencies recognized the critical natura of. these energy issues To this end its Energy Working Group developed an action plan to. address those problems confronting the Newly Independent States NIS As part of this plan. the United States Agency for International Development A I D agreed to fund a technical. assistance Initiative to assist NIS nations in improving the performance and efficiency of selected. district heating systems, One initiative known as the Energy Efficiency and Market Reform Project was designed to. combine in plant on the job training with the identification and Implementation of low and no. cost programs to maximize energy efficiency The specific goals of Component 1 of this. project Heating System Energy Efficiency Improvement are to. 1 foster better management of energy use in district heating plants by identifying and. implementing inexpensive energy efficiency improvements. 2 transfer Western technologies in the conduct of energy audits and in plant management. to heating system staff including instruction in the formulation of financial and technical. 3 provide support in the form of energy efficiency equipment to implement these. identified options and to improve overall energy monitoring and management and. 4 identify addtional opportunities for energy conservation and efficiency. International Resources Group Ltd,Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan. In each NIS nation one or two district heating systems were selected as targot enterprises. these energy efficiency audits These systems were selected on the basis of their potontial for. significant energy savings the applicability of audit results to similar plants in other countries. in the NIS region and the importance of the system s efficiency and effectiveness Inthe overall. context of the country s economic development, International Resources Group Ltd IRG of Washington DC was chosen to Implement the.
Energy Efficiency and Market Reform Project in Kyrgyzstan IRG Energy Audit Team members. first visited the country in March 1992 to discuss energy related needs with development officials. and to develop the workplan for this project the Initial energy activity under the new U S. Economic Assistance Program for the NIS, As part of the project the IRG Energy Audit Team presented a workshop for management staff. of BHSE and TES to discuss key energy related problems as well as possible solutions. addition Team members presented a brief seminar on the use of economic techniques for. evaluating investment options In energy efficiency programs and equipment as well. providing them with the tools necessary to complet j the strategic planning process at the plant. level Finally representatives of U S based private sector energy companies discussed. equipment options and financing mechanisms, Before the Team returned to the NIS in autumn 1992 IRG had procured with A I D funding the. equipment necessary to Improve overall energy efficiency and to help prevent failures within. system during the heating season BHSE and TES 1 technicians assisted in Installing the. equipment In the audited facilities,1 2 ParticIpating Entitles and Roles. As mentioned above the primary organizations Involved Inthe Implementation of the Energy. Efficiency and Market Reform Project for Kyrgyzstan include A I D BHSE Bishkek Thermal Plant. TES 1 and the IRG Energy Audit Team The State Energy Holding Company SEHC Is. overseeing the Implementation of the project on behalf of the Government of Kyrgyzstan. Mr Jamalbek Tulyeberdievich Tuleberdiev President of the SEHC serves as overall advisor for. the project with Mr Alexel Chunkchenovitch Lee Director of BHSE leading the project team. as General Director for Kyrgyzstan In addition Mr Vasiliev Lev Alexeivich Director of TES 1. and Mr Batakanov Mirbek Topchievich Chief Engineer of BHSE are primary contacts for IRG. Energy Audit Team members, Private sector Amercan firms specializing in energy efficiency equipment and project. development participate in the project on a no cost basis providing additional information on. equipment and financing options,International Resources Group Ltd.
Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan,1 2 1 Audit Process. Based on guidelines established by A I D and in consultation with the managerial staff. and TES 1 the IRG Energy Audit Team conducted an energy efficiency audit of. the Eishkek, District Heating System and Blshkek Thermal Plant This audit resulted in the identification. implementation of sever l energy efficiency opportunities examined areas where future and. of BHSE and TES 1 staff was needed and classified and prioritized purchases. efficiency equipment,1 2 2 Equipment Procurement and Installation. During mid and late 1992 IRG purchased all Instrumentation and equipment as approved. A I D arranged for its transfer to Bishkek and coordinated its delivery to BHSE and or by. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Kyrgyzstan In cooperation. ensured the equipment passed through customs duty free and was delivered to the. appropriate, enterprise During late 1992 the IRG Energy Audit Team retunled to Kyrgyzstan and. engineers and technical specialists from BHSE and TES 1 in the installation of this. and instrumentation,1 2 3 Seminar, IRG staff BHSE and TES 1 personnel and representatives from SEHC will organize.
In Bishkek Inmid 1993 to discuss and disseminate the results of the joint Kyrgyzstan American. project BHSE and TES 1 staff relevant Kyrgyz government officials subcontracting. and American suppliers of Instruments and equipment will be invited to participate. 1 3 Background on Kyrgyzstan, The section below briefly describes relevant geographic social and economic. conditions in, Kyrgyzstan Italso presents an overview of the energy supply and demand situation. recent consumption and production levels,Geographic Social and Economic Background. Kyrgyzstan with a land area of approximately 76 640 square miles has a population. million The republic Is bordered by Kazakhstan and Russia to the north China. southeast Uzbekistan to the west and Tajilistan to the southwest A map which. depicts the, country and its location within the region and presents additional basic economic data. In Figure 1 on the following page, Major ethnic groups include Kyrgyz comprising 52 4 of the population Russians.
Uzbeks who make up approximately 12 9 of the total population The second largest. Osh is located southwest of Bishkek near the Uzbek border. International Resources Group Ltd,Kyrgyzstan An Overview. 1YLR ND ARcric OCEAN 0k I 0U Bk,AI1CI I YNGU v 1 3. GDP V 153bllo ube,rble exprts 66 illon,rl rs ou c s y rtlcrcb. ury raniu coa,o3u a n U Z 5 Mainindstris 7 etalurg agic l. ROMladohrmchnofo r,baco pocesin eectonistex le 1 Ow.
Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan, Kyrgyzstan s major Imports include machinery light Industrial goods food chemicals and. petrochemicals fuel oil and natural gas The country is a major producer of wool livestock. and other agricultural goods, The measure of economic growth as used in the NIS countries Net Material Product NMP. was 5 97 billion rubles in 1989 representing a NMP growth rate of 5 3 from the previous year. Energy Supply Demand, Estimates for 1992 energy production are included in Table 1 below with 1992 energy. consumption data shown In Table 2, Table 1 Enorgy Production Levels In Kyrgyzstan for 1992 by fuel type. Fuel Type Production Level,Crude oil 2 500 barrels day.
Coal 2 2 million tons,Natural gas 68 million cubic meters year. Source Energy Program of Kyrgyzstan 1992,Table 2 Kyrgyzatan Energy Consumption 1992. Fuel Type Consumption Level,Oil and products 30 000 barrels per day. Coal 4 3 million tons,Natural gas 1 9 billion cubic meters. Electricity 9 7 billion kWh,ource Energy Program of Kyrgyzstan 1992.
Total thermal energy production for 1991 was 13 972 372 megawatt hours mWh which. included 391 404 mWh from TES and 10 05 million mWh from hydroelectric sources Exports. of electricity for the same year were more than 5 3 million mWh making Kyrgyzstan a net. exporter of electric power produced by hydroelectric sources Together with its abundant coal. resources hydroelectric power has made Kyrgyzstan self sufficient In electric power. International Resources Group Ltd,Energy Efficiency Audit Report Kyrgyzstan. 1 4 Audit Methodology and Scope, To accomplish the goals of the Energy Efficiency and Market Reform Project the IRG Energy. Audit Team developed a wor plan which outlined the overall methodology and scope for the. project this plan determined that Team members would need to make four trips to the country. The first trip involving the IRG Energy Audit Team Leader and A I D representatives served as. a definitional mission Team members conducted the energy audits during the second trip The. third trip allowed Team members to solicit comments on the recommendations and reports. generated through the project and to assist with equipment Installation In its fourth trip the. iRG Energy Audit Team will formally present the results of the project In a workshop format. Th3 energy audit of BHSE and TES 1 facilities the focus of the Energy Efficiency and Market. Reform Project involved two major components the system slice audit and the general total. system audit The slice audit refers to the process of monitoring measuring end conducting. a detailed energy audit in representative installations within an energy complex in this case. BHSE These installations depict a narrow slice of heat production distribution and end use. facilities within the system and allow audit specialists to evaluate direct energy use at specific. points throughout the system This type of examination enabled IRG Energy Audit Team. members to draw broad conclusions about the entire system Given the time and resource. constraints of this project the slice audit method served as an effective efficient way to gain. needed insights into the energy consumption practices through the entire BHSE system. Members of the IRG Energy Audit Team also conducted a general total system audit using. information from the slice audit as well as data from plant management and operating staff. various plant records and statistics and general observations and interviews This broader audit. provided an evaluation of overall energy use and broader management issues. To facilitate this process a detailed questionnare developed by IRG Team members was. translated and sent to BHSE prior to the actual audit The questionnaire prepared the BHSE. specialists for the audit program and allowed the IRG Energy Audit Team to collect data that. would he difficult to compile during the short time allotted for the two audits A copy of the. questionnaire is included as Appendix I of this report. 1 5 Completed Activities, In March 1992 the IRG Team Leader Gerald Decker completed the definitional mission and. submitting his observations and recommendations in the form of a trip report His findings as. well as those of the A I D representatives who also participated in the mission served as the. basis for the development of the audit methodology and project workplan. The entire IRG Energy Audit Team travelled to Kyrgyzstan the following month to conduct slice. audits of one heat production system one distribution system and three end use installations. End use facilities audited included an industrial installation a commercial facility and a multi unit. residential apartment building Team members also held detailed discussions with. representatives of BHSE and TES 1 management staff key government officials and relevant. independent engineers,International Resources Group Ltd.


Related Books

SACRED HEART CATHOLIC SCHOOL ESPANOLA, ONTARIO

SACRED HEART CATHOLIC SCHOOL ESPANOLA ONTARIO

SACRED HEART CATHOLIC SCHOOL ESPANOLA, ONTARIO Project No.: 13M86-8 Date: May 30, 2014 . Document No.: 13M86-8/R001 2 of 34 Executive Summary This report presents the findings of the energy efficiency audit of the Sacred Heart Catholic School located at 273 Mead Boulevard in Espanola Ontario. The building houses an elementary level school and Daycare and has an approximate floor area of 54,605 ...

Marketing Management 15 Global Edition PHILIP KOTLER KEVIN ...

Marketing Management 15 Global Edition PHILIP KOTLER KEVIN

Chapter 7 Analyzing Business Markets 211 What is Organizational Buying? 211 The Business Market versus the Consumer Market 211 Buying Situations 214 Participants in the Business Buying Process 215 The Buying Center 216 Buying Center Influences 216 Targeting Firms and Buying Centers 217 MARKETING INSIGHT Big Sales to Small Businesses 218

PHILIP KOTLER Northwestern University KEVIN LANE KELLER ...

PHILIP KOTLER Northwestern University KEVIN LANE KELLER

Chapter 7 Analyzing Business Markets 220 What Is Organizational Buying? 222 The Business Market versus the Consumer Market 222 MARKETING INSIGHT Big Sales to Small Business 224 Buying Situations 225 Systems Buying and Selling 226 MARKETING MEMO Maximizing Customer References 227 Participants in the Business Buying Process 228 The Buying Center 228

TRANSPORT SCOTLAND (AGENCY OF THE SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT ...

TRANSPORT SCOTLAND AGENCY OF THE SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT

TS IA 39 Use of Eurocodes for the design of bridges and road related structures TS IA 39 Pg 2 of 67 August 2011 Transport Scotland Interim Amendment No 39

The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna - We Are Sentience

The Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna We Are Sentience

natural gifts and of the circumstances in which he found himself, "M" produced a book unique, so far as my knowledge goes, in the literature of hagiography. No other saint has had so able and indefatigable a Boswell. Never have the small events of a contemplative's daily life been described with such a wealth of intimate detail. Never

Praise & Worship Songs - Teach.sg

Praise amp Worship Songs Teach sg

The Spirit Song 134 The Stand 135 The Steadfast Love Of The Lord 136 There Is None Like You 136 This Kingdom 137 This Is My Desire 137 This Is The Day 138 ?????????? (zhe shi ye he hua suo ding de ri zi) 138 Through It All 139 To God Be The Glory 140 To Know Your Name 141 To You 142 Today Is The Day 143 Turn Your Eyes Upon Jesus 144 Voice Of Truth 145 Waiting Here For You ...

Chapter07 WCLH Eng 09.qxd 4/30/09 9:51 AM Page 1 Chapter 7 ...

Chapter07 WCLH Eng 09 qxd 4 30 09 9 51 AM Page 1 Chapter 7

On investiture into Scouts, any green-bordered Cub activity awards the child has earned are trans-ferred to the Scout sash. Upon earning the Voyageur level of the corresponding Scout activity badge, the Cub activity award is removed and replaced by the activity badge. This makes a very tangible link from Cubs to Scouts. It provides a clear ...

Standar Nasional Indonesia - Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum

Standar Nasional Indonesia Kementerian Pekerjaan Umum

tuk SPT Konstruksi Bangunan Standar Nasional Indonesia ICS 91.080.40 Badan Standardisasi Nasional SNI 6880:2016 Spesifikasi beton struktural

GENERAL INFORMATIONGENERAL INFORMATION - redAluma

GENERAL INFORMATIONGENERAL INFORMATION redAluma

SYSTEM COMPONENTSSYSTEM COMPONENTS STUD AND JOISTS (CW, SW, J, JE, JX & JXW) Studs serve as a general all purpose framing component used in a variety of applications ...

The Study of Strategic Industrial Planning for Using Model ...

The Study of Strategic Industrial Planning for Using Model

management with respect to the above points, and value chain analysis to identify areas of valuable and remove the waste processes is proposed. Key words: SWOT analysis, strategic industrial planning, industrial marketing, optimal strategies