End Of Award Report Res 000 23 0839 Disgust And Anxious-Books Pdf

END OF AWARD REPORT RES 000 23 0839 DISGUST AND ANXIOUS
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To cite this output, Davey Graham 2008 Disgust and Anxious Psychopathology Full Research Report. ESRC End of Award Report RES 000 23 0839 Swindon ESRC. REFERENCE No, between disgust and anxiety which are derived from contemporary theories of emotion. Over the course of the research these specific aims evolved to two important ways First. in the course of conducting studies that manipulated disgust it became clear that disgust. had an important effect on information processing by increasing the reporting of. threatening interpretations of stimuli and events specific aim 3 We diverted resources. to investigating this important theoretical effect Secondly because of the increased. commitment to studies investigating the experimental manipulation of disgust we had. little time left to pursue specific aim 4 testing some predictions derived from. contemporary theories of emotion, Participants The proposed studies were conducted on analogue participants taken. from the student population at the University of Sussex Previous studies have shown. that this analogue population can provide a broad range of sub clinical scores on. measures of anxious psychopathologies e g Davey et al 1998b and displays a broad. range of disgust responses Marzillier Davey 2004, Assessments Apart from the initial development and validation of the DPSS R all. studies used reliable and validated measures of anxiety and anxious psychopathology. These included the STAI Y1 and Y2 state and trait anxiety Spielberger et al 1983 as. measures of general anxiety The following were used to measure disgust relevant. anxious psychopathologies the Spider Phobia Questionnaire SPQ Watts Sharrock. 1984 MOCI Hodgson Rachman 1977 and the Survey of Health Concerns Katz. Zenger 1999 Disgust irrelevant psychopathologies were measured using The. Acrophobia Questionnaire height phobia Cohen 1977 The Claustrophobia. Questionnaire Radomsky et al 2001 the Penn State Worry Questionnaire Meyer et al. 1990 and the checking sub scale of the MOCI, The revised version of the Disgust Propensity Sensitivity Scale DPSS R was.
developed in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Maastricht and. Groningen in the Netherlands Its psychometric qualities were examined using a Dutch. student population N 957 and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a. two factor 16 item solution which is now being validated on a large scale UK population. van Overveld de Jong Peters Cavanagh Davey 2006, Mood Induction Procedures In those studies requiring mood inductions studies. compare induced disgust with a neutral mood control condition and depending on the. purpose of the study other negative emotions such as anxiety sadness and anger The. specific induction method used was a vignettes plus music or relevant auditory sounds. methodology also used successfully by Marzillier Davey 2005 Manipulation check. measures were also used to ensure that specific inductions had induced the relevant. mood without affecting levels of other related moods it was particularly important to. ensure that disgust inductions had increased levels of disgust but not anxiety. Experimental Procedures Dependent Variables In the studies investigating the. effects of disgust on information processing biases we used the homophone spelling. task as a measure of interpretation reporting bias Davey Bickerstaffe MacDonald. 2006 In studies investigating the effect of manipulated disgust on self reported anxiety. we developed a set of picture based scenarios covering a range of fear relevant disgust. relevant and fear and disgust irrelevant situations to which participants could respond. To cite this output, Davey Graham 2008 Disgust and Anxious Psychopathology Full Research Report. ESRC End of Award Report RES 000 23 0839 Swindon ESRC. REFERENCE No, indicating their current levels of anxiety and disgust Davey MacDonald Brierley. Objective 1 to develop a valid and reliable measure of disgust that measures. both frequency of experience and sensitivity to the emotion. Since it is conceivable that not only disgust propensity but also disgust sensitivity. may contribute to the development of psychopathology an instrument measuring both. propensity and sensitivity was originally devised by Cavanagh Davey 2000 the. Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale DPSS The DPSS was designed to contain two. subscales disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity Moreover the DPSS contained. items that do not examine how much disgust is experienced for specific elicitors thus. avoiding conceptual overlap with questionnaires measuring psychopathological. complaints, The first objective of the research programme was to establish the psychometric properties of the. DPSS Study 1 In collaboration with colleagues in the Netherlands we tested whether two factors i e. disgust propensity and disgust sensitivity can be reliably differentiated by means of factor analyses we. checked the reliability and validity of the DPSS by comparing the relationship between the DPSS subscales. propensity and sensitivity and the existing and most widely used instruments for disgust propensity i e. the DS and the DQ Haidt et al 1994 Rozin et al 1984 This research resulted in the development of the. Disgust Propensity Sensitivity Scale Revised DPSS R van Overveld de Jong Peters Cavanagh. Davey 2006 This 16 item version was developed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and. consists of two sub scales propensity which measures the extent to which the individual experiences. disgust and sensitivity which measures the degree to which individuals find the experience of disgust. unpleasant The DPSS R has advantages over other measures of disgust because it does not measure. disgust to specific elicitors which could inflate the correlations between disgust and psychopathology due. to an overlap between items in both measures and it differentiates between the frequency of experience. of disgust and the degree to which an individual appraises the emotion as negative The DPSS R sub scales. have high internal consistency and acceptable test retest reliability They correlate moderately with other. disgust questionnaires such as the Disgust Scale DS Haidt et al 1994 and the Disgust Contamination. Sensitivity Questionnaire DQ Rozin et al 1984 supporting the view that the DPSS R measures domain. independent disgust experiences Finally the two sub scales of the DPSS R also have differential predictive. value by being differentially related to blood and spider fear van Overveld et al 2006 Subsequent studies. using the DPSS R Davey MacDonald Kollokho Davie 2008 see below have confirmed that both. sub scales of the DPSS R exhibit very good internal consistency and are significantly correlated with a. range of anxious psychopathology measures regardless of whether the latter were considered disgust. relevant or not see below Studies investigating the validation of the DPSS R using a behavioural. approach task BAT in which scores on the DPSS R are compared with objective measures of approach. to a range of primary disgust objects has been completed but the data have yet to be analysed Study 2. Objective 2 to test some differential predictions about the relationship between disgust and a. range of anxious psychopathologies, In each of the psychopathologies in which its involvement has been implicated disgust is usually seen as.
relevant because the psychopathology contains features which involve some of the relevant elements of the. disgust emotion However this rather simplistic view is complicated by the fact that measures of disgust. are also significantly related to measures of psychopathologies that would not appear at first glance to be. related to the disgust emotion For example disgust sensitivity levels are highly correlated with measures of. psychopathologies that are not obviously disgust relevant such as agoraphobia separation anxiety height. phobia claustrophobia and schizophrenia Muris et al 1999 Muris et al 2000 Davey Bond 2006. Schienle et al 2003 and many of these correlations are still highly significant even when concurrent levels. of anxiety have been controlled for e g Davey Bond 2006 Such findings raise the issue of whether. disgust may be a risk factor for anxious psychopathology regardless of whether the psychopathology may. contain disgust relevant features or not, Given this complicated background of findings the second objective of the research programme. was to clarify 1 whether levels of disgust still predict anxious psychopathology even when levels of. To cite this output, Davey Graham 2008 Disgust and Anxious Psychopathology Full Research Report. ESRC End of Award Report RES 000 23 0839 Swindon ESRC. REFERENCE No, anxiety and negative mood have been controlled for 2 whether levels of disgust predict levels of anxious. psychopathology which would not intuitively be considered disgust relevant e g height phobia and. claustrophobia and 3 whether disgust levels prospectively predict changes in measures of anxious. psychopathology, The first study compared scores on the DPSS R with scores on two. disgust relevant measures of anxious psychopathology health anxiety and spider phobia. and two disgust irrelevant measures of anxious psychopathology height phobia and. claustrophobia Davey Bond 2006 Study 3 part 1 This study found significant. relationships between disgust sensitivity and measures of claustrophobia and height. phobia even when trait anxiety was controlled for In the past research on disgust and. psychopathology has relied very heavily on identifying a clear disgust relevance to those. psychopathologies that have been investigated and this rationale has driven research in. this area The disgust relevance invoked in most studies of disgust and psychopathology. has tended to be those elements of disgust that are its primary features relating to fear of. oral incorporation and stimuli of an animal origin see Marzillier Davey 2004 These. include fear of contamination e g OC washing the spread of disease or illness small. animal phobias fear of oral incorporation eating disorders and fear of bodily products. or body envelope violations e g BII However it is difficult to integrate both. claustrophobia and height phobia into this theoretical conception Because of problems. such as this it may be necessary to embrace broader theoretical conceptions of disgust in. order to explain the full range of psychopathologies with which disgust has been found. to be associated, A second study extended this analysis by investigating the relationships between.
DPSS R scores and disgust relevant and irrelevant anxious psychopathologies by. additionally controlling for measures of negative mood and anxiety sensitivity Davey. MacDonald Kollokho Davie Study 1 Study 3 part 2 Significant relationships. between both sub scales of the DPSS R and psychopathology measures was maintained. even when levels of potential confounding factors such as dispositional anxiety and. negative mood were controlled for These findings confirm and extend those of Davey. Bond 2006 and suggest that the relationship between disgust and both disgust relevant. and irrelevant psychopathologies is not mediated by underlying trait levels of anxiety or. negative mood As expected the disgust sensitivity subscale of the DPSS R was. significantly correlated with anxiety sensitivity ASI R However the association. between disgust sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity was unable to wholly explain the. relationship between both disgust subscales and psychopathology measures Even when. anxiety sensitivity trait anxiety and trait negative mood had been controlled for both. disgust sensitivity and disgust propensity still accounted for modest but significant levels. of variance in measures of claustrophobia CLQ health anxiety SHC and spider. phobia SPQ These analyses confirm that the sensitivity and propensity sub scales of. the DPSS R represent independent constructs predicting unique sources of variance in a. majority of the psychopathology measures used in this study They also confirm that. levels of frequency and sensitivity to disgust correlate highly with measures of both. disgust relevant and disgust irrelevant anxious psychopathology and these relationships. are not wholly mediated by levels of trait anxiety trait negative mood or anxiety. sensitivity, Cross sectional studies such as those described above provide evidence for the. strong association between measures of disgust and anxious psychopathology but they. do not provide any insight into the timeline of the relationships between these variables. Some researchers have argued that disgust may be a risk factor for anxious. psychopathology and raised levels of experienced disgust may make individuals. vulnerable to developing psychopathologies Davey MacDonald Brierley 2008 Power. Dalgleish 1997 or to relapse after treatment for anxiety based problems Merckelbach. To cite this output, Davey Graham 2008 Disgust and Anxious Psychopathology Full Research Report. ESRC End of Award Report RES 000 23 0839 Swindon ESRC. REFERENCE No, et al 1993 At present there is little or no evidence available on the potential timeline. relating disgust with anxious psychopathology nor on the ability of disgust measures to. predict changes in psychopathology measures, To this end Study 3 part 3 used a prospective study to examine the. REFERENCE No END OF AWARD REPORT RES 000 23 0839 DISGUST AND ANXIOUS PSYCHOPATHOLOGY RESEARCH REPORT BACKGROUND 1 Research on the disgust emotion has tended to indicate that it is in some way

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