Emissions From In Use Ng Propane And Diesel Fueled Heavy-Books Pdf

Emissions from In Use NG Propane and Diesel Fueled Heavy
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Motivation background methods, Results and comparisons to previous studies. Discuss formation mechanism and root cause, Impact and discussions. Motivation and Background, Alternate strategies exist to meet 2010 heavy duty. emission standards such as natural gas NG and propane. University of Denver showed high ammonia NH3 1500, ppm emissions from NG vehicles Gary Bishop CRC 2009. Ammonia NH3 can form ammonium nitrate particulate, matter PM2 5 in the atmosphere.
What is the current in use impact of NH3 emissions. between heavy duty fuel applications, Test Methods Vehicles. Type Count Mfg Model Disp MY Fuel A F ATS ID, School Bus 5 GM 8CLFH08 8 1 2008 LPG SI stoich TWC LPG st TWC. Box Truck 1 GM 7CLFH08 8 1 2007 LPG SI stoich TWC LPG st TWC. Shuttle Bus 2 GM BCLFE06 6 0 2009 LPG SI stoich TWC LPG st TWC. Transit Bus 1 CUM ISL G280 8 9 2009 CNG SI stoich TWC CNG st TWC. Refuse Truck 1 CUM CG 250 8 3 2001 CNG SI lean OC CNG ln OC. Transit Bus 1 JD 6081H 8 1 2003 CNG SI lean OC CNG ln OC. Class 8 2 CUM ISL G320 8 9 2008 LNG SI stoich TWC LNG st TWC. Yard Tractor 2 CUM CG 250 8 3 2005 LNG SI lean OC LNG ln OC. Class 8 1 CUM ISX450 15 2008 Diesel CI DOC DPF D DPF. Class 8 1 DDC S60 15 1998 Diesel CI CRT SCR D CRT SCR. Disp displacement liters MY model year A F air to fuel ratio type ATS after treatment system. LPG liquid propane gas CNG compressed natural gas LNG liquid natural gas. SI stoich spark ignition stoichiometric combustion SI lean lean combustion CI compression ignition. TWC three way catalyst OC oxidation catalyst DPF SCR diesel particulate filter selective catalytic reduction. Test Methods Test Repeatability Controlled, with UCR s Chassis Dyno. Performance, 5 000 lb 0 15 mph, 600 hp 45 80 mph, 200 hp 15 mph. Acceleration 6 mph sec, Inertia Simulation, 10 lb increments.
10 000 lb 80 000 lb range, 45 000 lb base inertia, Speed accuracy 0 01 mph. Acceleration accuracy 0 02 mph sec, Response time 44 to 100 ms. durbin 2010 CRC, Test Methods Laboratory Measurements Used. Mobile emissions laboratory MEL established CO CO2 THC CH4 NMHC. PM2 5 NOx Cocker 2004 Part I ES T Johnson AE 2009 and Johnson ES T 2010. NH3 Integrated tunable diode laser TDL spectroscopy Johnson 2009 CRC. Carbonyls DNPH Cocker 2004 Part II ES T, Particle size distribution SMPS Shaw 2005 ES T. Motivation background methods, Results and comparisons to previous studies.
Discuss formation mechanism and root cause, Impact and discussions. Results Averaged over Cycles and Vehicles, ID 1 Emissions g hp h Conc. n a NMHC CO NOx NH3 PM NH3, NG ln OC 0 002 0 113 9 530 0 007 0 001 2 4. LPG ln OC 0 004 0 029 3 932 0 007 0 001 2 0, NG st TWC 0 001 4 042 0 051 0 397 0 001 151 6. LPG st TWC 0 001 1 462 0 051 0 135 0 004 97 1, CRT SCR 0 034 0 261 1 488 0 005 0 004 1 2.
DOC DPF 0 015 0 030 1 590 0 002 0 001 0 5, refer to previous table for description of ID s. draft data, Each data row represents the average of all vehicles and cycles. UDDS CBD and Cruise to highlight ATS affects, Differences due to vehicles was relatively low. Heavy Duty Light Duty NH3 Emissions, on Mile Basis. NH3 Emissions g mi, light duty data souce from Livingston et al 2009 AE.
Heavy Duty NH3 Emissions Similar to LD, on g hp h basis. NH3 Emissions g hp h, light duty data souce from Livingston et al 2009 AE. light duty brake specific data estimated from FTP length time and nominal 30 hp load. Heavy Duty NG NH3 Emissions is Higher, NH3 Emissions g hp h. light duty data souce from Livingston et al 2009 AE. light duty brake specific data estimated from FTP length time and nominal 30 hp load. Motivation background methods, Results and comparisons to previous studies. Discuss formation mechanism and root cause, Impact and discussions.
Why is NH3 High for the Alt Fueled Vehicles, Research suggest that NH3 is formed from the water gas shift. reaction Bradow 1977 SAE and Cadle et al 1979 SAE, CO H 2O CO2 H 2. 2 NO 2CO 2 NH 3 2CO2, 2 NO 5 H 2 2 NH 3 2 H 2O, Several researchers reported that NH3 emissions were present. on light duty gasoline vehicles equipped with TWC under rich. conditions Durbin et al 2000 ES T and Huai et al 2003 ES T. GM research suggested controlling NOx emissions using NH3. formation over the catalyst Viola et al 2010 DEER, NG Vehicles Show High NH3 and CO During Cruise. 1998 SCR DPF Diesel Retrofit 2000 Diesel LNG 1 3Way Catalyst. 8 NH3 Tailpipe Emissions ppm 400, SCR Diesel Diesel.
LNG 250 ppm NH3, 2008 Diesel, Diesel 2 1ppm, 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800. 0 9 LNG 1 3Way Catalyst 1998 SCR DPF Diesel Retrofit. 0 8 2000 Diesel LNG 2 3Way Catalyst, LNG SCR Diesel Diesel. CO Mass Emissions g s LNG 0 3 g s CO, CO 0 5 400 ppm. 0 2 30 times more CO, 0 1 Rich cond, 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800. SCR Diesel 0 01 g s CO, Light Duty High NH3 Spikes Occurs at Tip In.
AE Durbin 2004, NH3 emissions in real time show issue occurs during. transients accels US06 cycle 5 times than FTP ULEV light duty gasoline truck. Once the vehicle A F is controlled NH3 is minimal, Advanced air fuel ratio controls for SULEV s show. Emissions from In Use NG Propane and Diesel Fueled Heavy Duty Vehicles 2011 Directions in Engine Efficiency and Emissions Research DEER October 3 6 2011 Presented By Kent Johnson Co Authors Thomas Durbin J Wayne Miller University of California Riverside Bourns College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology

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