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ELT 37 General English Syllabus Design
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Milestones in ELT, The British Council was established in 1934 and one of our main aims. has always been to promote a wider knowledge of the English language. Over the years we have issued many important publications that have. set the agenda for ELT professionals often in partnership with other. organisations and institutions, As part of our 75th anniversary celebrations we re launched a selection. of these publications online and more have now been added in connection. with our 80th anniversary Many of the messages and ideas are just as. relevant today as they were when first published We believe they are. also useful historical sources through which colleagues can see how. our profession has developed over the years,General English Syllabus Design. This collection of papers emerging from the 1983 TESOL Convention in. Toronto examines the role of general syllabuses in state education at. that time a relatively neglected area in comparison with ESP syllabuses. Authors of papers were invited to address three key aspects the. relationship between syllabus and learner the design of syllabuses. and how a syllabus should be evaluated The first paper by HH Stern. provides a useful historical overview as well as highlighting differences. of perspective expressed at the conference including his own viewpoint. Janice Yalden flags up the negotiation processes involved in designing a. syllabus before addressing basic organising principles HG Widdowson. relates language syllabus issues to the general educational context. Following chapters by Candlin Breen and Allen the publication ends. with the editor Christopher Brumfit s chapter on syllabuses and English. language learners heterogeneous needs,PERGAMON INSTITUTE OF ENGLISH QXFORL. English Language Teaching Documents,General Editor C J BRUMFIT.
GENERAL ENGLISH,SYLLABUS DESIGN, British Council ELT Documents published by Pergamon Press. 114 Video Applications in English Language Teaching. 115 Teaching Literature Overseas Language based Approaches. 116 Language Teaching Projects for the Third World. 117 Common Ground Shared Interests in ESP and Communication Studies. Forthcoming, 119 Language Issues and Education Policies Exploring Canada s Multilingual. Back Issues published by The British Council but available. now from Pergamon Press,document no title,77 1 Games Simulation and Role Playing. 102 English as an International Language, 104 Developments in the Training of Teachers of English. 105 The Use of Media in ELT,106 Team Teaching in ESP.
108 National Syllabuses,109 Studying Modes and Academic Development of. Overseas Students,110 Focus on the Teacher Communicative Approaches. to Teacher Training,111 Issues in Language Testing. 112 The ESP Teacher Role Development and Prospects. 113 Humanistic Approaches An Empirical View,Special Issues and Occasional Papers. 1 The Foreign Language Learning Process,2 The Teaching of Comprehension.
3 Projects in Materials Design,4 The Teaching of Listening Comprehension Skills. GENERAL ENGLISH,SYLLABUS DESIGN,Curriculum and syllabus design. for the general English classroom,C J BRUMFIT,University of London Institute of Education. ELT Documents 118,Published in association with,THE BRITISH COUNCIL. PERGAMON PRESS,Oxford New York Toronto Sydney Paris Frankfurt.
U K Pergamon Press Ltd Headington Hill Hall,Oxford 0X3 OBW England. U S A Pergamon Press Inc Maxwell House Fairview Park. Elmsford New York 10523 U S A,CANADA Pergamon Press Canada Ltd Suite 104. 150 Consumers Road Willowdale,Ontario M2J 1P9 Canada. AUSTRALIA Pergamon Press Aust Pty Ltd P O Box 544,Potts Point N S W 2011 Australia. FRANCE Pergamon Press SARL 24 rue des Ecoles,75240 Paris Cedex 05 France.
FEDERAL REPUBLIC Pergamon Press GmbH Hammerweg 6, OF GERMANY D 6242 Kronberg Taunus Federal Republic of Germany. Copyright 1984 Pergamon Press Ltd and The British, All Rights Reserved No part of this publication may be. reproduced stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any. form or by any means electronic electrostatic magnetic. tape mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise. without permission in writing from the copyright holders. First edition 1984, Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data. Main entry under title,General English syllabus design. ELT documents 118,Includes bibliographies,1 English language Study and teaching Foreign.
speakers Congresses,I Brumfit Christopher II Series English. language teaching documents 118,PE1128 A2G43 1984 428 007 1 84 3020. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data,General English syllabus design English. language teaching documents 118,1 English language Study and teaching Foreign. students 2 Adult education,3 Curriculum planning,I Brumfit C J II Series.
428 2 4 0715 PE1128 A,ISBN 0 08 031513 5, Printed in Great Britain by A Wheaton Co Ltd Exeter. Introduction 1,CHRISTOPHER BRUMFIT,Definition and function of syllabuses Reference. Review and Discussion 5, Introduction Terminological comment Background to the discussion. Current views on syllabus Personal viewpoint References. Syllabus Design in General Education Options for ELT 13. JANICE YALDEN, Introduction The need for a syllabus Should a syllabus be explicit and if so. to whom Basic organizing principles An application of the third organizing. principle Conclusion Notes References, Educational and Pedagogic Factors in Syllabus Design 23.
H G WIDDOWSON,Syllabus Design as a Critical Process 29. CHRISTOPHER N CANDLIN,Process Syllabuses for the Language Classroom 47. MICHAEL P BREEN, Overview Defining a language teaching syllabus Constructing the syllabus. Creating and reinterpreting a syllabus A cautionary tale Alternative subject. matter Alternative priorities in design Content and process What does a. process syllabus contain Why process syllabuses Notes. General Purpose Language Teaching a Variable Focus. Approach 61,J P B ALLEN, Syllabus as part of curriculum Some basic conceptual factors The need for. syllabus planning A variable focus approach to methodology References. vi Contents, Function and Structure of a State School Syllabus for Learners of.
Second or Foreign Languages with Heterogeneous Needs 75. CHRISTOPHER BRUMFIT, Initial statements Summary of Presentation Function of a syllabus Limita. tions Theoretical status Possibilities in specification of content Sequencing. a content specification How a syllabus should be used Evaluation Further. brief comments References,INTRODUCTION, Throughout the 1970s while language teaching theorists and practitioners. excited themselves with course design for Specific Purpose language. teaching and while the needs of adult migrants and private sector or. industrial language learners were extensively examined the majority of. learners of English continued to struggle with large classes limited text. books few contact hours and years of unintensive study The work of many. teachers had either been ignored by syllabus and curriculum designers or. had been interfered with by insensitive and too rapid application of ideas. from ESP theory or Council of Europe discussions by administrators who. did not fully realize the implications of the innovations so proudly presented. As a result several national educational systems have gone communicative. or gone functional notional and then retreated after a brief trial period to. whatever they had before, It seemed worthwhile therefore to convene a symposium at the TESOL. Convention in Toronto in 1983 specifically to examine the role of syllabuses. in normal state education And it also seemed worthwhile not to rush too. quickly into arguments about the detailed design of syllabuses but to clear. the ground first on the definition purpose and function of syllabuses for. many of the difficulties in discussion of for example Wilkins influential. Notional Syllabuses 1976 result from the enormously varying interpreta. tions of the term syllabus, Accordingly I approached the contributors to this volume and suggested a. set of ground rules for our discussion in order to ensure that we did not talk. entirely at cross purposes when we came together in Toronto The procedure. we used is briefly summarized below and can be followed through the. structure of my own contribution at the end of the book other contributors. have given extended final papers but 1 have included the two initial papers. presented followed by brief further comments in order to illustrate the. procedure in practice, The TESOL Convention took place in March 1983 By the beginning of the.
preceding October we all aimed to circulate to each other approximately five. statements about the definition purpose or function of syllabuses in general. English teaching and these brief statements were also made available to. everyone attending the symposium In addition each speaker produced a. short summary aiming at about four sides each of a brief presentation of. twenty minutes followed by ten minutes for clarificatory questions These. papers were to be circulated in advance and were also distributed at the. 2 Christopher Brumfit, symposium We hoped by this means to ensure that we were addressing the. same kinds of issues and isolating key factors to be considered before. embarking on the design of specific syllabuses for specific conditions. When the six speakers had delivered their presentations unfortunately. Janice Yalden s paper had to be read as she was ill and unable to attend. Professor David Stern had agreed to present a lead speech in reaction to the. prepared papers in order to initiate discussion The initial presentation took. about three hours including questions and the whole of the second block of. three hours was devoted to this response and free ranging discussion from the. I suggested at the beginning that there were three issues for us to consider. a the extent to which syllabuses need to be made explicit and their. relationships with different types of learner, b basic organizing principles and how these should be realized. c the nature of or the need for evaluation procedures. In practice as will be clear from the papers in this book different speakers. placed different emphases on these questions With the exception of my own. as indicated above all these papers are revised and extended versions taking. into account points made in discussion so that they represent a variety of. independent perspectives on a fairly carefully prepared discussion. I have opened the book with David Stern s excellent overview even though it. actually followed other people s contributions This paper clearly sets the. whole discussion in its historical context and clarifies some of the major areas. of difference between the various presenters Since the rest of us represent. only ourselves as individuals the order of presentation is not important and I. have followed reverse alphabetical order except that my own notes come. last illustrating as they do the format of the various papers presented at. different stages in the discussion, Before examining the individual contributions the reader may be interested. in the extent of agreement and disagreement in the initial statements. circulated by the six presenters Below is an attempt at collating the major. points made before the formal discussion started,Definition and Function of Syllabuses. 1 A syllabus must be related to a broader curriculum JPBA CJB and to a. larger social context reflected in the hidden curriculum MPB which. may be either supported or criticized through the syllabus CNC. 2 It is a device for public planning JPBA MPB CJB HGW JY but for. teaching not learning CJB JY Thus it operates as a means of control. HGW and must be administratively workable JPBA MPB CJB. Introduction 3, Planning may be limited to a broad curriculum level the specific syllabus.
remaining more spontaneous and local CNC, 3 It involves initial specification with discrete items JY which must be. selected defined and graded JPBA MPB with an appropriate starting. point JPBA CJB and end point JPBA or at least goal MPB CJB. There will be sequencing which is intrinsic to the language or content. system and extrinsic administratively determined sequencing for items. which do not fit into a system CJB and the items taught should not be. explicitly linked to time CJB, 4 It generates a set of units of work JY and implies particular. methodologies MPB indeed the methodology can be considered part of. the syllabus specification CNC, 5 It should be negotiable during use MPB CJB HGW JY and after. MPB JY but constraints will be needed as support for some students. HGW however it may be considered a retrospective record rather than. a prospective plan CNC, 6 It can lead to many courses of study JY and should produce general. competence unconscious automatic abilities and conscious metalinguistic. capacities JPBA, 7 The language syllabus will interact with other syllabuses but will be the.
fundamental one others will include cultural communicative activity. etc JPBA or it can be viewed partially in terms of items of content. skills of behaviour and values of ideology CNC, 8 It must be evaluated by a range of procedures JPBA as part of our.

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