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ELIMINATION OF PEARLITE FERRITE BAND USING SOFT REDUCTION
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Approval of the thesis,ELIMINATION OF PEARLITE FERRITE BAND USING SOFT. REDUCTION DURING CONTINUOUS CASTING OF HSLA STEEL, submitted by SADIK YETK N in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the. degree of Master of Science in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. Department Middle East Technical University by,Prof Dr Canan zgen. Dean Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences. Prof Dr C Hakan G r, Head of Department Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. Prof Dr Ali Kalkanl, Supervisor Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept METU.
Prof Dr Ekrem Sel uk, Co Supervisor Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept METU. Examining Committee Members,Prof Dr C Hakan G r,Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept METU. Prof Dr Ali Kalkanl,Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept METU. Prof Dr R za G rb z,Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept METU. Prof Dr Bilgehan gel,Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept METU.
Prof Dr Mustafa lhan G kler,Mechanical Engineering Dept METU. Date 13 06 2014, I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and. presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct I also declare. that as required by these rules and conduct I have fully cited and referenced all. material and results that are not original to this work. Name Last name Sad k YETK N, ELIMINATION OF PEARLITE FERRITE BAND USING SOFT REDUCTION. DURING CONTINUOUS CASTING OF HSLA STEEL,Yetkin Sad k. M SC Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering. Supervisor Prof Dr Ali Kalkanl,Co Supervisor Prof Dr Ekrem Sel uk.
June 2014 82 Pages, Line pipe steels are used to transport the crude oil and natural gas for the long range. distances The line pipe steel grades API X 60 API X 70 and API 80 defined by the. American Petroleum Association are widely used by the line pipe manufacturers The. mechanical properties of the API grade steels are mostly affected by the segregation of. alloying elements Centre macro segregation is one of the most significant defects in. continuous casting This type of segregation causes the band structures through the steel. coils Therefore if the cracks were occurred along these band structures the cracks could. easily move to the end of the line pipe following the band path The most significant and. effective method to reduce the macro segregation is the soft reduction which is the state of. art of the continuous casting technology The main aim of the soft reduction is to disperse. the segregation of alloying elements using mechanical loading before the metallurgical. length ends By this way the band structures caused by the macro segregation can be fully. eliminated or reduced to negligible sizes In this project the soft reduction parameters are. tried to find out the optimum parameters to eliminate the macro segregation for API X 65. 5L PSL 2 steel grade The micro structures of steel coils produced applied soft reduction are. investigated and the band thicknesses of the coils are measured In this research the effect. of soft reduction on the mechanical properties of final product is investigated. Key Words Soft Reduction API X 65 5L PSL 2 Macro Segregation Pearlite Ferrite Band. Mechanical Properties Mn Segregation,Y KSEK MUKAVEMTL D K ALA IMLI EL K KAL TELER NDE. OLU AN PERL T FERR T BANTLA MALARININ S REKL D K MLER. PROSES NDE YUMU AK HADDELEME Y NTEM YLE YOK ED LMES. Yetkin Sad k,Y ksek Lisans Metalurji ve Malzeme M hendisli i. Tez Y neticisi Prof Dr Ali Kalkanl,Ortak Tez Y neticisi Prof Dr Ekrem Sel uk. Haziran 2014 82 Sayfa, Boru hatlar petrol ve petrolden retilen r nleri uzak mesafelere ta mak i in.
kullan lan y ntemlerdendir Petrol boru hatlar nda kullan lan API X 60 X 70 ve X. 80 gibi elik kaliteleri Amerikan Petrol Birli i taraf ndan standartla t r lm olup. boru hatt reticileri taraf ndan yayg n olarak kullan lmaktad r API grubu eliklerin. mekanik zelliklerini etkileyen en nemli unsurlardan bir tanesi ala m. elementlerinin segregasyonudur S rekli d k mler s reci boyunca olu an. segregasyonun en kritik olumsuzlu u ala m elementlerin merkezde toplanmas d r. Merkezde toplanan ala m elementleri elik bobinlerde perlit ferrit gibi bant. olu umlar na sebebiyet vermektedir Herhangi bir aksi durumda olu an atlaklar bu. perlit bantlar boyunca ilerleyip boru hatlar n n al amamas na sebebiyet. vermektedir Son y llarda geli tirilen ve en son m hendislik al malar na konu olan. yumu ak haddeleme s rekli d k m s reci esnas nda uygulanmakta olup. segregasyonu da tmak i in en etkin y ntemlerden bir tanesidir Yumu ak. haddelemenin temel prensibi s rekli d k m esnas nda elik slablar tamamem. kat la madan uygulan p ortada toplanan ala m elementlerini slab i erisinde. da tmakt r B ylece ala m elementlerinin segregasyonundan kaynaklanan perlite. ferrit gibi yap la malar en aza indirgemek veyahut yok etmektir Bu projenin temel. amac API X 65 5L PSL 2 elik kalitesinde yumu ak haddeleme y ntemi kullan larak. s rekli d k mler esnas nda olu an ala m elementlerinin segregasyonu nlemek ve. en uygun de i kenleri bulmakt r Bu amaca ula mak i in yumu ak haddeleme. y ntemi uygulanan elik bobinlerin mikro yap lar incelenmi olup bant kal nl klar. l lm t r Son olarak elik bobinlerin mekanik zellikleri yumu ak. haddelemenin etkisini g rmek i in incelenmi tir, Anahtar Kelimeler Yumu ak Haddeleme API X 65 5L PSL 2 elik Kalitesi Ala m. Elementlerinin Segregasyonu Perlite Ferrit Bantla mas Mekanik zellikler Mangan. Segregasyonu,To My Parents,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my supervisor Prof Dr Ali Kalkanl. for his guidance continuous support and encouragement throughout this study. My special thanks go to Prof Dr Ekrem Sel uk for his helps and supports. I specially thanks to Iskenderun Iron and Steel Company to permit the experiments. in the casting and hot rolling facility, In addition my special thanks go to Mr Ahmet T rko lu Mr Ali K ky lmaz and. Mr Cemre Ke eci from Iskenderun Iron and Steel Company for their great support. and knowledge about the soft reduction continuous casting and hot rolling. I am also grateful to Mr Se kin ardakl Mr Umur G ng r Mr Salih T re and. Mr Yusuf Y ld r m from the Department of Metallurgical and Material Engineering. METU for their great support,TABLE OF CONTENTS,ABSTRACT V. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IX,LIST OF TABLES XII,LIST OF FIGURES XIV.
1 INTRODUCTION 1,2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3,2 1 Continuous Casting 3. 2 1 1 Conventional Continuous Casting 3,2 1 2 Thin Slab Continuous Casting 3. 2 2 High Strength Low Alloy Steels HSLA 5, 2 3 Metallurgical Problems Associated with Formation of. Pearlite Ferrite Band in Petroleum Pipeline 7, 2 4 Solutions to Eliminate Pearlite Ferrite Band Formation. in Continuous Casting of HSLA Steels 10,2 4 1 Electromagnetic stirring EMS 11.
2 4 2 Liquid Core Reduction 11,2 4 3 Soft Reduction 11. 3 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE 19,3 1 Materials and Processing 19. 3 2 Macro and Micro Structural Investigation 20,3 3 Mechanical Testing Investigation 21. 3 4 Scanning Electron Microscopy Investigation 23,4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 25. 4 1 Shell Thickness associated with Heat Transfer,Conduction and Convection 25.
4 2 Macro and Micro Structure Investigation Results 36. 4 3 SEM Investigation Results 56,4 4 Mechanical Testing Investigation Results 62. 5 CONCLUSIONS 69,6 SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE WORKS 71. REFERENCES 73,APPENDICES 77,A Dwtt Figures 75,B Macro Structure Figures 79. LIST OF TABLES, Table 2 1 Mechanical Properties of API Steel Grades according to PSL 2 Pipe 7. Table 2 2 The chemical composition of API 5L X65 steel grade 7. Table 4 1 Chemical Composition of API X 65 Steel Samples 25. Table 4 2 Soft Reduction Index Soft Reduction Ratio and Casting Speed 26. Table 4 3 Segregation Index 0 Samples Grain Size and Pearlite Ferrite. Thickness The grain sizes are measured according to the ASTM E112 96. standard 53, Table 4 4 Segregation Index 0 5 Samples Grain Size and Pearlite Ferrite.
Thickness The grain sizes are measured according to the ASTM E112 96 standard. Table 4 5 Soft Reduction is not applied Grain Size and Pearlite Ferrite Thickness. The grain sizes are measured according to the ASTM E112 96 standard Soft. reduction is applied on the half of the sample 10 and then de activated because of. sticking alarm 55, Table 4 6 Hot Rolling Temperatures The exit temperature of the reheating furnace. is around 1200 C The passing number of the rough rolling is 7 The exit. temperature of the rough rolling is around 1140 C The exit temperature of the fine. rolling is around 810 C The temperature of coil rolling is around. Table 4 7 Mechanical Testing Results The coil thickness is 12 35 mm The sample. dimensions of the tensile testing is around 12 mm thickness and around 38 mm. wide The sample dimensions of the impact energy testing are 10x10x55 mm The. impact energy testing temperature is 10 C The DWTT testing temperature is 0 C. The hardness testing type is HV 5 65,Table 4 8 Yield to Tensile Strength Ratio 66. LIST OF FIGURES, Figure 2 1 The schematic views of conventional and thin slab continuous casting. processes 3, Figure 2 2 St 52 Steel Grade Pearlite Ferrite Band 8. Figure 2 3 X70 Steel Grade DWTT Testing Sample Crack goes along the pearlite. ferrite band 9, Figure 2 4 Schematic View of Soft Reduction during Continuous Casting 12.
Figure 2 5 Soft Reduction Segment 14, Figure 2 6 Schematic diagram of soft reduction by pinch rolls 15. Figure 2 7 The Fe Mn Phase Diagram 15, Figure 2 8 Mechanical properties in the high temperature zone of reduced ductility. and corresponding presentation of solid liquid interface during casting 16. Figure 3 1 The Mechanical Testing Sample Preparation from Coil 21. Figure 3 2 DWTT Sample Dimensions 22,Figure 3 3 Pragya DWTT Sample Testing Machine 22. Figure 3 4 Pragya DWTT Preparation Machine 22, Figure 3 5 Impact Energy Testing Sample Dimensions 23. Figure 3 6 Zwick Roell Impact Testing Machine 23, Figure 3 7 Zwick Roell Tensile Testing Energy Machine 23.
Figure 4 1 Thickness solidified M versus distance down the mold 31. Figure 4 2 Rate of heat removal by mold cooling water versus mold length L. Numbers on the curves are the same 32, Figure 4 3 SMS Demag the actual metallurgical length calculation at the casting. speed 1 20 meter min for low carbon steel 33, Figure 4 4 SMS Demag the actual metallurgical length calculation 34. Figure 4 5 Rate of heat removal by mold cooling water versus mold length L. regarding the required mold cooling water 3900 kg min Numbers on the curves are. the same 35, Figure 4 6 Thickness solidified M versus distance down the mold 36. Figure 4 7 Macro Sample 1 Side 3 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m Casting Speed. is 1 15 m min 37, Figure 4 8 Macro Sample 1 Side 4 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m Casting Speed. is 1 15 m min 37, Figure 4 9 Macro Sample 3 Side 3 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m Casting Speed.
is 1 20 m min 38, Figure 4 10 Macro Sample 3 Side 4 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m Casting Speed. is 1 20 m min 38, Figure 4 11 Macro Sample 6 Side 3 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m Casting. Speed is 1 15 m min 38, Figure 4 12 Macro Sample 6 Side 4 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m Casting Speed. is 1 15 m min 38, Figure 4 13 Macro Sample 7 Side 3 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 10 mm m Casting. Speed is 1 15 m min 38, Figure 4 14 Macro Sample 7 Side 4 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 10 mm m Casting.
Speed is 1 15 m min 38, Figure 4 15 Macro Sample 8 Side 3 Soft Reduction is not applied Casting Speed. is 1 15 m min 39, Figure 4 16 Macro Sample 8 Side 4 Soft Reduction is not applied Casting Speed is. 1 15 m min 39, Figure 4 17 Macro Sample 11 Side 3 Soft Reduction is not applied Casting Speed. is 1 15 m min 39, Figure 4 18 Macro Sample 11 Side 4 Soft Reduction is not applied Casting Speed. is 1 15 m min 39, Figure 4 19 X25 Micro Structure of Sample 1 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m.
Casting Speed is 1 15 m min 40, Figure 4 20 X500 Micro Structure of Sample 1 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 00 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 15 m min The arrows show where the thickness is. measured 40, Figure 4 21 X25 Micro Structure of Sample 2 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 05 m min 41, Figure 4 22 X500 Micro Structure of Sample 2 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 05 m min The arrows show where the thickness is measured 41. Figure 4 23 X25 Micro Structure of Sample 3 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 20 m min 42, Figure 4 24 X500 Micro Structure of Sample 3 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 20 m min The arrows show where the thickness is. measured 42, Figure 4 25 X25 Micro Structure of Sample 4 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m.
Casting Speed is 1 20 m min 43, Figure 4 26 X500 Micro Structure of Sample 4 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 20 m min The arrows show where the thickness is. measured 44, Figure 4 27 X25 Micro Structure of Sample 5 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 20 m min 44, Figure 4 28 X500 Micro Structure of Sample 5 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 20 m min The arrows show where the thickness is. measured 45, Figure 4 29 X25 Micro Structure of Sample 6 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 15 m min 45, Figure 4 30 X500 Micro Structure of Sample 6 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 mm m.
Casting Speed is 1 15 m min The arrows show where the thickness is. measured 46, Figure 4 31 X25 Micro Structure of Sample 7 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 10 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 15 m min 46, Figure 4 32 X500 Micro Structure of Sample 7 Soft Reduction Ratio is 1 10 mm m. Casting Speed is 1 15 m min The arrows show where the thickness is.


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