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ekonomika GFSIS
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ra aris banki,merab kakulia, banki italiuri sityvaa Banko da niSnavs daxls an ubralod magidas Sua sauku. neebSi evropis kerZod italiis savaWro qalaqebSi uamravi sxvadasxva warmoSo. bis da sinjis vercxlisa da oqros moneta trialebda romelic saTanado Semowme. bas da sxva monetebze gacvlas saWiroebda am saqmianobiT dakavebuli moqalaqee. bi fulis gadamcvlelebi klientebTan urTierTobisaTvis iyenebdnen daxlebs. magidebs romlebsac mwvane mauds afarebdnen male maT daiwyes fuladi saxsrebis. Sesanaxad miReba angariSsworeba am saxsrebis mflobelebis davalebiT da sesxebis. kreditebis gacema yvela am operaciam Tavi moiyara dawesebulebaSi romelsac. mogvianebiT banki ewoda, aRsaniSnavia rom Zvel msoflioSi ukve arsebobda garkveuli saxis sabanko opera. ciebi rasac Zvel saberZneTSi trapezitebi berZnuli sityvidan rac aseve. magidas niSnavs xolo Zvel romSi mensariebi laTinuri sityvidan Mensarii romelic. berZnuli sityvis zusti Sesatyvisia axorcielebdnen banks saberZneTSi. dResac trapeza hqvia ase rom sabanko saqmianobas Rrma istoriuli fesvebi aqvs. analogiuri dawesebulebebi saqarTveloSi zogierTi cnobiT XI XII saukunidan ar. sebobda maT orTaRi ewodeboda Turquli warmoSobis sityvidan Ortak amxana. goba asociacia, saxelwodebiT banki Tanamedrove msoflioSi ZiriTadad ori tipis finansuri dawe. sebuleba sargeblobs centraluri erovnuli bankebi da komerciuli bankebi. ra aris banki,centraluri erovnuli bankebi,centraluri erovnuli banki rogorc wesi. war moadgens saxelmwifos mier specialuri kanonis,safuZvelze daarsebul instituts romelsac miniWebu.
li aqvs erovnuli fulis emisiis banknotebis beWd,vis monetebis moWrisa da mimoqcevaSi gaSvebis gan. sakuTrebuli eqskluziuri ufleba igi SeimuSavebs,da axorcielebs qveynis fulad sakredito politikas. agreTve flobs inaxavs da gankargavs qveynis oqros,da ucxouri valutis rezervebs maragebs. centraluri erovnuli banki warmoadgens bankTa,banks igi gascems kredits mxolod komerciul ban. keb ze iRebs maTgan depozitebs da uzrunvelyofs,maT Soris erovnuli valutiT unaRdo angariSswore.
bas amasTan bevr qveyanaSi maT Soris saqarTvelo,Si centraluri erovnuli banki axdens komerciuli. bankebis saqmianobis licenzirebas da zedamxedvelo,bas agreTve maTi servisebis momxmarebelTa ufle. Zveli romauli terakotis, bebis dacvas garda amisa centraluri erovnuli banki yulaba zed gamosaxulia. momsaxurebas uwevs saxelmwifos Tumca misi pirda vaWrobis mfarveli romauli. piri dakreditebis ufleba SezRuduli aqvs RmerTi merkuri romelsac. gansakuTrebuli uflebamosilebidan gamomdinare xelSi Tavisi simboluri. atributebi kadukeusi da,centraluri erovnuli banki administraciulad da. fuliT savse tomara, moukidebelia rac imas niSnavs rom parlamentsa da uWiravs jon hopkinsis.
mTavrobas ufleba ara aqvT Caerion mis saqmianobaSi arqeologiuri muzeumi. igi pasuxs ar agebs saxelmwifos finansur valdebule baltimori aSS. bebze ise rogorc saxelmwifo pasuxs ar agebs mkacrad. gansazRvruli SemTxvevebis garda mis finansur valdebulebebze centraluri. erovnuli banki yvela xarjs sakuTari SemosavlebiT faravs Tumca mogebis si. dide ar aris misTvis gadamwyveti aRsaniSnavia rom centraluri erovnuli banke. bi gaTavisuflebulia saxelmwifo gadasaxadebisagan, centraluri erovnuli bankis damoukideblobis uzrunvelyofis mizniT misi. xelmZRvaneloba iniSneba gansazRvruli vadiT romelic mniSvnelovnad aRemate. ba parlamentis da mTavrobis uflebamosilebis vadas magaliTad saqarTveloSi. erovnuli bankis prezidents da vice prezidentebs aseve misi sabWos sxva wevrebs. qveynis prezidentis wardginebiT parlamenti 7 wlis vadiT irCevs amasTan cent. raluri erovnuli bankebi rogorc wesi valdebuli arian qveynis parlaments. yovelwliurad warudginon angariSi,Sua saukuneebis droindeli. bankirebi fulis gadamcvlelebi romelTa,saqmianobis ganviTareba gafarToebis. Sedegia dRevandeli sabanko sistema,komerciuli bankebi. centraluri erovnuli bankebisagan gansxvavebiT komerciuli bankebi. momsaxurebas uweven iuridiul da fizikur pirebs mogebis miRebis mizniT anu. maTi klientebi momsaxurebis mimRebni arian sxvadasxva tipis samewarmeo da sxva. struqturebi da moqalaqeebi komerciul bankebs SeuZliaT garkveuli momsaxure. ba gauwion saxelmwifosac magaliTad xelfasebis pensiebis da sxva socialuri. gadaxdebis organizebaSi komerciuli bankebis didi umravlesoba kerZo mflobe. lobaSia saqarTveloSi magaliTad yvela komerciul banks floben kerZo mesa. kuTreebi rogorc qveynis rezidentebi moqalaqeebi ise ucxoelebi. Tanamedrove komerciuli bankebi iuridiuli da fizikuri pirebisgan izidaven. droebiT Tavisufal fulad saxsrebs da ganaTavseben maT pirdapir umTavresad. sesxebis kreditebis saxiT an arapirdapir kapitalis fasiani qaRaldebis baz. ris meSveobiT sxvagvarad rom vTqvaT komerciuli banki eweva finansur Suamav. lobas klientebs Soris visac erTi mxriv aqvs kapitalis fuladi saxsrebis si. Warbe xolo meore mxriv kapitalis deficiti, Tanamedrove msxvili komerciuli bankebis umetesoba universaluri bankebia.
romlebic TiTqmis yvela saxis finansur Suamavlobas ewevian maT Soris depozi. tebis mozidvas da kreditebis gacemas klientebisTvis sabanko angariSebis gaxs. nas unaRdo angariSsworebas da sakaso naRdi fuliT operaciebs gadaxdis sa. Sualebebis plastikuri baraTebi Cekebi da sxva gamoSvebas ucxouri valutis. Zvirfasi liTonebisa da fasiani qaRaldebis yidva gayidvas sabanko garantiebis. da Tavdebobebis gacemas satrasto ndobiT operaciebs da sxvas. saqarTvelos bankis saTao ofisi Tbilisi,ra aris banki. universaluri komerciuli bankebi gansakuTrebiT farTod kontinentur ev ro. paSi gavrcelda maSin rodesac mTel rig qveynebSi magaliTad aSS Si did bri. taneTsa da iaponiaSi moqmedebda bankebis specializaciis principi sakuTriv ko. merciuli bankebi aq sabanko operaciebis standartuli paketiT depozitebis mo. zidva sesxebis gacema saangariSsworebo momsaxureba da sxva Semoifarglebodnen. maT garda arsebobdnen specializebuli bankebic romelTa saqmianoba calkeul. sferoebs an operaciebs moicavda aseT bankebs ganekuTvnebian. sainvesticio bankebi romlebic ZiriTadad kapitalis fasiani qaRaldebis. bazarze operireben da ar iReben depozitebs, Semnaxveli bankebi romlebic upiratesad fizikuri pirebis moqalaqeebis. droebiT Tavisufali saxsrebis mozidvas da maT dakreditebas emsaxurebian. ipoTekuri bankebi romlebic ZiriTadad ipoTekur anu uZravi qonebiT uz. runvelyofil sesxebs gascemen da sxva, gasuli saukunis bolos gaZlierda bankebis universalizaciis tendencia rac. imaSi gamoixata rom sabanko kanonmdeblobaSi Setanili cvlilebebis safuZvelze. nel nela waiSala zRvari komerciul bankebsa da specializebul sabanko dawesebu. lebebs Soris am fonze saqarTveloSi sabanko seqtoris kontinentur evropuli. modeli damkvidrda romelic mxolod universalur komerciul bankebs moicavs. komerciuli bankebis operaciebi or jgufad iyofa pirvels ganekuTvneba. bankebis fuladi resursebis saxsrebis formireba anu pasiuri operaciebi xolo. meores aRniSnuli saxsrebis ganTavseba mogebis miRebis mizniT anu aqtiuri ope. komerciuli bankebis fuladi resursebi, komerciuli bankebis fuladi resursebi Sedgeba sakuTari saxsrebisa kapitali. da moziduli saxsrebisgan, moziduli saxsrebis wili komerciuli bankis fulad resursebSi bevrad aRema.
teba sakuTari saxsrebis wils Tumca kapitalis sakmarisoba gadamwyvetia bankis. bankis kapitali warmoadgens bankis saqmianobaSi warmoqmnili riskebis ganeitra. lebis da SesaZlo danakargebis dafarvis wyaros swored maszea damokidebuli Tu. ra raodenobis fuladi saxsrebi SeuZlia moizidos da ganaTavsos komerciulma. bankma kapitali Sedgeba bankis mesakuTreTa aqcionerTa Senatanebis aqcioneru. li kapitali da gaunawilebeli mogebis xarjze Seqmnili fondebisgan. Tavis saqmianobas komerciuli bankebi umTavresad moziduli saxsrebiT axor. cieleben romelTa udides nawils warmoadgens depozitebi sabanko dawesebule. baSi iuridiuli da fizikuri pirebis mier ganTavsebuli droebiT Tavisufali. fuladi saxsrebi depoziti laTinuri warmoSobis sityvaa Depositum da niSnavs. Sesanaxad gadacemas depozitebi ZiriTadad ori saxisaa. moTxovnamde depozitebi mimdinare angariSebi romelTa mflo. belebs pirvelive moTxovnisTanave SeuZliaT maTze ricxuli. Tanxebis gamoyeneba, vadiani depozitebi romlebzec fuladi saxsrebi gansazRvruli. fiqsirebuli vadiTaa ganTavsebuli da maT mflobelebs am vadis. gasvlamde ezRudebaT depozitze ricxuli TanxebiT sargebloba. vadiani depozitebi SeiZ le ba iyos moklevadiani 30 dRidan 1. wlamde da grZelvadiani 1 welze meti vadiT,ra aris banki. moTxovnamde depozitze procenti sargebeli dabalia vadian depozitze ki. bevrad ufro maRali vadiani depozitidan Tanxebis vadamde gatanis SemTxvevaSi. misi mflobeli minimalur sargebels iRebs imdens ramdenic moTxovnamde depo. zits ericxeba, moTxovnamde depozitsa da vadian depozits Soris Sualeduri mdgomareoba uka. via Semnaxvel depozitebs am tipis depozitebze ricxuli Tanxebi ar gamoiyeneba. klientis mimdinare gadaxdebisTvis Tumca Semnaxvel depozitebs arc fiqsire. buli vada aqvs igi gamoiyeneba fizikuri pirebis danazogebis Sesaqmnelad da. rogorc wesi mimdinare depozitze meti da vadian depozitze naklebi sargebeli. ericxeba Semnaxveli depozitebis mflobelebs eZlevaT specialuri wignaki. mTlianobaSi Tanamedrove sabanko praqtikaSi sul cota 31 tipis depoziti. gamoiyeneba romlebic depozitebis zemoT CamoTvlili ZiriTadi saxeobebis saxe. sxvaobebs warmoadgenen da morgebuli arian sxvadasxva kategoriis klientebis. rogorc fizikuri ise iuridiuli pirebis moTxovnebsa da prioritetebs. depozitebis garda komerciuli bankebis mozidul saxsrebs ganekuTvneba maT. mier sxva bankebidan maT Soris centraluri erovnuli bankidan nasesxebi saxs. rebi da mocemuli komerciuli bankis mier gamoSvebuli obligaciebis gayidvidan. Semosuli Tanxebi obligacia warmoadgens fasian qaRalds romelic adasturebs. misi mflobelis uflebas aRniSnuli komerciuli bankisgan gansazRvrul vadaSi. miiRos garkveuli Tanxa mflobelis mier obligaciaSi ganTavsebuli Tanxa plus. sabanko krediti, universaluri komerciuli bankebis aqtiuri operaciebi ZiriTadad dakreditebis. saSualebiT xorcieldeba, krediti laTinuri warmoSobis sityvaa Creditum da niSnavs sesxs aqedan gamom.
dinare krediti da sesxi erTi da imave Sinaarsis matarebeli cnebebia. sabanko krediti warmoadgens Tanxas romelsac banki gadascems klients iuri. di ul an fizikur pirs dabrunebadobis fasianobis vadianobis miznobriobisa da. uzrunvelyofis principebze dayrdnobiT, kreditis dabrunebadoba imas gulisxmobs rom klientma sesxi aucileblad. unda daabrunos winaaRmdeg SemTxvevaSi banki rogorc finansuri Suamavali ver. Seasrulebs Tavis valdebulebebs imaT mimarT visganac miiRo depozitebi da Ta. vad isesxa fuladi saxsrebi, kreditis fasianoba niSnavs msesxeblis mier nasesxebi TanxebiT sargeblobisa. Tvis bankisaTvis garkveuli sazRauris anu sargeblis procentis gadaxdas saida. nac banki miiRebs mogebas finansuri SuamavlobisaTvis. kreditis vadianoba gulisxmobs nasesxebi saxsrebis garkveul vadaSi dabrunebis. aucileblobas radganac banki kreditis gasacemad moizidavs droebiT Tavisufal. fulad saxsrebs romelic cxadia droulad unda daabrunos. vadis mixedviT ganasxvaveben moklevadian erT wlamde vadis saSualovadi. an erTidan sam wlamde vadis da grZelvadian sam welze meti vadis mqone. kreditis miznobrioba imas niSnavs rom msesxebelma nasesxebi saxsrebi mxolod. im miznisTvis unda gamoiyenos risTvisac aiRo krediti sesxiT sargeblobis miz. nis mkafiod gansazRvra saSualebas aZlevs banks Seafasos klientis kreditunari. anoba anu misi unari dadgenil droSi daabrunos nasesxebi Tanxa da gadaixados. daniSnulebis mixedviT kreditebi Semdeg ZiriTad kategoriebad iyofa. saangariSsworebo kreditebi gaicema kompaniebis mier nedleu. lis da masalebis mimwodeblebTan angariSsworebisTvis muSa. mosamsaxureTa xelfasis gasastumreblad biujetSi gadasaxadebis. gadasaxdelad da sxva mimdinare saWiroebaTaTvis aseTi kredite. bi rogorc wesi moklevadiania, sainvesticio kreditebi eZlevaT klientebs rogorc iuridi. ul ise fizikur pirebs kapitalis dabandebis gansaxorcieleb. lad maT Soris axali teqnologiebis danergvis arsebuli sawar. moo simZlavreebis modernizaciis da axlis SeqmnisaTvis am tipis. kreditebi Cveulebriv grZelvadiania,ra aris banki, samomxmareblo kreditebi gaicema fizikur pirebze moxmarebis. sagnebis magaliTad avtomobili aveji sayofacxovrebo teqni. ka da sxva SesaZenad amgvari kreditebi SeiZleba iyos rogorc. moklevadiani ise saSualovadiani saprocento ganakveTi samomx. mareblo sesxebze maRalia radganac klienti rogorc wesi am. tipis kreditiT sargeblobisaTvis damatebiT sakomisioebsac ixdis. kreditis uzrunvelyofa gulisxmobs msesxeblis mier kreditis dabrunebis uz. run velsayofad mis mflobelobaSi arsebuli uZravi qonebis fasiani qaRaldebis. an sxva faseulobebis giraoSi Cadebas bankis gankargvaSi droebiT gadacemas an. kidev sxva mesame iuridiuli an fizikuri piris mier msesxeblis sasargeblod. garantiis Tavdebobis gacemas gaformebas garantia ise rogorc Tav deboba gu. lisxmobs imas rom msesxeblis mier kreditis ardafarvis SemTxvevaSi msesxeblis. valdebulebas faravs garantiis Tavdebobis gamcemi piri garantiis gamcemebi. ZiriTadad iuridiuli pirebi arian xolo Tavdebobisa fizikuri pirebi. giraoTi uzrunvelyofili sesxebis saukeTeso magaliTia ipoTekuri kreditebi. romlebic gaicema fizikur pirebze uZravi qonebis SesaZenad ise rom aRniSnuli. uZravi qoneba kreditis dafarvamde giraos saxiT bankis gankargulebaSi rCeba. ipoTekuri kreditebi rogorc wesi grZelvadiania, kreditis uzrunvelyofis aucileblobas ganapirobebs is rom yovelTvis ar.
sebobs sesxis daubruneblobis garkveuli riski sakredito riski miuxedavad. amisa sabanko praqtikaSi arsebobs e w sablanko kreditebi sesxebi uzrunvel. nac banki miiRebs mogebas finansuri SuamavlobisaTvis kreditis vadianoba gulisxmobs nasesxebi saxsrebis garkveul vadaSi dabrunebis aucileblobas radganac banki kreditis gasacemad moizidavs droebiT Tavisufal fulad saxsrebs romelic cxadia droulad unda daabrunos vadis mixedviT ganasxvaveben moklevadian erT wlamde vadis saSualovadi

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