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Educational Psychology,Kelvin Seifert,http cnx org content col11302 1 2. CONNEXIONS,Rice University Houston Texas, This selection and arrangement of content as a collection is copyrighted by Kelvin Seifert It is licensed under the. Creative Commons Attribution 3 0 license http creativecommons org licenses by 3 0. Collection structure revised May 11 2011,PDF generated October 29 2012. For copyright and attribution information for the modules contained in this collection see p 335. Table of Contents,1 The changing teaching profession and you. 1 1 The joys of teaching 3,1 2 Are there also challenges to teaching 5.
1 3 Teaching is di erent from in the past 5,1 4 How educational psychology can help 10. 1 5 Chapter Summary and References 11,2 The learning process. 2 1 Teachers perspectives on learning 15,2 2 Major theories and models of learning 18. 2 3 Chapter summary and references 31,3 Student development. 3 1 Why development matters 35, 3 2 Physical development during the school years 37.
3 3 Cognitive development the theory of Jean Piaget 40. 3 4 Social development relationships personal motives and morality 43. 3 5 Moral development forming a sense of rights and responsibilities 48. 3 6 Understanding the typical student versus understanding students 52. 3 7 Chapter summary and references 53,4 Student diversity. 4 1 Individual styles of learning and thinking 57,4 2 Multiple intelligences 59. 4 3 Gifted and talented students 61,4 4 Gender di erences in the classroom 62. 4 5 Di erences in cultural expectations and styles 65. 4 6 Accommodating diversity in practice 69,4 7 Chapter summary and references 69. 5 Students with special educational needs,5 1 Three people on the margins 75.
5 2 Growing support for people with disabilities legislation and its e ects 76. 5 3 Responsibilities of teachers for students with disabilities 77. 5 4 Categories of disabilities and their ambiguities 80. 5 5 Learning disabilities 80,5 6 Attention de cit hyperactivity disorder 82. 5 7 Intellectual disabilities 84,5 8 Behavioral disorders 87. 5 9 Physical disabilities and sensory impairments 89. 5 10 The value of including students with special needs 91. 5 11 Chapter summary and references 91,6 Student motivation. 6 1 Motives as behavior 95,6 2 Motives as goals 99. 6 3 Motives as interests 101,6 4 Motives related to attributions 103.
6 5 Motivation as self e cacy 104,6 6 Motivation as self determination 109. 6 7 Expectancy x value e ects on students motivation 113. 6 8 TARGET a model for integrating ideas about motivation 114. 6 9 Chapter summary and references 116, 7 Classroom management and the learning environment. 7 1 Why classroom management matters 121, 7 2 Preventing management problems by focusing students on learning 123. 7 3 Responding to student misbehavior 131,7 4 Keeping management issues in perspective 135. 7 5 Chapter summary and references 136,8 The nature of classroom communication.
8 1 Communication in classrooms vs communication elsewhere 139. 8 2 E ective verbal communication 141,8 3 E ective nonverbal communication 143. 8 4 Structures of participation e ects on communication 145. 8 5 Communication styles in the classroom 148, 8 6 Using classroom talk to stimulate students thinking 151. 8 7 The bottom line messages sent messages reconstructed 154. 8 8 Chapter summary and references 156,9 Facilitating complex thinking. 9 1 Forms of thinking associated with classroom learning 159. 9 2 Critical thinking 161,9 3 Creative thinking 162. 9 4 Problem solving 163, 9 5 Broad instructional strategies that stimulate complex thinking 167.
9 6 Teacher directed instruction 169,9 7 Student centered models of learning 176. 9 8 Inquiry learning 176,9 9 Cooperative learning 177. 9 10 Examples of cooperative and collaborative learning 178. 9 11 Instructional strategies an abundance of choices 180. 9 12 Chapter summary and references 180,10 Planning instruction. 10 1 Selecting general learning goals 185,10 2 Formulating learning objectives 190. 10 3 Students as a source of instructional goals 197. 10 4 Enhancing student learning through a variety of resources 200. 10 5 Creating bridges among curriculum goals and students prior experiences 202. 10 6 Planning for instruction as well as for learning 207. 10 7 Chapter summary and references 208,11 Teacher made assessment strategies.
11 1 Basic concepts 213, 11 2 Assessment for learning an overview of the process 214. 11 3 Selecting appropriate assessment techniques I high quality assessments 215. 11 4 Reliability 218,11 5 Absence of bias 218, 11 6 Selecting appropriate assessment techniques II types of teacher made assess. 11 7 Selected response items 222,11 8 Constructed response items 228. Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2. 11 9 Portfolios 237, 11 10 Assessment that enhances motivation and student con dence 239. 11 11 Teachers purposes and beliefs 240,11 12 Choosing assessments 240.
11 13 Providing feedback 241,11 14 Self and peer assessment 242. 11 15 Adjusting instruction based on assessment 242. 11 16 Communication with parents and guardians 243. 11 17 Action research studying yourself and your students 243. 11 18 Grading and reporting 244,11 19 Chapter summary and references 246. 12 Standardized and other formal assessments,12 1 Basic concepts 249. 12 2 High stakes testing by states 254,12 3 International testing 263. 12 4 International comparisons 263,12 5 Understanding test results 264.
12 6 Issues with standardized tests 272,12 7 Chapter summary and references 275. 13 Appendices,13 1 Appendix A Preparing for licensure 279. 13 2 Appendix B Deciding for yourself about the research 289. 13 3 Appendix C The re ective practitioner 307,Attributions 335. Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2. Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2. Dr Kelvin Seifert Why I wanted this book to be part of the Global. Textbook Project, I have taught educational psychology to future teachers for nearly 35 years during which I used one or. another of the major commercial textbooks written for this subject In general I found all of the books. well written and thorough But I also found problems. 1 Though they di ered in details the major textbooks were surprisingly similar in overall coverage This. fact coupled with their large overall size made it hard to tailor any of the books to the particular. interests or needs of individuals or groups of students Too often buying a textbook was like having to. buy a huge Sunday newspaper when all you really want is to read one of its sections In a similar way. commercial educational psychology textbooks usually told you more than you ever needed or wanted. to know about the subject As a format the textbook did not allow for individualization. 2 Educational psychology textbooks were always expensive and over the years their costs rose faster. than in ation especially in the United States where most of the books have been produced Currently. every major text about educational psychology sells for more than USD 100 At best this cost is a. stress on students budgets At worst it puts educational psychology textbooks beyond the reach of. many The problem of the cost is even more obvious when put in worldwide perspective in some. countries the cost of one textbook is roughly equivalent to the average annual income of its citizens. 3 In the competition to sell copies of educational psychology textbooks authors and publishers have. gradually added features that raise the cost of books without evidence of adding educational value. Educational psychology publishers in particular have increased the number of illustrations and pho. tographs switched to full color editions increased the complexity and number of study guides and. ancillary publications and created proprietary websites usable fully only by adopters of their particu. lar books These features have sometimes been attractive My teaching experience suggests however. that they also distract students from learning key ideas about educational psychology about as often. as they help students to learn, By publishing this textbook online with the Global Textbook Project I have taken a step toward resolving.
these problems Instructors and students can access as much or as little of the textbook as they really. need and nd useful The cost of their doing is minimal Pedagogical features are available but are kept. to a minimum and rendered in formats that can be accessed freely and easily by anyone connected to the. Internet In the future revisions to the book will be relatively easy and prompt to make These I believe. are desirable outcomes for everyone Kelvin Seifert. 1 This content is available online at http cnx org content m37592 1 1. Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2. Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2. The changing teaching profession and,1 1 The joys of teaching. A teacher named Ashley re ects She looked around the classroom enjoying a blessed moment. of quiet after the students left at the end of the day Ashley the teacher that s me she said. proudly to the empty room But why am I doing this she asked herself quietly and realized. she wasn t always sure of the answer But then she remembered one reason she was teaching for. Nadia who sat at the table to the left always smiled so well and always well usually tried hard. And another reason she was teaching for Lincoln tired old Lincoln who needed her help more. than he realized She remembered twenty other reasons twenty other students And one last. reason she was also teaching for herself challenging herself to see if she really could keep up with. twenty two young people at once and really accomplish something worthwhile with them She. was teaching so she could keep growing as a person keep connecting with others keep learning. new ideas That s why she was teaching,1 1 1 The joys of teaching. Why be a teacher The short answer is easy, to witness the diversity of growth in young people and their joy in learning. to encourage lifelong learning both for yourself and for others. to experience the challenge of devising and doing interesting exciting activities for the young. There is of course more than this to be said about the value of teaching Consider for instance the young. people referred to above In one class they could be six years old in another they could be sixteen or even. older They could be rich poor or somewhere in between They could come from any ethnic background. Their rst language could be English or something else There are all sorts of possibilities But whoever the. particular students are they will have potential as human beings talents and personal qualities possibly. not yet realized that can contribute to society whether as leaders experts or supporters of others A. teacher s job in fact a teacher s privilege is to help particular young people to realize their potential. Another teacher re ects Nathan paused for a deep breath before speaking to me It s not like. I expected it to be he said I ve got ve kids who speak English as a second language I. didn t expect that I ve got two maybe three with reading disabilities and one of them has a. 1 This content is available online at http cnx org content m37916 1 1. Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2. 4 CHAPTER 1 THE CHANGING TEACHING PROFESSION AND YOU. part time aide I ve had to learn more about using computers than I ever expected they re a. lot of curriculum materials online now and the computers help the kids that need more practice. or who nish activities early I m doing more screening and testing of kids than I expected and. it all takes time away from teaching, But it s not all surprises I expected to be able to light a re under kids about learning to read. And that has actually happened at least sometimes with some children. As a teacher you will be able to do this by laying groundwork for lifelong learning You will not teach. any one student forever of course but you will often work with them long enough to convey a crucial. message that there is much in life to learn more in fact than any one teacher or school can provide in a. lifetime The knowledge may be about science math or learning to read the skills may be sports music or. art anything Whatever you teach its immensity can be a source of curiosity wonder and excitement It. can be a reason to be optimistic about life in general and about your students in particular Learning when. properly understood is never ending even though it often focuses on short term immediate concerns As a. teacher you will have an advantage not shared by every member of society namely the excuse not only to. teach valuable knowledge and skills but to point students beyond what they will be able to learn from you. As an old limerick put it before the days of gender balanced language The world is full of such a plenty. of things I m sure we should all be as happy as kings. Jennifer Fuller a third teacher re ects OK suddenly getting businesslike in her tone Here s. my typical day teaching tenth grade I get up at 6 30 have a quick breakfast get to school by 7 45. if the tra c s not bad Then I check my email usually there s a little stu from the principal or. some other administrator maybe one or two from parents concerned because their child is doing. poorly in one of my classes maybe one or two from students I m going to be sick today Ms. Fuller that sort of thing Now it s 8 15 and I have two hours before my rst class this term. I teach only biology and I only teach periods 2 3 and 5 Maybe I have marking to do before. class or maybe I have to get a lab demonstration ready Or maybe we all have to troupe down. to the library for a sta meeting groan Whatever I don t nish in the morning I have to. nish after school But that s also when I meet with the Ecology Club I m the faculty advisor. so I might have to nish stu in the evening I try not to do it then but a lot of times I have to. But I always quit by 9 00 that s always when I watch TV for an hour or just vegetate with. Whatever you teach you will be able to feel the satisfaction of designing and orchestrating complex. activities that communicate new ideas and skills e ectively The challenge is attractive to many teachers. because that is where they exercise judgment and artistry the most freely and frequently Your students. will depend on your skill at planning and managing though sometimes without realizing how much they. do so Teachers will need you to know how to explain ideas clearly to present new materials in a sensible. sequence and at an appropriate pace to point out connections between their new learning and their prior. experiences Although these skills really take a lifetime to master they can be practiced successfully even by. beginning teachers and they do improve steadily with continued teaching over time Right from the start. though skill at design and communication of curriculum is one of the major perks of the job. The very complexity of classroom life virtually guarantees that teaching never needs to get boring. Something new and exciting is bound to occur just when you least expect it A student shows an insight. that you never expected to see or fails to show one that you were sure he had An activity goes better than. expected or worse or merely di erently You understand for the rst time why a particular student behaves. as she does and begin thinking of how to respond to the student s behavior more helpfully in the future. After teaching a particular learning objective several times you realize that you understand it di erently. than the rst time you taught it And so on The job never stays the same it evolves continually As long. as you keep teaching you will have a job with novelty. Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2. 1 2 Are there also challenges to teaching, Here too the simple answer is yes Every joy of teaching has a possible frustration related to it You may.
wish to make a positive di erence in students lives but you may also have trouble reaching individuals. A student seems not to learn much or to be unmotivated or unfriendly or whatever And some teaching. problems can be subtle when you call attention to the wonderful immensity of an area of knowledge you. might accidentally discourage a student by implying that the student can never learn enough The com. plexity of designing and implementing instruction can sometimes seem overwhelming instead of satisfying. Unexpected events in your classroom can become chaos rather than an attractive novelty To paraphrase a. popular self help book sometimes bad things happen to good teachers Kushner 1983 But as in the rest. of life the bad things of teaching do not negate the value of the good If anything the undesired events. make the good desired ones even more satisfying and render the work of teaching all the more valuable. As you will see throughout this book there are resources for maximizing the good the valuable and the. satisfying You can bring these resources to your work along with your growing professional knowledge and. a healthy dose of common sense In this sense you will not need to go it alone in learning to teach well You. will however be personally responsible for becoming and remaining the best teacher that you can possibly. be the only person who can make that happen will be you Many of the resources for making this happen. are described in this book in the chapters ahead,1 3 Teaching is di erent from in the past. In the past decade or two teaching has changed signi cantly so much in fact that schools may not be. what some of us remember from our own childhood Changes have a ected both the opportunities and the. challenges of teaching as well as the attitudes knowledge and skills needed to prepare for a teaching career. The changes have in uenced much of the content of this book. To see what we mean look brie y at four new trends in education at how they have changed what. teachers do and at how you will therefore need to prepare to teach. increased diversity there are more di erences among students than there used to be Diversity has. made teaching more ful lling as a career but also made more challenging in certain respects. increased instructional technology classrooms schools and students use computers more often. today than in the past for research writing communicating and keeping records Technology has. created new ways for students to learn for example this textbook would not be possible without. Internet technology It has also altered how teachers can teach most e ectively and even raised. issues about what constitutes true teaching and learning. greater accountability in education both the public and educators themselves pay more atten. tion than in the past to how to assess or provide evidence for learning and good quality teaching. The attention has increased the importance of education to the public a good thing and improved. education for some students But it has also created new constraints on what teachers teach and what. students learn, increased professionalism of teachers Now more than ever teachers are able to assess the quality. of their own work as well as that of colleagues and to take steps to improve it when necessary. Professionalism improves teaching but by creating higher standards of practice it also creates greater. worries about whether particular teachers and schools are good enough. How do these changes show up in the daily life of classrooms The answer depends partly on where you. teach circumstances di er among schools cities and even whole societies Some clues about the e ects of the. trends on classroom life can be found however by considering one particular case the changes happening. in North America, 2 This content is available online at http cnx org content m37931 1 1. 3 This content is available online at http cnx org content m37927 1 2. Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2. 6 CHAPTER 1 THE CHANGING TEACHING PROFESSION AND YOU. 1 3 1 New trend 1 diversity in students, Students have of course always been diverse Whether in the past or in the present day students learn at. unique paces show unique personalities and learn in their own ways In recent decades though the forms. and extent of diversity have increased Now more than ever teachers are likely to serve students from diverse. language backgrounds to serve more individuals with special educational needs and to teach students either. younger and older than in the past,1 3 1 1 Language diversity.
Take the case of language diversity In the United States about 40 million people or 14 per cent of the. population are Hispanic About 20 per cent of these speak primarily Spanish and approximately another. 50 per cent speak only limited English United States Census Bureau 2005 The educators responsible for. the children in this group need to accommodate instruction to these students somehow Part of the solution. of course is to arrange specialized second language teachers and classes But adjustment must also happen. in regular classrooms of various grade levels and subjects Classroom teachers must learn to communicate. with students whose English language background is limited at the same time that the students themselves. are learning to use English more uently Pitt 2005 Since relatively few teachers are Hispanic or speak. uent Spanish the adjustments can sometimes be a challenge Teachers must plan lessons and tasks that. students actually understand At the same time teachers must also keep track of the major learning goals. of the curriculum In Section 4 1 Student Diversity and Section 10 1 Planning Instruction some. strategies for doing so are described As you gain experience teaching you will no doubt nd additional. strategies and resources Gebhard 2006 especially if second language learners become an important part. of your classes,1 3 1 2 Diversity of special educational needs. Another factor making classroom increasingly diverse has been the inclusion of students with disabilities. into classrooms with non disabled peers In the United States the trend began in the 1970s but accelerated. with the passage of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act in 1975 and again when the Act was. amended in 2004 United States Government Printing O ce 2005 In Canada similar legislation was passed. in individual provinces during the same general time period The laws guarantee free appropriate education. for children with disabilities of any kind whether the impairment is physical cognitive emotional or. behavioral The laws also recognize that such students need special supports in order to learn or function. e ectively in a classroom with non disabled peers so they provide for special services for example teaching. assistants and procedures for making individualized educational plans for students with disabilities. As a result of these changes most American and Canadian teachers are likely to have at least a few. students with special educational needs even if they are not trained as special education teachers or have. had no prior personal experience with people with disabilities Classroom teachers are also likely to work as. part of a professional team focused on helping these students to learn as well as possible and to participate. in the life of the school The trend toward inclusion is de nitely new compared to circumstances just a. generation or two ago It raises new challenges about planning instruction such as how is a teacher to nd. time to plan for individuals and philosophical questions about the very nature of education such as what. in the curriculum is truly important to learn These questions will come up again in Section 5 1 where we. discuss teaching students with special educational needs. 1 3 1 3 Lifelong learning, The diversity of modern classrooms is not limited to language or disabilities Another recent change has. been the broadening simply of the age range of individuals who count as students In many nations of the. world half or most of all three and four year olds attend some form of educational program either part time. preschool or full time child care National Institute for Early Education Research 2006 In North America. some public school divisions have moved toward including nursery or preschool programs as a newer grade. Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2. level preceding kindergarten Others have expanded the hours of kindergarten itself considered a new. program early in the 20th century to span a full day program. The obvious di erences in maturity between preschoolers and older children lead most teachers of the. very young to use exible open ended plans and teaching strategies and to develop more personal or family. like relationships with their young students than typical with older students Bredekamp Copple 1997. Just as important though are the educational and philosophical issues that early childhood education has. brought to public attention Some educational critics ask whether preschool and day care programs risk. becoming inappropriate substitutes for families Other educators suggest in contrast that teachers of older. students can learn from the exibility and open ended approach common in early childhood education For. teachers of any grade level it is a debate that cannot be avoided completely or permanently In this book. it reappears in Section 3 1 where I discuss students development their major long term changes in skills. knowledge and attitudes, The other end of the age spectrum has also expanded Many individuals take courses well into adulthood. even if they do not attend formal university or college Adult education as it is sometimes called often. takes place in workplaces but it often also happens in public high schools or at local community colleges or. universities Some adult students may be completing high school credentials that they missed earlier in their. lives but often the students have other purposes that are even more focused such as learning a trade related. skill The teachers of adult students have to adjust their instructional strategies and relationships with. students so as to challenge and respect their special strengths and constraints as adults Bash 2005 The. students maturity often means that they have had life experiences that enhance and motivate their learning. But it may also mean that they have signi cant personal responsibilities such as parenting or a full time. job which compete for study time and that make them impatient with teaching that is irrelevant to their. personal goals or needs These advantages and constraints also occur to a lesser extent among regular high. school students Even secondary school teachers must ask how they can make sure that instruction does. not waste students time and how they can make it truly e cient e ective and valuable Elsewhere in this. book especially in Section 9 1 Section 10 1 and Section 11 1 about assessment and instruction we discuss. these questions from a number of perspectives, 1 3 2 New trend 2 using technology to support learning. For most teachers technology means using computers and the Internet as resources for teaching and. learning These tools have greatly increased the amount and range of information available to students. even if their bene ts have sometimes been exaggerated in media reports Cuban 2001 With the Internet. it is now relatively easy to access up to date information on practically any subject imaginable often with. pictures video clips and audio to accompany them It would seem not only that the Internet and its. associated technologies have the potential to transform traditional school based learning but also that they. have in fact begun to do so, For a variety of reasons however technology has not always been integrated into teachers practices.
very thoroughly Haertel Means 2003 One reason is practical in many societies and regions classrooms. contain only one or two computers at most and many schools have at best only limited access to the Internet. Waiting for a turn on the computer or arranging to visit a computer lab or school library limits how much. students use the Internet no matter how valuable the Internet may be In such cases furthermore computers. tend to function in relatively traditional ways that do not take full advantage of the Internet as a word. processor a fancy typewriter for example or as a reference book similar to an encyclopedia. Even so single computer classrooms create new possibilities and challenges for teachers A single com. puter can be used for example to present upcoming assignments or supplementary material to students. either one at a time or small groups In functioning in this way the computer gives students more exibility. about when to nish old tasks or to begin new ones A single computer can also enrich the learning of. individual students with special interests or motivation And it can provide additional review to students. who need extra help These changes are not dramatic but they lead to important revisions in teachers roles. they move teachers away from simply delivering information to students and toward facilitating students. own constructions of knowledge, Available for free at Connexions http cnx org content col11302 1 2.

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