Educational Psychology 9 E Active Learning Edition-Books Pdf

EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY 9 e ACTIVE LEARNING EDITION
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Cognitive Development,and Language,Teachers Casebook What. Would You Do 19,Module 2 Development Some,General Principles 20. The Brain and Cognitive,Development 21,The Development of. Language 24,Diversity in Language Dual,Language Development 26. Language Development,in the School Years 26,Module 3 Piaget s Theory.
of Cognitive Development 31,Influences on Development 31. Basic Tendencies,in Thinking 32,Four Stages of Cognitive. Development 33,Module 4 Vygotsky s,Sociocultural Perspective 43. The Social Sources of,Individual Thinking 44,Cultural Tools and Cognitive. Development 45,The Role of Language and,Private Speech 45.
The Role of Learning and,Development 48,The Role of Adults. and Peers 48,Module 5 Implications of Piaget,and Vygotsky for Teachers 51. Understanding and Building,on Students Thinking 51. Activity and Constructing,Knowledge 52,The Value of Play 52. Some Limitations of Piaget s,Assisted Learning 55,The Zone of Proximal.
Development 55,Teachers Casebook What,Would They Do 59. Teachers Casebook,What Would You Do, The district curriculum guide calls for a unit on poetry Critical Thinking. including lessons on symbolism in poems You are con What do these students reactions tell you about. cerned that many of your 5th grade students may not children s thinking How would you approach this. be ready to understand this abstract concept To test unit What more would you do to listen to your. the waters you ask a few students what a symbol is students thinking so you could match your teach. It s sorta like a big metal thing that you bang ing to their level of thinking How would you give. together Tracy waves her hands like a drum major your students concrete experience with symbolism. Yeah Sean adds My sister plays one in the How will you decide if the students are not develop. high school band mentally ready for this material,You realize they are on the wrong track here so. you try again I was thinking of a different kind of Collaboration. symbol like a ring as a symbol of marriage or a heart With 3 or 4 other students in your educational psy. as a symbol of love or chology class plan a lesson about symbolism in. You are met with blank stares poetry that would be appropriate for students in. Trevor ventures You mean like the Olympic torch this class Pair up with another group and teach. And what does that symbolize Trevor you ask your lesson. Like I said a torch Trevor wonders how you,could be so dense. hat is going on with Trevor In the following four,W modules you will find out We begin with a dis.
cussion of the general principles of human development. Module 3 and Lev Vygotsky Module 4 Piaget s ideas, have implications about what students can learn and. when they are ready to learn it The work of Lev Vygot. and take a brief look at the human brain We also explore sky a Russian psychologist is becoming more and more. language development and discuss the role of the school influential His theory highlights the important role. in developing and enriching language skills Module 2 teachers and parents play in the cognitive development. Then we will examine the ideas of two of the most influ of the child Finally we will look at the implications of. ential cognitive developmental theorists Jean Piaget these theories for classroom teachers Module 5. Harmony 1894 by Henri Martin 2003 Artists Rights Society ARS New York ADAGP Paris Copyright Giraudon Art Resource NY. Development,Some General Principles, By the time you have completed The term development in its most general psychological sense refers to certain. this module you should be able changes that occur in human beings or animals between conception and death The. to answer these questions term is not applied to all changes but rather to those that appear in orderly ways and. What are some general remain for a reasonably long period of time A temporary change caused by a brief. principles of human illness for example is not considered a part of development Psychologists also. development make a value judgment in determining which changes qualify as development The. changes at least those that occur early in life are generally assumed to be for the. Is brain based education better and to result in behavior that is more adaptive more organized more effective. effective and more complex Mussen Conger Kagan 1984. How does language develop Human development can be divided into a number of different aspects Physi. during the school years and cal development as you might guess deals with changes in the body Personal. what happens if children are development is the term generally used for changes in an individual s personality. learning two languages at Social development refers to changes in the way an individual relates to others And. once cognitive development refers to changes in thinking. Many changes during development are simply matters of growth and matura. tion Maturation refers to changes that occur naturally and spontaneously and that. are to a large extent genetically programmed Such changes emerge over time and are. relatively unaffected by environment except in cases of malnutrition or severe ill. ness Much of a person s physical development falls into this category Other changes. are brought about through learning as individuals interact with their environment. Such changes make up a large part of a person s social development But what about. the development of thinking and personality Most psychologists agree that in these. areas both maturation and interaction with the environment or nature and nurture. as they are sometimes called are important but they disagree about the amount of. emphasis to place on each, Although there is disagreement about both what is involved in development and. the way it takes place there are a few general principles almost all theorists would. Development Orderly adaptive support,changes we go through from conception. 1 People develop at different rates In your own classroom you will have a whole. range of examples of different developmental rates Some students will be larger. Physical development Changes in,body structure and function over time.
better coordinated or more mature in their thinking and social relationships. Others will be much slower to mature in these areas Except in rare cases of very. Personal development Changes in,personality that take place as one grows. rapid or very slow development such differences are normal and should be ex. pected in any large group of students,Social development Changes over. time in the ways we relate to others 2 Development is relatively orderly People develop abilities in a logical order In in. Cognitive development Gradual or fancy they sit before they walk babble before they talk and see the world through. derly changes by which mental processes their own eyes before they can begin to imagine how others see it In school they. become more complex and sophisticated will master addition before algebra Bambi before Shakespeare and so on. Maturation Genetically programmed Theorists may disagree on exactly what comes before what but they all seem to. naturally occurring changes over time find a relatively logical progression. CLUSTER 2 Cognitive Development and Language, 3 Development takes place gradually Very rarely do changes appear overnight A. student who cannot manipulate a pencil or answer a hypothetical question may. well develop this ability but the change is likely to take time. The Brain and Cognitive Development, What Would You Say You are interviewing for a job in a great district it is known. for innovation After a few minutes the principal asks Do you know anything. about this brain based education I ve read a lot about that lately How would. you answer, If you have taken an introductory psychology class you have read about the brain and C ON N E C T E XT E N D.
nervous system You probably remember for example that there are several different. areas of the brain and that certain areas are involved in particular functions For TO THE RESEARCH. example the feathery looking cerebellum coordinates and orchestrates balance In the next decade we should see. increasing research on the brain, and smooth skilled movements from the graceful gestures of the dancer to the development learning and teaching. everyday action of eating without stabbing yourself in the nose with a fork The cere For example in 1998 there was a. bellum may also play a role in higher cognitive functions such as learning The hippo special issue of Educational Psychology. campus is critical in recalling new information and recent experiences while the Review on cognitive neuroscience and. amygdala directs emotions The thalamus is involved in our ability to learn new in education The authors of this volume. emphasized that the brain is a complex, formation particularly if it is verbal The reticular formation plays a role in attention collection of systems working together. and arousal blocking some messages and sending others on to higher brain centers to construct understanding detect. for processing and the corpus callosum moves information from one side of the patterns create rules and make sense. brain to the other Wood Wood 1999 Meece 2002 of experience These systems change. The outer 1 8 inch thick covering of the cerebrum is the wrinkled looking over the lifetime as the individual. matures and develops, cerebral cortex the largest area of the brain The cerebral cortex accounts for. about 85 of the brain s weight in adulthood and contains the greatest number of. neurons the tiny structures that store and transmit information The cerebral. cortex allows the greatest human accomplishments such as complex problem. solving and language This crumpled sheet of neurons serves three major functions. receiving signals from sense organs such as visual or auditory signals controlling. voluntary movement and forming associations In humans this area of the brain is. much larger than it is in lower animals The cortex is the last part of the brain to. develop so it is believed to be more susceptible to environmental influences than. other areas of the brain Berk 2002 Meece 2002 Let s see how this part of the. brain develops, The Developing Brain Cerebral Cortex The cortex develops more slowly than. other parts of the brain and parts of the cortex mature at different rates The part of. the cortex that controls physical motor movement matures first then the areas that. control complex senses such as vision and hearing and last the frontal lobe that con. trols higher order thinking processes The temporal lobes of the cortex that play. major roles in emotions and language do not develop fully until the high school years. and maybe later, Neuroscientists are just beginning to understand how brain development is re.
lated to aspects of adolescence such as risk taking decision making and managing. impulsive behaviors Getting angry or wanting revenge when we are insulted are com. mon human emotions It is the job of the prefrontal cortex to control these impulses. through reason planning or delay of gratification But the impulse inhibiting. capacities of the brain are not present at birth as all new parents quickly discover. Research now indicates that it takes at least two decades for the biological processes. of brain development to produce a fully functional prefrontal cortex Weinberger. 2001 Thus middle and high school students still lack the brain development to. balance impulse with reason and planning Weinberger suggests that parents have to. loan their children a prefrontal cortex by helping them set rules and limits and. www ablongman com woolfolk MODULE 2 Development Some General Principles. make plans until the child s own prefrontal cortex can take over. This is a simple representation of the Schools and teachers also can play major roles in cognitive and emo. left side of the human brain showing, tional development if they provide appropriate environments for de. the cerebral cortex The cortex is divided, into different areas or lobes each veloping but sometimes impulsive brains Meece 2002. having a variety of regions with different, functions A few of the major functions Specialization and Integration Different areas of the cortex. are indicated here seem to have different functions as shown in Figure 2 1 Even though. different functions are found in different areas of the brain these. Body movement Body sensation, and coordination specialized functions are quite specific and elementary To accomplish. Parietal more complex functions such as speaking or reading the various areas. of the cortex must work together Byrnes Fox 1998 For example. Frontal Visual, many areas of the cortex are necessary in processing language To an.
swer a question you must first hear it This involves the primary au. ditory cortex Movements controlled by the motor cortex are required. to speak your response Broca s area near the area that controls the. lips jaw and tongue has a role in setting up a grammatically correct. way of expressing an idea and Wernicke s area near the auditory. Auditory cortex is necessary for connecting meaning with particular words A. cortex person with a functioning Broca s area but a damaged Wernicke s area. Temporal will say meaningless things in a grammatically correct struct. Anita E Woolfolk Hoy Allyn amp Bacon 75 Arlington St Suite 300 Boston MA 02116 www ablongman com 0 205 43529 7 ISBN Please use above number to order your exam copy

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