Educational Measurement And Evaluation-Books Pdf

Educational Measurement and Evaluation
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EDUCATIONAL MEASUREMENT, AND EVALUATION, Copyright 2012. All rights reserved with publishers, Produced Printed by. USI PUBLICATIONS, 2 31 Nehru Enclave Kalkaji Ext, New Delhi 110019. Lovely Professional University, Educational Measurement and Evaluation. Objectives, To enable the learners to, 1 familiarise with the utility of measurement evaluation.
2 familiarise with different kinds of psychological tests. 3 understand the steps for the construction of an achievement test and the characteristics of good test and type of test i e. standardized and non standardised tests, Sr No Description. 1 Measurement and evaluation concept need scope difference and relevance. Educational testing and assessment concept context issues and current trends. Scales of measurement ordinal nominal interval ratio. 2 Characteristics of a good test Planning for different types of test Validity. types and methods and usability Reliability types and methods and usability. 3 Test construction Test standardization Item analysis Item difficulty. discrimination index Effectiveness of distracters Development of Norms of a. 4 Conversion of raw scores into standard scores T scores C scores Z. scores Stanine scores percentiles Interpretation of test scores qualitative. and quantitative, 5 Criterion referenced test Norm reference test Factors influencing test scores. nature of test psychological factors and environmental factors. 6 Integrated approach of evaluation Marking system need problems and. components Grading need problems components and methods Methods of. feedback for students, 7 Semester system vs annual system Continuous assessment Portfolio assessment. Question bank Use of computer in evaluation, 8 Achievement test concept types and construction Diagnostic test concept and. construction remedial teaching Objective type test advantages and limitations. 9 Short answer type test advantages and limitations Essay type test advantages. and limitations, 10 Formative and Summative Evaluation Measurement of Attitude.
Aptitude personality and intelligence, Unit 1 Educational Testing and Assessment Concept Context Issues and Current Trends 1. Unit 2 Measurement and Evaluation Concept Need Scope Difference and Relevance 16. Unit 3 Scales of Measurement Ordinal Nominal Interval Ratio 31. Unit 4 Characteristics of a Good Test 37, Unit 5 Planning for Different Types of Test 46. Unit 6 Validity Types Methods and Usability 63, Unit 7 Reliability Types Methods and Usability 78. Unit 8 Test Construction 90, Unit 9 Test Standardization 111. Unit 10 Item Analysis Item Difficulty Discrimination Index Effectiveness of Distractors 125. Unit 11 Development of Norms of a Test 149, Unit 12 Conversion of Raw Scores into Standard Scores T scores C scores Z scores Stanine Scores Percentiles 158.
Unit 13 Interpretation of Test Scores Qualitative and Quantitative 169. Unit 14 Criterion Referenced Test 181, Unit 15 Norm Referenced Test 187. Unit 16 Factors Influencing Test Scores Nature of Test Psychological Factors and Environmental Factors 194. Unit 17 Integrated Approach of Evaluation 200, Unit 18 Marking System Need Problems Components 209. Unit 19 Grading Need Problems Components and Methods 221. Unit 20 Methods of Feedback for Students 235, Unit 21 Semester System vs Annual System 244. Unit 22 Continuous Assessment 250, Unit 23 Portfolio Assessment 261. Unit 24 Question Bank 274, Unit 25 Use of Computer in Evaluation 282.
Unit 26 Achievement Test Concept Types and Construction 290. Unit 27 Diagnostic Test Concept and Construction Remedial Teaching 312. Unit 28 Objective Type Test Advantages and Limitations 323. Unit 29 Short Answer Type Test Advantages and Limitations 333. Unit 30 Essay Type Test Advantages and Limitations 344. Unit 31 Formative and Summative Evaluation 352, Unit 32 Measurement of Attitude Aptitude Personality and Intelligence 363. Unit 1 Educational Testing and Assessment Concept Context Issues and Current Trends. Unit 1 Educational Testing and Assessment Concept, Context Issues and Current Trends. Objectives, Introduction, 1 1 Concept of Educational Testing. 1 2 Context of Educational Testing, 1 3 Issues of Educational Testing. 1 4 Current Trends in Testing, 1 5 Concept of Educational Assessment.
1 6 Context of Educational Assessment, 1 7 Issues of Present System of Assessment. 1 8 Current Trends in Educational Assessment, 1 9 Summary. 1 10 Keywords, 1 11 Review Questions, 1 12 Further Readings. Objectives, Objectives of this unit can be summarised as below. To explain the Concept of Educational Testing, To discuss about the Context of Educational Testing.
To describe the issues of Educational Testing, To discuss about current trends in Educational Testing. To explain about the Concept of Educational Assessment. To discuss about the Context of Educational Assessment. To describe about issues of Educational Assessment. To discuss about current trends in Educational Assessment. Introduction, Almost all the Commissions on education as also the National Policy on Education 1986 Programme. of Action 1992 and National Curriculum Framework 2000 of NCERT have all stressed the need. for a more continuous and comprehensive evaluation of students in order to pass more sound. judgments about students learning and growth Regular Testing assessment through pupils lives. in school is considered essential for remedial treatment of those who fall below the acceptable. performance level It is in this context that the role of Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation. C C E is highlighted in appraising the whole child and recognising it as a complement of external. examination by providing due weight age to C C E in the final assessment of the total development. of the child, LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY 1, Educational Measurement and Evaluation. Notes 1 1 Concept of Educational Testing, Testing is neither assessment nor appraisal but at the same time it may become a means to getting. information data or evidences needed for assessment and appraisal Testing is one of the significant. and most usable technique in any system of examination or evaluation It envisages the use of. instruments or tools for gathering information or data In written examinations question paper is. one of the most potent tools employed for collecting and obtaining information about pupils. achievement, 1 2 Context of Educational Testing, A test of educational achievement is one designed to measure knowledge understanding or skills.
in a specified subject or group of subjects The test might be restricted to a single subject such as. arithmetic yielding a separate score for each subject and a total score for the several subjects combined. Tests of educational achievement differ from those of intelligence in that the former are concerned. with the quantity and quality of learning attained in a subject of study or group to subjects after a. period of instruction and the latter are general in scope and are intended tor the measurement and. analysis of psychological processes although they must of necessity employ some acquired content. that resembles the content found in achievement tests. 1 2 1 Nature and Scope, Most educational achievement tests are devoted largely to the measurement of the amount of. information acquired or the skills and techniques developed In recent years however an increasing. number have been devised to measure such educational results as attitudes and appreciations. ability to solve problems to draw inferences from subject matter to apply generalizations to specific. situations and problems, Emphasis upon these more recent types of test materials is clearly illustrated in a publication in. which educational objectives are analyzed in detail There are six major classes of objectives These. are knowledge comprehension application analysis synthesis and evaluation Each of these is. analyzed into several aspects For example knowledge is divided into knowledge of specifics ways. and means of dealing with specifics universals and abstractions in a field These in turn are broken. down further into knowledge of, specific information. terminology, ways and means of presenting ideas and phenomena. trends and sequences, classification and categories.
methodology, major ideas, principles and generalizations. theories and structures, 1 2 2 Testing Techniques, Written Examinations. In the process of evaluation of cognitive outcomes of learning the most common and reliable. technique is that of testing For collection of data both testing and non testing techniques observation. inquiry analysis are usable With each technique a number or tools are associated which help. 2 LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY, Unit 1 Educational Testing and Assessment Concept Context Issues and Current Trends. gather the data or evidences required In testing technique we may use written examinations oral Notes. testing and practical examination corresponding to the assessment of cognitive or psychomotor. outcomes of learning Written tests are more reliable for measuring the learning outcomes in cognitive. domain whereas practical examinations are more dependable for measuring the learning outcomes. in psychomotor domain Likewise personality tests interest inventories and attitude scale are more. relevant for measuring the learning outcomes in affective domain Written tests are still most. acceptable due to better reliability than oral and practical tests for judging the students achievement. in spite of some limitations, Oral Examinations, Need for development of oral skills and expressions which are necessary in day to day living was. stressed as back as in 1964 in the fifth Conference of Chairman and Secretaries of the Boards of. Secondary Education But unless oral skills are tested in the external examinations or certified in. school based assessment these are not going to attract the needed attention of the teachers in. developing these skills Subjectivity in assesment greater number of examiners time span inter. examiner variance subjective interpretation etc are a few among many more problems and difficulties. in using oral tests in external examinations However their use in instructional process would. continue to provide the diagnosis feedback and their use as instructional tool for readiness testing. and review of lessons, Purpose of oral examination is.
a to test oral skills that cannot be tested through written examinations. b to confirm and probe further evidences gathered through written examination whenever desired. c to judge the extent to which such skills are warranted by the nature of subject and. d to make quick oral review for informal assessment of what the pupils have learnt or their. deficiencies, For improving validity and reliability of oral examinations and systematic evaluation in the field of. languages it is necessary to, i identify clearly listening speaking reading and written expression. ii delineate the aspects of evaluation of language and content elements in case of oral expression. iii define oral expression in terms of expected competencies like use of appropriate words in. right context using correct sentence pattern pronouncing words correctly modulating voice. according to the situation speaking at a reasonable speed arrange idea in logical sequence. using proper gestures avoiding mannerism etc, iv develop criteria of assessment. v define each criterion, vi prepare a scale for each component. vii develop marking scheme, viii decide about the mode of conducting the examination.
ix devise questions and exercises, x interpret responses and. xi provide feedback of results for remediation, Oral examination can profitably be used to validate content oral skills work experience project. work functional understanding about practical skills etc when used as an external moderation. device For younger children it is an indispensable device for testing to get on the spot feedback. about their learning and provide basis for remediation. LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY 3, Educational Measurement and Evaluation. Notes Tests can be and should be among the most useful instructional tools for planning new learning. activities and for monitoring student s progress in attaining the learning goals presented to them. Tests can be used to provide recognition and rewards for success in learning and teaching They can. be used to motivate and direct effort to learn In short they can be used to contribute substantially. to effective instruction, 1 2 3 Classification of Tests. Tests have been classified in a number of ways Some of these even overlap Here we are stating. only one classification which seems to be quite comprehensive. Tests vary according to form use and type etc Yoak and Simpson give the following classification. a Oral examinations b Written examination, a Prognostic b Diagnostic c Power d Speed e Accuracy f Quality g Range.
Organisation, a Essay b Objective, Period or Time of Administering. a Daily b Weekly c Monthly d Term e Year, a Short b Long. Method of Scoring and Interpreting Results, a Non standardized b Standardized. Abilities Involved, a Speed b Comprehension c Organization d Judgement e Retention f Appreciation etc. Nature of Material Included, a Arithmetic b Language c Reading d Spelling e Writing etc.
Educational Measurement and Evaluation 2 Notes LOVELY PROFESSIONAL UNIVERSITY 1 1 Concept of Educational Testing Testing is neither assessment nor appraisal but at the same time it may become a means to getting

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