Education Policy Reforms World Bank-Books Pdf

Education Policy Reforms World Bank
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Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms, adverse macroeconomic conditions and the leaner public funds follow. ing the debt crisis have encouraged a more efficient use of scarce public. resources Finally in recent years a number of initiatives put forward by the. international community have made education a priority on the develop. ment agenda Through the World Conference on Education for All held in. Jomtien Thailand at the beginning of the 1990s and more recently the. internationally agreed Millennium Development Goals the international. community has reaffirmed its commitment to universal primary education. This chapter provides a brief review of experiences with some of. these reforms In particular it draws on country case studies and recent. findings from the empirical literature on education policy to identify. some of the poverty and social impacts of education reforms the princi. pal transmission channels through which stakeholders are affected by or. affect the reforms and the standard tools for poverty and social impact. analysis in education, While education policy reforms have long term effects on poverty. and income distribution this chapter mainly discusses the distributional. consequences of reforms in the short and medium run Much of the doc. umented impact of education reforms concerns the immediate distribu. tional effects of the reforms rather than the effects of the reforms on the. current poverty status of individuals or households Whenever appropri. ate however we draw out potential immediate effects of reforms on. poverty We adopt a broad view of distributional consequences allowing. for the possibility that reforms redistribute resources as well as access. quality power and authority, This chapter is organized as follows The first section provides an. overview of reforms that have been carried out in the education sector and. the rationale for these reforms The effects of reforms on distribution are. then reviewed and an analytical scheme for understanding these distrib. utional effects is presented highlighting how the reforms vary mention. ing specific features of each reform and documenting the transmission. channels through which stakeholder groups are affected A survey of. empirical tools for both qualitative and quantitative poverty and social. impact analyses is provided and valuable empirical studies on each tool. are singled out Finally the options for monitoring and evaluation are. briefly discussed, TYPES OF REFORM, There are several broad changes to education policy that are covered in this. chapter In general these reforms concern policy changes to the expendi. Education Policy Reforms, ture structure the financing scheme and management although there.
may be significant overlap among these broad categories We exclude from. these categories a number of professional and management reforms such. as curriculum reform2 or teacher training3 that do not have explicit doc. umented impact on distribution We also exclude financing schemes that. are less common in developing countries such as student loans. Expenditure reform A government may choose to restructure its expen. ditures to reallocate spending from higher education to lower levels of. education Reforms aimed at increasing the supply of schooling may. focus on targeted spending or the expansion of coverage in specific. geographic areas through a mix of public and private sector support. including public support for private education in low income areas. Financing reform A government may choose to reform the financing of. education by introducing user fees cost recovery or as seen in a num. ber of developing countries in recent years by eliminating them A. related scheme is the introduction of community financing whereby. for example communities are entirely responsible for the construction. and maintenance of buildings Financing schemes may include schemes. on the demand side in which funds are channeled directly toward. people who demand education rather than people who supply it to. strengthen the client s power over providers Demand side financing. schemes may involve transfers to households vouchers or payments. given directly to students who may submit them to the schools of their. Management and institutional reforms A country in which there is cen. tralized management over the education system may choose to imple. ment management reforms by decentralizing the administration of. education This may involve a shift in responsibility from the central gov. ernment to local governments communities or schools The shift might. include a simple delegation of tasks from the central government to local. governments or a complete transfer of authority and decision making. power The changes may be viewed not simply as administrative adjust. ments but as reforms that fundamentally alter relationships of account. ability and the way in which services are provided The classification of. these changes as institutional reforms may then be appropriate. There are of course alternative methods for classifying this family of. education policy reforms For example one might contemplate a con. ceptual division between compensatory schemes or targeted policies that. aim to increase educational opportunities for the poor and schemes or. Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms, policies that are universal in coverage The reforms that have been imple. mented over the last decade may be broadly classified as those that are. primarily aimed at expanding access expanding supply restructuring. expenditure abolishing fees and those that are primarily aimed at. improving quality efficiency and sustainability decentralization com. munity management vouchers, Reimers 2000 suggests that it may be useful to think about educa. tion in terms of levels of educational opportunities ranging from initial. access to schooling through progression and completion to assimilation. into local labor markets Following this typology one could then under. stand education reforms as specific interventions aimed at selected levels. of educational opportunity, These alternative typologies however also allow for overlap among. categories There are measures such as the provision of textbooks that. blur the distinction between access quantity and quality Poor children. have been observed to drop out of school with greater frequency for exam. ple partly because the quality of schooling is low Programs exist that are. broad in scope offering for example greater financing for primary edu. cation but strategically directed at increasing the educational opportuni. ties available to the poor who may account for a disproportionate share. of enrollment in public primary schools, RATIONALE FOR UNDERTAKING REFORM. In an environment characterized by low education attainment and in. equitable access to education developing countries have typically imple. mented education policy reform to improve access to education in general. and also to expand coverage among poorer households Such is the ration. ale for significant additions to budgets for primary education construction. programs and many compensatory programs targeted at the poor. Efficiency considerations are also important A substantial body of lit. erature has emerged over the last three decades on the rate of return to edu. cation While the methodology has come under scrutiny there is general. consensus that the returns to primary schooling are high thus suggesting. that spending could be switched from higher to lower education levels. Some reforms are designed to improve public finances Cost recovery. schemes for example are designed to supplement government revenues. when rapid education expansion has created significant pressure on the. budget The resources raised may also be used to improve quality and boost. demand for education In fact some advocates of user fees with waiver. schemes built into certain proposals have supported the institution of cost. Education Policy Reforms, recovery on the grounds that such a scheme may improve quality and.
increase demand without significantly raising cost barriers Meanwhile. some reforms such as voucher schemes aim to create a market oriented. environment that encourages competition between public and private. schools enhances school quality reduces costs and adds to the choices. available to students Vouchers are also designed to allow students access to. higher quality private education, Management and institutional reforms such as decentralization. programs are designed to improve efficiency accountability and respon. siveness in education service provision These reforms follow from the. assumption that centralized systems often are not able to respond effi. ciently and adequately to local needs Decentralization reforms are meant. to encourage local participation and ultimately improve coverage and. quality Sosale 2000 has suggested that the strengthening of the private. sector role in noncompulsory education is also aimed at releasing public. resources for allocation to the compulsory basic education level. Finally political pressures from within and outside a country have. profound effects on educational policies such as Free Primary Education. or Education for All The call for Education for All and for measures to. meet the Millennium Development Goals in the international commu. nity has been particularly influential The enhanced Heavily Indebted. Poor Countries Initiative has also led to a reallocation of public resources. toward the social sectors, TYPICAL RANGE OF EFFECTS ON DISTRIBUTION. Figure 6 1 summarizes the analytical scheme of this chapter It indicates that. the broader development strategy determines the reform options Through. their impact on prices income employment and wages education policy. reforms redistribute resources access to education and the quality of the. services provided They also redistribute authority and the relationships of. accountability These resources and services are all redistributed among. individuals immediately as well as over time They are redistributed both. across and within households communities and government units 4. Immediate effects on the distribution of access to and. quality of services, First education policy reforms have immediate short term effects on the. distribution of access to education services and the quality of these serv. ices For example reforms aimed at expanding the supply of education. Analyzing the Distributional Impact of Reforms, FIGURE 6 1 Analytic Scheme Education Policy Reform. Development Strategy, Education Policy Reform, Impact on relative prices of goods and services access income expenditure employment and.
Short term impact on the distribution of access to education services quality power and authority. Medium term impact on the distribution of access to services and quality. Long term impact on the distribution of employment prospects and wages. Individuals Households Communities Government Units. Source Author, by expenditure restructuring or targeted interventions may increase. enrollment Because these are targeted interventions and because these. reforms are usually designed to increase the supply of basic education. typically assumed to have pro poor benefit incidence rather than higher. education typically assumed to be less pro poor such measures may. disproportionately benefit the poor 5 The value of these education sub. sidies could be significant Reforms designed to change the financing of. education may boost enrollment among the poor by easing some of the. financing constraints on the poor for example the elimination of user. fees improving access to higher quality schools for example through. vouchers or enhancing the quality of schooling Other reforms run the. risk of reducing enrollment particularly among households with lower. incomes for example the introduction or raising of user fees 6. Meanwhile geographic variations in quality may be intensified by. rapid expansions in the supply of education because these require a. capacity to absorb the expansions Rural schools for example tend to. have fewer qualified teachers They may not have the same ability as their. urban counterparts to quickly accommodate sudden surges in enroll. ment Under some circumstances management reform or decentraliza. tion may widen disparities in the quality of education to the extent that. geographic differences in the availability of resources exist Similar dis. tributional consequences may follow from other reforms that lead to. Education Policy Reforms, greater community participation such as community financing In gen. eral richer communities are in a better position to provide resources for. education However some initiatives relying on community solidarity are. considered more difficult to undertake in urban areas. Even if the coverage of education among the poor was expanded. however it would be important to assess the distributional dimensions of. marginal changes in access within the poor households themselves With. respect to the demand for education the price elasticity of households may. vary by gender That is as their financing constraints fall households may. be more likely to enroll boys rather than girls With respect to expanded. choice higher income households may have greater access to information. While education policy reforms have long term effects on poverty and income distribution this chapter mainly discusses the distributional consequences of reforms in the short and medium run Much of the doc umented impact of education reforms concerns the immediate distribu tional effects of the reforms rather than the effects of the reforms on the

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