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Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 3. Football Stadiums,Technical recommendations,and requirements k. Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 4. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S,F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S. Foreword from the FIFA President Joseph S Blatter 6. Contents Foreword from the FIFA General Secretary Urs Linsi 8. Foreword from the working group 10,The fascination of football stadiums 12. 1 1 Strategic pre construction decisions 26 6 1 General standards of comfort 104. Pre construction 1 2 Stadium location 28,Spectators 6 2 Spectator areas 111. decisions 1 3 Playing field orientation 31 6 3 Communication with the public 112. 1 4 Green Goal 32 6 4 Spectators with disabilities 114. 1 5 Environmental compatibility of stadium site 34 6 5 Merchandise concession stands 116. 1 k 1 6 Community relations,1 7 Multi purpose stadiums. 2 1 Safe stadiums the fundamental requirement,6 k 6 6 Ticketing and electronic access control. 7 1 Corporate hospitality facilities, Safety 2 2 Specific safety requirements 40 Hospitality 7 2 Hospitality requirements guiding principles 123. 2 3 Structural safety 41 7 3 FIFA programme requirements 124. 2 4 Fire prevention 41 7 4 VVIP areas and VIP areas 126. 2 5 Stadium control room 41 7 5 Commercial hospitality rights 129. 2 k 2 6 Television surveillance system,2 7 First aid rooms for the public. 3 1 Signposting and directions on tickets,7 k 7 6 Special conditions. 8 1 Press box and commentary positions, Orientation 3 2 Public access and egress 47 Media 8 2 Television studios 143. and parking 3 3 Parking for spectators 49 8 3 Stadium media centre 144. 3 4 Hospitality parking 49 8 4 Press conference room 145. 3 5 Parking for teams match officials and stadium staff 50 8 5 Mixed zone and flash interview positions 145. 3 k 3 6 Access and parking for the media, 3 7 The emergency services and disabled spectators. 3 8 Helipad,4 1 Recommended dimensions,8 k 8 6 Facilities for photographers. 8 7 Media requirements for FIFA World Cup,8 8 Television infrastructure. 8 9 Accreditation office,9 1 Power supply, Playing area 4 2 Playing field quality 64 Lighting and 9 2 Facility requirements 166. 4 3 Natural grass playing fields 65 power supply 9 3 Lighting design specifications and technology 174. 4 4 Artificial turf playing fields 69 9 4 Environmental impact 178. 4 5 Substitutes benches 79 9 5 Installation commissioning 179. 4 k 4 6 Advertising boards around playing area,4 7 Access to playing area. 4 8 Exclusion of spectators from playing area,5 1 Access to dressing rooms. 9 k 9 6 Glossary of lighting terms,10 1 Communications requirements. Players and 5 2 Dressing rooms toilets and bathing areas 88 Communications 10 2 Programme development 191. match officials 5 3 Access from team areas to playing field 92 and additional areas 10 3 Communications systems applications and users 192. 5 4 First aid and treatment room 94 10 4 Communications rooms 192. 5 5 Warm up areas 95 10 5 Project development 194,5 k 5 6 Match delegates area. 5 7 Doping control area,5 8 Dressing rooms for ball boys and ball girls. Chapters 3 4 5 6 7 8 and 10 contain a summary of the. 10 k 10 6 Telephones,10 7 Additional areas,10 8 Flagpoles. FIFA World Cup space requirements, relevant space requirements for FIFA World Cup matches Index 238. Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 6. 6 Foreword 7,Joseph S Blatter,F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S,FIFA President, Football stadiums are places of emotion and fascination A word from the FIFA President. Places where people celebrate football, In every aspect of life progress is constantly being made This is also true in the. construction and renovation of football stadiums some of which have become. modern day urban landmarks Stadiums do not offer unrestricted space though. These buildings where every week month and year thousands of people congregate. must fulfil particularly stringent criteria in terms of comfort safety and security. Ever since the dark days of the 1980s FIFA has taken up the question of safety in. stadiums time and again in its quest to continuously improve the standards of football s. modern arenas One major conclusion is more valid than ever crowd safety and. comfort are directly connected Improved amenities lead to increased safety Comfort. means more space for each spectator shorter routes to the exits more entrance. gates and exits areas to gather in and areas for refreshments as well as public. conveniences Once all these factors have been taken into account when there are. no more fences and when most of the stadiums provide protection from the scorching. sun or the pelting rain when spectators can sit in peace instead of standing for hours. that is when we can expect to witness the desirable elements of a sports event. namely a relaxed atmosphere electrifying and exciting but never hectic and aggressive. It is these principles that are yet again put forward in this Football Stadiums Technical. recommendations and requirements publication A group of renowned experts from. sport and the construction industry has successfully taken up the mission to not only. make a mere update to the previous edition of this very important publication but. to also provide a manual for a state of the art approach in this area. I wish to thank them sincerely for their important contribution They are making sure. that the beautiful game is played in beautiful comfortable and safe stadiums. Joseph S Blatter,FIFA President, Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 8. 8 Foreword 9,F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S,F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S. FIFA General Secretary,A word from the FIFA General Secretary. The first great age of football stadium construction was between the 1890s and the. 1930s when football grew into a mass spectator sport in many parts of the world. Some of those early stadiums now more than a century old are still in operation. The second great age of stadium design arguably began in the late 1980s as the. realisation dawned on the football world that many old stadiums were simply unfit. for use Unfortunately a key factor in that waking up process was a series of appalling. tragedies which resulted in the deaths of many football supporters. Less than 20 years later football supporters have evolved from simply being loyal. followers into demanding customers with high expectations of a visit to a stadium. They expect to find their seat easily to watch the game in comfort to be able to. enjoy some refreshments at half time and to visit the toilet without an ordeal Football. fans of the future are likely to be even more demanding Stadium owners developers. and architects have been responding to the challenge creating stadiums that go. beyond meeting supporters needs they have built stadiums whose breathtaking. design has made them a source of pride for local communities or even whole cities. Where this has happened many fans who were lost to the game have returned and. many new supporters including an increasing number of women and children. have been persuaded to give it a try But much more work needs to be done. This book provides a blueprint for the football stadium of the twenty first century. In its scope it responds to the demands of players fans VIP guests the media and. local communities In its detail it aims to be a useful practical tool for all those. involved in the design construction and management of stadiums. Throughout the book one message should ring loud and clear no aspect of the. football stadium experience can ever take precedence over the safety of those using. the facility,FIFA General Secretary, Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 10. 10 Foreword The working group,The working group from left to right. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S,Jim Brown FIFA,Ron DelMont FIFA. Charles Botta Switzerland,k Ruben Reddy South Africa. Ed Ragain USA,Murray Beynon Canada,Foreword from the working group. This is the fourth edition of Football Stadiums Technical recommendations and. requirements and the most ambitious with extensive new material on event lighting. power supply communications systems natural grass and artificial turf playing fields. hospitality facilities the impact of new stadiums on the environment and the FIFA. Green Goal programme on environmental sustainability. As with previous editions the book is based on the most up to date research available. provided by the world s leading experts in stadium design Such is the pace of change. that no publication on the design of football stadiums could ever be entirely future. proof It is the desire of the working group however that this book will have a long. shelf life, The measurements which are provided in the main text of the book and in the. accompanying diagrams are applicable to all new football stadiums The book also. contains in the FIFA World Cup Space Requirements a new and comprehensive. breakdown of the space required for hosting matches in the FIFA World Cup. The relevant requirements for each area are provided at the end of each chapter and. a complete breakdown is provided in an appendix This information will be invaluable. for developers who want their facility to host FIFA World Cup matches. The increase in the amount of information and in the depth of detail provided required. a radical re think about the way the book was designed The new layout is intended. to make the book as easy to navigate as possible Despite these changes in the new. edition the objective of the book remains the same to help everyone involved in. the design construction and management of a football stadium to create a facility. in which people can watch football in safety and comfort. Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 12. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S,Fascination k Football Stadiums. Where people celebrate football,All over the world. Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 14. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S, Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 16. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S, Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 18. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S, Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 20. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S, Stadium Book QXP E Vorwort 15 05 2007 10 31 Uhr Seite 22. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S, Stadium Book QXP E Kapitel 01 15 05 2007 10 48 Uhr Seite 24. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S,F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S. 1k Pre construction decisions, Important decisions need to be made in advance regarding. the location capacity design and environmental impact of. a stadium to ensure that the facility continues to meet the. demands of a rapidly changing market, Stadium Book QXP E Kapitel 01 15 05 2007 10 48 Uhr Seite 26. 1 1 Strategic pre construction decisions 26,26 Pre construction 1 2 Stadium location 28 27. decisions 1 3 Playing field orientation 31,F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S,1 4 Green Goal 32, 1 5 Environmental compatibility of stadium site 34. 1 k 1 6 Community relations,1 7 Multi purpose stadiums. 1 1 p Strategic pre construction decisions, major international matches like FIFA Confederations Cup finals for example 50 000. The size and level of comfort of a new stadium will always be governed by the financial and upwards could be required with the final of the FIFA World Cup needing in. resources available Nevertheless when planning a stadium developers should always excess of 60 000 seats. ask certain basic questions at the outset, Obviously those places that can sustain a stadium with a capacity of 80 000 or more. Funding find themselves in an advantageous position when it comes to the allocation of big. Is sufficient funding available to achieve what is necessary It is pointless and wasteful football events However even the biggest stadium is of little use for major international. to build a stadium which is so limited in terms of capacity and comfort that it cannot matches if the city concerned does not have a hotel infrastructure and international. serve the purpose for which it was originally conceived airport facilities bearing in mind that the bulk of the audience may be travelling. from abroad as well as the organisational ability and experience to stage such an. Adapting a basic stadium event, Where funding is limited it may be possible to build a very basic stadium which could. serve an interim purpose However care should be taken to ensure that the structure There are of course no known formulas for determining a stadium s optimum capacity. is capable of future conversion and improvement in a cost effective manner to render It is very much a choice for those in charge of its development. it more acceptable to an increasingly demanding market. Market knowledge, Where a basic stadium is planned the following questions should be asked Attracting VIPs or customers who are willing to pay much more than the average For more information on. will standing terraces which are not recommended and which are not allowed at ticket price is essential to the financial success of a modern stadium What these premium seating products. FIFA World Cup matches be capable of future conversion to seated areas without customers want varies significantly from country to country and even from city to see Chapter 7. destroying good sight lines and without requiring major reconstruction work city so significant local research should be conducted as early as possible into the. can new seating tribunes and premium seating products such as private suites all appropriate type of seating products and VIP services that are best for each facility. with good sight lines access and adjacent customer services be added in future. is it possible to add large video screens later Maintenance. in an unroofed stadium will the exterior walls and adjacent areas be capable of When designing a stadium care should be taken to ensure that its future maintenance. having a roof fitted at a later date cleaning operation and management can be carried out effectively in as simple. will a stadium whose roof covers only the spectator areas be capable of having a straightforward and cost effective a manner as possible. retractable roof installed which can cover the whole arena. can other technical improvements be made later including the introduction of air Pace of change. conditioning in enclosed areas The pace of technological development and the rapidly increasing insistence of. spectators that they are provided with more comfortable and luxurious facilities could. Capacity lead to the average life span of a modern stadium falling to 30 years or even less. What should the capacity be Should the stadium be built to accommodate only the For major international. domestic needs of the club s who will use it Or should it attempt to attract matches matches a stadium should In the future spectators may no longer be prepared to pay to sit outdoors in sub zero. at a higher level It is not unusual for clubs to find that the provision of a bright new seat at least 30 000 people temperatures or swelter unprotected in the glare of the sun This accelerating. clean and comfortable stadium brings with it a dramatic increase in attendance levels obsolescence presents a significant challenge to the developers of stadiums Therefore. In such circumstances a club which normally attracts an attendance of around 20 000 before stadium owners and designers invest millions in a new stadium they should. and is thinking of building a new stadium with a capacity of 30 000 might find it question whether or not the facility which they are proposing can seriously expect to. preferable to think in terms of nearer 40 000 satisfy spectators demands in the future Simply to repeat what has been built in the. past even in the recent past could turn out to be a bad investment. The capacity of each stadium will depend on whatever is required locally but if. developers hope that the stadium will be used occasionally for major international. football events minimum capacities of 30 000 will need to be provided To stage. Stadium Book QXP E Kapitel 01 15 05 2007 10 48 Uhr Seite 28. 1 1 Strategic pre construction decisions 26,28 Pre construction 1 2 Stadium location 28 29. decisions 1 3 Playing field orientation 31,F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S. F O O T B A L L S TA D I U M S,1 4 Green Goal 32, 1 5 Environmental compatibility of stadium site 34. 1 k 1 6 Community relations,1 7 Multi purpose stadiums. 1 2 p Stadium location Diagram 1a,Location of the stadium. A stadium should be situated in a location which is sufficiently large to provide spacious. and safe external public circulation activity areas and marshalling space for service Stadium. vehicles and functions While it is normal for the arrival of spectators at the stadium Area around the stadium. to be spread over a sufficiently lengthy period to prevent undue congestion near the. turnstiles the majority of spectators will seek to leave the stadium at the same time. resulting in significant space requirements Parking area. The availability of sufficient external space will also allow for future extension or Railway Underground station. redevelopment Many famous stadiums around the world are in heavily developed. Emergency exit, locations with roads buildings and canals immediately adjacent on all sides Their. renovation and redevelopment possibilities are restricted by their limited site size and Hospital. this is not a desirable situation Airport, Large sites reduce the probability that the site may have to be abandoned in the long A large site improves a. term or even in the short term because of its inability to accommodate some new stadium s chances of. unforeseen development requirement Larger sites also increase the possibility of being further developed in. the future, providing adequate on site parking areas a requirement which will probably remain. for the foreseeable future, As a site becomes more suburban and isolated from public transport it will have to. become larger to accommodate the required additional parking In this situation. convenient and multiple access to major roads and motorways is essential. In an ideal world the ultimate location would probably be a large city centre site with. good access to public transport major roads and motorways and parking that can be. used by others when games are not being played This reduces the possibility that large. parking areas will be used for as little as 100 to 200 hours per year A stadium with. ambitions to host international events is more attractive to event holders if it is within. comfortable reach of hotels and active commercial environments and at least one.
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