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U S OE PARTMENT,EOUCATION WELFARE,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF. THIS DOCUMENT PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS, OUCED EXACTLY AS HAS BEEN REPRO COPYRIGHTED MATERIAL SY MICRO. RECEIVED FROM FICHE 0 Y AS EEN G A TED BY,THE PERSON OR. ATING IT POINTSORGANIZATION ORIGIN 1,OF VIEW OR OPINIONS. STATED DO NOT,SENT OFFICIAL NECESSARILY REPRE,NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF.
it NNW 4Pir,TO ERIC AN 0 GANIZAIIONS OPERAT, EOUCATION POSITION OR POLICY ING UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH THE NA. TIONAL INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION,FUPTHER REPRODUCTION OUTSIDE. THE ERIC SYSTEM REQUIRES PERMIS,SION OF THE COPYRIGHT OWNER. REVISED EDITION,REVISED 1976 EDITION,PAUL HUNSICKER. GUY G REIFF,UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, AMERICAN ALLIANCE FOR HEALTH PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION.
1201 Sixteenth Street N W Washington D C 20036,publications. Copyright 1958 1961 1973,REVISED EDITIONS,Copyright 1965 1975 1976. AMERICAN ALLIANCE FOR HEALTH,PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND RECREATION. For order information and price list,on all fitness materials write. AAHPER Publications Sales,1201 16th St N W,Washington D C 20036.
Foreword George F Anderson 7,THE TEST AND THE NATIONAL NORMS 9. ADMINISTERING THE TEST 28,flexed arm hang 30,3 shuttle run. 4 standing long jump 33,5 50 yard dash 34,6 600 yard run 35. RECORDING TEST SCORES 36,COMPARING RESULTS 37, Tables 1 6B Percentile Scores for Girls Based on Age 38. Tables 7 12B Percentile Scores for Boys Based on Age 46. Tables 13 17 Percentile Scores for Boys and Girls Based on Age 54. TESTING 59,RECORDING FORMS,Persona Fitness Record 61.
Cumulative Fitness Record 65,Class Composite Record 69. Participating Schools and Personnel in 1974 75 Test 73. The American Alliance for Health Physical Education and Recreation has. always been concerned with ways to improve the physical fitness of American. boys and girls One of its most effective recent contributions has been the steady. emphasis and stimulation exerted through the Youth Fitness Test Project. initiated in 1957 The AAHPER Youth Fitness Test is the first ever to be. developed by the physical education profession for which national norms were. determined, The establishment of national norms in 1957 for the seven item test battery. clearly indicated that the young people of this country were not as physically fit. or vigorous as they should be In 1965 the national norms were updated with. another national study under a grant from the United States Office of. Education and while the results showed improvement the level of physical. performance was not encouragingly high The nation norms that appear in this. publication were updated in 1975 under a grant from USOE with modifications. in the test battery The softball throw was eliminated and the one minute flexed. leg sit up replaced the straight leg sit up Optional distance runs that may be. substituted for the 600 yard run are included in this revised manual as an. increasing number of schools are including endurance running or jogging in their. physical eductation programs The norms for the distance runs are adapted from. the Texas Physical Fitness Motor Ability Test, The results of the 1975 national survey showed that in comparison of average. scores for girls with the 1965 data significant improvements were made in the. flexed arm hang standing long jump and 600 yard run for given age levels For. the boys the 1975 scores on all tests and for all age levels showed no significant. improvement over the 1965 scores Girls at age 10 on the 600 yard run and boys. age 14 on the standing long jump showed a decrease in performance in the 1975. The new national norms are cause for concern by all who are associated with. the physical education profession There has been no significant overall. improvement in the fitness of our youth in the last 10 years It is essential that. physical educators throughout the country dedicate themselves to reemphasis of. the physical fitness component as an integral and significant part of their. physical education programs The opportunity for all boys and girls to. participate in vigorous physical activities will motivate them to improve their. level of physical performance Physical educators as well as recreation and. community leaders are urged to utilize fully the 1976 revision 9f the AAHPER. Youth Fitness Test Manual to determine the performance levels of those who. participate in their programs and where appropriate to work toward higher. levels of achievement, On behalf of the Alliance I express our grateful appreciation to the late Paul. Hunsicker to whom this volume is dedicated and to Guy G Reiff both of the. University of Michigan for their devoted efforts in again conducting the 1975. national survey and updating the norms I also wish to acknowledge the. assistance of Andrew S Jackson University of Houston for the inclusion of the. optional runs listed in the test battery Thanks also to Charles T Avedisian for. his assistance in gaining entry into various school systems To all those school. administrators faculty members and boys and girls who assisted and participated. in the survey to make this revision possible I extend our sincere thanks. George F Anderson,NATIONAL NORMS, The revised AAHPER Youth Fitness Test is a battery of six test items designed.
give a measure of physical fitness for both boys and girls in grades to. tests were selected to evaluate specific aspects of physical status which taken. together give an over all picture of the young person s general fitness It is the. only fitness test for which national norms have been determined. The test battery, The tests can be given in the gymnasium or outdoors They are pull up with. flexed arm hang for girls for judging arm and shoulder girdle strength flexed. leg sit upfor judging efficiency of abdominal and hip flexor muscles. runfor judging speed and change of direction standing long jumpfor. explosive muscle power of leg extensors 50 yard dashfor judging speed. 600 yard run with optional runs of 1 mile or 9 minutes for. ages 10 12 or l h, miles or 12 minutes for age 13 and older for judging endurance. The original test battery of seven tests was developed in 1957 by. committee of the AAHPER Research Council Its work was the direct result. national conference called in 1956 by President Dwight D Eisenhower to con. sider the fitness of American youth President Eisenhower was alerted to the. poor physical record of our young people through the research studies of Hans. Kraus and associates as published in the Journal of Health Physical. Recreation and in the Research Quarterly Following the President s. AAHPER held a conference to determine specific steps which the physical. cation professir might take to improve the level of physical fitness among. American youth One important result of this national meeting was to set in. motion the AAHPER Youth Fitness Project an attempt both to aeasure and to. improve the fitness of our country s boys and girls. The special Research Council committee was fully aware of the. confronting a group charged with the responsibility of studying the fitness of the. nation s youth There was however a strong feeling that some concrete action. should be taken Accordingly with the thought that any project proposed. be looked upon as a pilot study the committee agreed on plans for. a survey of,youth fitness in the United States, Seven test items were chosen by this group of experts and recently three. modifications were made in this original test battery The sit up was changed to. a flexed leg sit up which is a more accurate measure of the abdominal muscle. The softball throw was eliminated on the ground that it involves skill to a large. extent while the prime purpose of the battery of tests is to determine fitness. The 600 yard run was modified to include two optional runsthe. 9 minute run for ages 10 12 or the Ph mile or 12 minute ran for children. or older The optionals originate with the Texas Physical Fitness Motor Ability. Test Andrew S Jackson University of Houston consulted with AAHPER on. inclusion of the optiorial runs These optional runs may be substituted in pro. grams where extensive running has been a continuing part of the physical educa. tion program, The following criteria were considered by the committee in selecting the. seven now six items for the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test tests which were. reasonably familiar required little or no equipment could be administered to. boys and girls except for pull up could be given to the entire age range of. grades 5 12 measured different components of fitness and would allow. self testing by the student, As an extension of the last criterion it should be pointed out that the test.
battery does measure elements of strength ability and endurance as well as. proficiency in running and jumping Each particular test item was viewed as an. indicator of a strength or weakness with little interest in the test per se As an. example the interest in pull ups was not in the event itself but in the fact that. this is an indicator of arm and shoulder strength, It should be emphasized that the correlations among the six test items are. low If they were high there would be no point in giving six testsone or two. would suffice,First national fitness survey, AAHPER s most significant decision was to carry out the work necessary to. develop national norms for the fitness test Dr Paul A Hunsicker University of. Michigan was named director of the project with responsibility for coordinating. the task of testing a nationwide sample of American youth The Survey Research. Center of the University of Michigan was delegated the task of seIecting a repre. sentative sampling Since it was decided that all boys and girls grades 5 through. 12 would be eligible participants the sampling was based on homeroom units so. that both those taking physical education and those not enrolled in physical. education would be included The Center drew the sample schools made the. initial contact requesting the school s cooperation and decided which students. in cooperating schools would be subjects, Directions for administering the test were prepared and professional people. in various sections of the country assumed responsibility for supervising test. administration in their areas The project director met the people involved in the. testing to distribute directions and demonstrate the tests Although the precise. time of testing and other arrangements were left to the discretion of the local. people these meetings assured that the norms for the Test would be the first. determined on a national sample with standard administration. Percentile score tables were determined for each of the six tests based on age. alone as well as on the Neilson Cozens Classification Index The Classification. Index however is omitted from this manual as research indicates that age is a. more valid criterion The scores included test results for 8 500 boys and girls in. grades 5 through 12, The data for the first national survey were thus collected and analyzed during. the school year of 1957 58 The test and the national norms were published by. AAHPER in September 1958 It is estimated that the test has been administered. to millions by physical education teachers and youth agencies It has also been. used in many foreign countries,Incentive for improvement.
The results of the 1957 58 survey however confirmed what many had sus. pectedAmerican ooys and girls did not demonstrate outstanding performance. on the measures of fitness The national norms were not at a very high level. Comparisons between scores of youngsters in other countries and those of. American children showed that our boys and girls were not as physically fit as. those of some other lands in the qualities measured Although our nutrition and. health standards may be higher our young people do not have the shoulder and. upper arm strength or the endurance revealed by young people of many other. The dismaying test results thus became an incentive to improve physical. education programs around the country When the fitness status of school pupils. was ascertained through the test and then compared with the national norms. physical education teachers knew where they must concentrate to raise fitness. levels The test itself became a technique for improving physical fitness as well as. a stimulation for broadening and enriching the opportunities for physical acti. vity in the public schools, Programs of health education physical education and recreation around the. country were strengthened More emphasis was placed on sports for fitness on. gymnastics for both boys and girls on motivation for fitness Two conferences. were sponsored by the AAHPER to aid in the efforts to improve physical edu. cation offerings for secondary school pupils and for elementary school pupils. The President s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports was set up by Presi. dent Eisenhower in 1956 to give federal encouragement to programs aimed at. increasing overall fitness of American youth It like the AAHPER Youth Fitness. Test program was an outgrowth of the first President s Conference on Fitness of. American Youth The Council s work was expanded under President John F. Kennedy and continued under President Lyndon B Johnson Various programs. were enlarged and extended under Presidents Richard M Nixon and Gerald R. The Council as a part of its motivational program officially adopted and. endorsed the use of the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test and recommended fitness. testing as the first step toward improvement of physical fitness. Plan for motivation, As an incentive for a continual program of fitness testing AAHPER prepared. motivational materials for those participating in the testing procedure Schools. or any organized group which administers the test may receive a certificate of. participation from AAHPER headquarters Boys and girls taking part in the. testing may receive awards and emblems indicating their performance level on. the AAHPER Youth Fitness Test, There is an achievement award certificate for boys and girls who attain the. 50th percentile on all items in the test An embossed gold merit seal is available. for this certificate of achievement for those boys and girls who attain the 80th. percentile on all test items A progress award is available for the physically. limited boys and girls who in their instructor s estimation show improved per. formance on the test items, Originally called the President s Council on Youth Fitness. There are also other awards to provide boys and girls with a keen incentive to. improve their fitness standards Separate sew on embroidered emblems are. available for three levels elementary junior and senior. The Presidential Physical Fitness Award established by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1966 honors students who demonstrate exceptional physical. achievement Boys and girls who score at or above the 85th percentile on all six. items of the Youth Fitness Test are eligible They must be students in good. standing recommended by their school principals, Information about these awards and other materials on fitness may be.
obtained by writing to AAHPER headquarters See pages 87 91. New national norms, A second survey supported by the United States Office of Education was. completed and the results published in 1965 Ten years later 1975 a third. survey was conducted with funds from the Office of Education. The test items administered during the second survey were identical to those. given in 1957 58 with one exception The flexed arm hang was substituted for. the modified pull up for girls because of the greater reliability in test administra. In the third survey the softball throw was dropped from the test battery and. the one minute flexed leg sit up was submitted for the extended leg sit up The. new test minimizes the action of the hip flexors and the time criterion rather. than a maximum number which yields a statistical distribution that is less. Comparison of norms, The 1975 norms for girls indicated a significant improvement in average. scores in comparison with the 1965 data in the following tests 13 year olds. long jump and 600 yard run 14 year oldsflexed arm hang long jump and. 600 yard run 15 year olds 600 yard run 17 year olds 600 yard run The. 600 yard run average time for 10 year old girls was not as fast as the 1965. average All other comparisons did not yield a statistically significant difference. The comparison of the boys scores for 1975 did not yield a statistically. significant improvement at any age level on any test In one instance the long. jump for 14 year olds there was actually a decrease in performance. No statistical comparisons between the 1958 data and the 1975 test results. were made since the 1965 data were in almost all instances better than the 1958. scores It seemed more appropriate to limit the observations to comparing the. test results for 1965 with 1975 data, Charts comparing the three sets of averages for the different age groups are. shown Additional figures illustrating average scores for boys and girls in 1975. follow the other comparisons,12 13 14 15 16 z17,MEAN SCORES. SHUTTLE RUN,S 10 II 12 13 4 15 16 al7,MEAN SCORES,SHUTTLE 43UN.
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