Edgardo Medeiros Da Silva School Of Social And Political-Books Pdf

Edgardo Medeiros da Silva School of Social and Political
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Edgardo Medeiros da Silva, cole des sciences sociales et politiques Universit de Lisbonne. Centre de l Universit de Lisbonne pour les tudes anglophones. Th me et objet dans L ancien r gime au Canada de Francis Parkman. Il n y a de panac es politiques que dans l imagination des charlatans politiques Ce. sont les mots employ s par l historien am ricain Francis Parkman 1823 1893 pour. sugg rer que les colonies anglaises et fran aises sur le continent nord am ricain taient. tr s diff rentes de leurs d buts et le resteraient probablement dans les ann es venir. Cet article analyse l chec de la France tablir la base d une communaut politique. bien r glement e en Am rique du Nord dans le contexte de la rivalit anglo fran aise. pour le contr le de ce continent tel que v hicul par Francis Parkman dans la quatri me. partie de son Histoire de la France et de l Angleterre en Am rique du Nord 1874. intitul e L ancien r gime au Canada Bien que fond sur des faits son r cit historique. sur la Nouvelle France met en vidence les pr jug s politiques et culturels profonds. contre les Fran ais en jetant aussi une certaine lumi re sur les d buts coloniaux de la. Nouvelle Angleterre Parkman nous offre une histoire romanesque dans le style et vaste. en mati re de th me et d objet, Historiographie am ricaine anglo saxonisme Nouvelle Angleterre Nouvelle France. Histoire romantique, Theme and Subject Matter in Francis Parkman s The Old R gime in Canada. Introduction, This paper examines the failure of France to establish the basis of a well regulated. political community in North America as conveyed by the American historian Francis. Parkman in Part Four of his History of France and England in North America entitled. The Old R gime in Canada 1874 Parkman s choice of theme and subject matter for. his History points to differences between the English and French settlements which. portray as has been suggested the struggle between France and England as a heroic. contest between rival civilizations with wilderness as a modifying force Jacobs 582. This struggle and these differences reflect a deep seated cultural and political bias. against colonial France on the part of New England historians that stretch as far back as. Joseph Dennie s Portfolio and Edmund Burke s Reflections on the Revolution in France. 1790 It is my contention that Part Four of Parkman s History informed by the. Teutonic germ commonly associated with the historiography of New England s. nineteenth century Romantic or literary historians provides us with an account of the. colonization of New France which sheds some light on the colonial beginnings of New. England as well Not infrequently in fact Parkman s historical narrative on New. France is juxtaposed on that of New England one providing a sort of backdrop for the. cultural and political make up of the other, The son of a Unitarian minister Francis Parkman 1823 1893 was born in.
Boston Massachusetts A graduate of Harvard he completed the requirements for a law. degree in 1845 but never practiced it In 1846 he went on an expedition to the West. along the Oregon Trail as far as Fort Laramie Wyoming which was to be hugely. important for him in terms of his writing It allowed him an insight into the seventeenth. century Iroquois which he was able to use in the construction of his narrative Oregon. Trail Sketches of Prairie and Rocky Mountain Life 1849 and History of the. Conspiracy of Pontiac 1851 In History of France and England in North America until. 1763 7 vols 1865 1892 regarded as Parkman s major historical work he details the. colonization and administration of New France by the French from the late fifteenth to. mid eighteenth century Part Four the focus of my paper is structured around three. major sections The Feudal Chiefs of Arcadia Canada A Mission and The Colony. and the King respectively each one subdivided into a total of twenty four chapters. These numbered chapters correspond to a particular period of time and a general title. followed in turn by the standard subheadings found in works of this nature detailing. each of the major topics discussed in the chapter in question 1 The timeframe covered. by Parkman s The Old R gime stretches from 1497 with the arrival of the first French. explorers in Acadia to 1763 the year the English formally took over the control of the. territory a period of precisely two hundred and sixty six years. Over the past thirty years criticism on Francis Parkman has been varied and. wide ranging most it dating to the 1980s Wilbur R Jacobs who taught at the. University of California at Santa Barbara and David Levin who taught at the. University of Virginia until his retirement in 1992 are central figures in the body of. critical works devoted to Parkman Jacobs who published regularly on Parkman until. his death in 1998 edited Parkman s correspondence The Letters of Francis Parkman 2. vols 1960 and developed a body of critical work on this historian that includes a. significant number of essays and monographs on such matters as the literary devices. used by Parkman and the latter s interest in the natural world In 1991 he brought out. Francis Parkman Historian as Hero The Formative Years where he argues that. Parkman projected himself on the historical figures he describes in his texts Levin s. seminal work History as Romantic Art Bancroft Prescott Motley and Parkman. 1959 reprinted in 1995 is still a highly useful monograph on the overall themes which. gentleman historians such as Parkman dealt with in their narratives Howard. Doughty s Francis Parkman 1962 reprinted 1983 is a somewhat eulogistic biography. of Parkman written by a non historian but it remains a comprehensive study of. Parkman s writings and ideas covering the whole of his literary production from his. historical works to his essays and articles for periodical publications such as the North. American Review and Boston s Advertiser A thorough analysis of the themes and. methods used by the Romantic historians and particularly insightful on account of the. stylistic contrasts it draws between them can be found in Richard Vitzhum s The. American Compromise 1974 The publication of Parkman s complete works in the. Library of America Series France and England in North America 2 vols 1983. edited by David Levin and The Oregon Trail and The Conspiracy of Pontiac 1991. edited by William R Taylor have been highly instrumental in keeping Parkman alive. among scholars and the general reading public to this day. Romantic History, The name of Francis Parkman is usually grouped together with a set of American. historians often labeled as Romantic historians literary historians or gentlemen. amateur historians among which we find William Hickling Prescott 2 George Bancroft3. and William Lothrop Motley 4 Active throughout most of the nineteenth century they. are labeled as such for obvious reasons but above all so as not to be confused with the. late nineteenth century professional or scientific historians individuals such as. Herbert Baxter Adams 1850 1901 5 Frederick Jackson Turner 1861 1932 6 and J. Franklin Jameson 1859 1937 7 associated with the newer universities of Johns. Hopkins Clark and Chicago The worldview we find in the historical narratives of the. Romantic or literary historians is one informed by their social and economic. backgrounds they were men of means who could afford to acquire original. manuscripts hire research assistants and copyists to do the more laborious part of their. work and travel to capital cities in order to gain access to official documents in. governmental archives They could write history independently without having to rely. on it for their own and their families sustenance, The strength of New England s intellectual tradition stemming from its Puritan. roots can be seen in the historical narratives of these gentleman amateur historians. whether in Prescott s histories surrounding the unification of the kingdom of Spain by. Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile in Bancroft s depiction of the political. origins of the United States in Motley s description of the beginnings of the Dutch. Republic or in Parkman s characterization of the French occupation of Canada more. precisely the territory which is now Quebec Brought up under the strictures of. Protestantism in its Congregationalist or Unitarian form the gentlemen amateur. historians belonged to the educated elites of New England They attended Harvard. College with their minds set on a legal or religious career their historical narratives. fact based it is common to differentiate among different genres of historical narratives. fictional fact based hybrid reflecting the values and interests of the dominant. classes in the country at the time with respect to what constituted good art literature or. history Ideologically conservative they were raised on a stable set of republican. principles and ideals which can be traced back to the political origins of the country. They were initially supporters of the Federalist Party then of its successor the Whig. Party and finally in post Civil America of Lincoln s Republicans the exception being. George Bancroft who always showed a preference for the Jacksonian democrats it was. a commonly held view that each page of his History voted for the Democratic Party. For them the writing of history was an art to be put side by side with literature. They felt that the writing of history required creativity and imagination which meant. that they considered themselves to be artists as well as judges of what constituted good. historiographical work Peter Novick observes in his book That Noble Dream The. Objectivity Question and the American Historical Profession 1999 that Romantic. historians wrote because they had some urgent message to communicate to their reading. public preferring to tell rather than to show 45 46 These historians lacked the. objectivity and distance from the subject matter one associates with a scientific. analysis of historical facts which means that not infrequently the neutral voice which. must characterize historical discourse is missing The slow moving action and universal. themes of Romantic historians imply that their histories run for many many pages. resulting in works with a large number of volumes with a sort of novelistic quality to. them Although they were primarily interested in political and constitutional matters we. find in their narratives the kind of love for Nature that we associate with fiction writers. of this period two of their favorite authors being the historical romancers Sir Walter. Scott and James Fennimore Copper Their narratives include therefore elaborate. descriptions of scenery and landscape as well as setting an essential element of their. depictions of the past Just like the historians Gibbon Michelet Tocqueville and. Carlyle they were read for literary pleasure in the words of Richard J Evans 60. In the construction of his narrative on New France Parkman followed the. methodological precepts of nineteenth century German historiography as laid down by. of Leopold von Ranke 1795 1886 8 who had maintained that the primary goal of the. historian was to provide a version of history as it really was or happened wie es. eigentlich gewesen ist having argued for the use of documentary evidence and. philological methods in history in conjunction with a critical attitude towards primary. sources In the Preface to The Old R gime he writes that he employed all the documents. he could lay his hands upon letters dispatches memorials and official records from. government and religious archives on both sides of the Atlantic With a certain degree. of sarcasm he alludes to the massive amount of information available to the historian. interested in the colonial beginnings of New France remarking that t he pen was. always busy in this outpost of the old monarchy x He also details the kind of primary. materials he used to compose his narrative letters despatches and memorials as well. as the records of the Superior Council of Quebec and the documents in the civil and. ecclesiastical archives of Canada x Again there is sarcasm when he writes that this. voluminous documentation exists because t he king and the minister demanded to. know everything x moreover he adds these documents managed survive the perils. of revolution and the incendiary torch of the Commune x the latter comment an. obvious reference to New Englanders dislike for radical forms of political activity such. as Jacobinism In the Preface to Part Four of his History he also states unequivocally. the thesis of his work This volume attempts to show by what methods it the. monarchical administration of France strove to make good its hold why it achieved a. certain kind of success and why it failed at last x And he continues the aim of the. first volume is to examine the political and social machine whereas that of the volume. that follows is to see the machine in action xii His claim to historical objectivity is. also clearly asserted by him at the beginning of his narrative With the help of a system. of classified notes I have collated the evidence of the various writers and set down. without reserve all the results of the examination whether favorable or unfavorable. In line with the precepts of good Romantic historiography Parkman also follows. stylistic convention in his narrative on The Old R gime paying attention to character. scene and incident three of the prerequisites of good fictional writing In his description. Trail Sketches of Prairie and Rocky Mountain Life 1849 and History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac 1851 In History of France and England in North America until 1763 7 vols 1865 1892 regarded as Parkman s major historical work he details the colonization and administration of New France by the French from the late fifteenth to

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