Ecmt Round Tables Vandalism Terrorism And Security In-Books Pdf

ECMT Round Tables Vandalism Terrorism and Security in
01 Dec 2019 | 41 views | 0 downloads | 156 Pages | 1.12 MB

Share Pdf : Ecmt Round Tables Vandalism Terrorism And Security In

Download and Preview : Ecmt Round Tables Vandalism Terrorism And Security In


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Ecmt Round Tables Vandalism Terrorism And Security In



Transcription

ECONOMIC RESEARCH CENTRE, REPORT OF THE, HUNDRED AND TWENTY THIRD ROUND TABLE. ON TRANSPORT ECONOMICS, held in Paris on 11th 12th April 2002. on the following topic, VANDALISM TERRORISM, AND SECURITY. IN URBAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT, EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS OF TRANSPORT. EUROPEAN CONFERENCE OF MINISTERS OF TRANSPORT ECMT. The European Conference of Ministers of Transport ECMT is an inter governmental organisation. established by a Protocol signed in Brussels on 17 October 1953 It is a forum in which Ministers. responsible for transport and more specifically the inland transport sector can co operate on policy. Within this forum Ministers can openly discuss current problems and agree upon joint approaches. aimed at improving the utilisation and at ensuring the rational development of European transport. systems of international importance, At present the ECMT s role primarily consists of.
helping to create an integrated transport system throughout the enlarged Europe that is economically. and technically efficient meets the highest possible safety and environmental standards and. takes full account of the social dimension, helping also to build a bridge between the European Union and the rest of the continent at a. political level, The Council of the Conference comprises the Ministers of Transport of 43 full member countries. Albania Armenia Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Bosnia Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia the Czech. Republic Denmark Estonia Finland France FYR Macedonia Georgia Germany Greece Hungary Iceland. Ireland Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Malta Moldova Netherlands Norway. Poland Portugal Romania the Russian Federation Serbia and Montenegro Slovakia Slovenia Spain. Sweden Switzerland Turkey Ukraine and the United Kingdom There are six Associate member countries. Australia Canada Japan Korea New Zealand and the United States and one Observer country. A Committee of Deputies composed of senior civil servants representing Ministers prepares. proposals for consideration by the Council of Ministers The Committee is assisted by working groups. each of which has a specific mandate, The issues currently being studied on which policy decisions by Ministers will be required. include the development and implementation of a pan European transport policy the integration of. Central and Eastern European Countries into the European transport market specific issues relating to. transport by rail road and waterway combined transport transport and the environment sustainable. urban travel the social costs of transport trends in international transport and infrastructure needs. transport for people with mobility handicaps road safety traffic management road traffic information. and new communications technologies, Statistical analyses of trends in traffic and investment are published regularly by the ECMT and. provide a clear indication of the situation on a trimestrial or annual basis in the transport sector in. different European countries, As part of its research activities the ECMT holds regular Symposia Seminars and Round Tables on.
transport economics issues Their conclusions serve as a basis for formulating proposals for policy. decisions to be submitted to Ministers, The ECMT s Documentation Service has extensive information available concerning the transport. sector This information is accessible on the ECMT Internet site. For administrative purposes the ECMT s Secretariat is attached to the Organisation for Economic. Co operation and Development OECD, Publi en fran ais sous le titre. Vandalisme terrorisme et s ret dans les transports publics urbains de voyageurs. Further information about the ECMT is available on Internet at the following address. www oecd org cem, ECMT 2003 ECMT Publications are distributed by OECD Publications Service. 2 rue Andr Pascal 75775 PARIS CEDEX 16 France, TABLE OF CONTENTS. INTRODUCTORY REPORTS, Report by T FELTES Germany 5.
1 Public safety and public spaces The citizen s fear of strangers 9. 2 Public security vandalism and graffiti Connections and assumptions 16. 3 Security in public transport Results of a survey 19. 4 Potential for crime prevention and proposed measures A public transport system. that meets customers requirements and provides a service 24. 5 Terrorism as a threat in public transport 29, 6 Conclusions 29. Report by A CAIRE France 37, The experience of the RATP. 1 Vandalism and security in public transport The RATP at the heart of the problem 41. 2 An integrated approach to transport environment control by co partnering. security provision 45, 3 Costs and expectations of the RATP 58. Report by S DI SERIO Italy 63, 1 Introduction 67, 2 Vandalism and security in public passenger transport 68. 3 System security approach to public passenger transport 69. 4 The state of the art 71, 5 Available statistics on vandalism and security 77.
6 The current emergency Terrorist attack 81, 7 Rome s experience and its findings 83. 8 Conclusion 87, Report by J STAFFORD United Kingdom 99. 1 Introduction 103, 2 Vandalism and its impact on perceptions of security 104. 3 The scale and impact of the problem 105, 4 Patterns of offending 109. 5 The causes of graffiti and vandalism 110, ECMT 2003 3.
6 Reducing vandalism and graffiti on public transport 112. 7 Features of effective practice 116, OTHER CONTRIBUTIONS. DWYER A United Kingdom Prudent pessimism The management of terrorist. threats against the railways in England Scotland and Wales 125. SUMMARY OF DISCUSSIONS, Round Table debate on reports 135. LIST OF PARTICIPANTS 151, 4 ECMT 2003, Thomas FELTES. Hochsch le f r Polizei, Villingen Schwenningen, ECMT 2003 5. 1 PUBLIC SAFETY AND PUBLIC SPACES THE CITIZEN S FEAR OF STRANGERS 9. 2 PUBLIC SECURITY VANDALISM AND GRAFFITI CONNECTIONS AND. ASSUMPTIONS 16, 2 1 Possible preventive and punitive measures What works What does not work 17.
3 SECURITY IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT RESULTS OF A SURVEY 19. 3 1 The range of problems 20, 3 2 Preventive measures 20. 3 3 Security personnel 22, 3 4 Video surveillance and electronic monitoring 23. 3 5 Expulsions etc 23, 3 6 Other matters 23, 4 POTENTIAL FOR CRIME PREVENTION AND PROPOSED MEASURES. A PUBLIC TRANSPORT SYSTEM THAT MEETS CUSTOMERS REQUIREMENTS. AND PROVIDES A SERVICE 24, 4 1 Berlin 25, 4 2 Bochum 28. 5 TERRORISM AS A THREAT IN PUBLIC TRANSPORT 29, 6 CONCLUSIONS 29.
Villingen Schwenningen December 2001, ECMT 2003 7, 1 PUBLIC SAFETY AND PUBLIC SPACES THE CITIZEN S FEAR OF STRANGERS. Over the past few years increasing importance has been attached to the subject of public security. in public places in the streets and open spaces and particularly at stations bus stops and any other. places where people come into contact with strangers Inspired by developments in New York and the. zero tolerance strategy followed there urban and district authorities have begun to pay particular. attention not only to public security but also to what is referred to as the subjective sense of security. marred by the often groundless but all too common subjective fears and anxieties of citizens. Empirical studies in this field have shown that there is usually no correlation between the crimes. reported in surveys by the victims themselves police records of crime and individuals subjective. sense of security In the case of Germany for example it has been possible to show that there is no. connection between the levels of criminality in a city region or federal state and the fear of crime and. subjective sense of security revealed by surveys The situation is clearly depicted in Picture 1 in. annex based on the results of a survey conducted in Germany in 1996 in which 20 000 citizens were. questioned1, These findings have significant consequences public discussion focuses more closely on the. citizens subjective sense of security hardly considered until now and on the associated problem of. unknown cases that are not reported The essential theoretical and practical considerations related to. the problem are presented below, Public security like individual security is increasingly seen as an important feature of. post modern society both in the private and in the public domains of which local transport is a. part The democratic state has a duty to guarantee the security of its citizens in public spaces and it is. increasingly judged by its success in fulfilling this duty The same is true of local transport important. factors in public transport include not only punctuality value for money and quality but also the. feeling that it is safe to use Security is of considerable importance as a locational factor both for firms. and service companies and increasingly for private individuals. Generally speaking security depends on the intangible infrastructure of all social groups though. mainly that of the sections of society who use local public transport Here the perceived quality of. life need not be identical to the actual quality of life and the subjective sense of well being As early. as the seventies though to a greater extent in the eighties criminological research was able to show. that special as well as routine preventive measures had their limits The problem of criminality could. not be solved either by treatment therapy or by deterrence repression Even conventional wisdom on. police measures had to be abandoned including the idea that it was possible to increase the probability. of detection only to a limited degree and that even where it was increased by a massive police. presence for example the problem was not solved but merely transferred to another place or made to. assume a different form, Even the declining opportunities for crime and the protective measures taken by individuals do. not lead to a real reduction in crime at least not always and not permanently It has thus been. impossible to implement the defensible space scheme or the social engineering scheme involving. control networks Moreover security achieved through an excessive police presence may lead to a far. ECMT 2003 9, stronger feeling of insecurity and a greater perception of lawlessness which counteract the moves to.
instil a greater sense of security, The example of New York has shown the following recorded crime undeniably fell there and. many citizens and visitors reported that they now felt safer in certain areas of the city Bratton the. chief of the New York police had taken the so called zero tolerance strategy from the field of. public transport He and his successor Safir wanted to apply the strategy that had been effectively. implemented there to city streets and open spaces The success of the initiative was nevertheless. highly controversial not least because of the often brutal behaviour of the New York police mainly. towards marginal groups and minorities While the New York model2 and the fall in crime in the USA. may have attracted world wide attention3 New York s Mayor Giuliani and his chief of police were. also the object of severe criticism up until 11 September 2001 Thus as early as 1997 54 per cent of. New Yorkers were of the opinion that the police lied broke laws and falsified evidence in order to. increase the number of convictions By 1998 the number of complaints against the police had risen. by 40 per cent on the 1995 figure and in 1997 the City of New York had to pay around 27 million. dollars in compensation for unlawful police action At the beginning of 1999 two thirds of New. Yorkers believed that the use of violence against minorities was very widespread in the police and the. proportion of the population that supported the policing strategy of Bratton and Giuliani fell from over. 80 per cent to 42 per cent Three quarters of black New Yorkers and at least a third of the whites rated. their police as unsatisfactory and more than half of the population as a whole believed that most. police officers used more force than was necessary when on duty4. Moreover comparable falls in crime levels have been noted throughout the USA and in states. that have not adopted the New York model In Boston where the police have followed a quite. different course from that of their New York counterparts co operating closely with citizens and. community institutions the decline has been even sharper Homicides there have fallen by 77 per cent. over the same period5 despite the fact that the Boston police force has not taken on more officers or. adopted the New York line Indeed relations between the police and the ethnic groups in Boston have. visibly improved with for example black councillors meeting regularly with the police to discuss. appropriate strategies The ten point coalition may have been the real key to success together with. a clear separation between the police leadership and the police authority and rigorous prosecution of. police misconduct Other models such as that of Chicago6 have also shown that co operation with. citizens is the decisive factor and that there are lessons here for local public transport. The American experience and various European projects show that a communal security plan. like a communal transport plan needs to be tailored to the situation Such a plan calls first of all for a. precise and comprehensive assessment taking stock of the problems and difficulties as well as the. opportunities in a given municipality or a given area Just as the fit of a made to measure suit depends. vandalism terrorism and security in urban public passenger transport round t able 123 1953 2003 cemt ecmt v andalism terrorism and security in urban public passenger transport round table european conference of ministers of transport economic research centre report of the hundred and twenty third round table on transport economics held in paris on 11th 12th april 2002 on the following

Related Books

Fuji Scalable Placement Platform Tekmart

Fuji Scalable Placement Platform Tekmart

CNT NXT 12 0E Fuji Scalable Placement Platform NXT Machine Specifications Points of Caution The official model name of this machine is NXT This name should always be used on the associated documentation when shipping a unit or units of this model to a third country Since this equipment contains strategic materials that are covered by international treaty it is necessary to obtain

ProLINE RoadRunner Owner s ProLINE RoadRunner Service Manual

ProLINE RoadRunner Owner s ProLINE RoadRunner Service Manual

ProLINE RoadRunner Service Manual for Fuji MFU and Fuji NXT MFU supports SMT Placement machines QP242 IP3 QP351 and XP142E NXT supports SMT Placement machines NXT and AIM PN 096 0247 002 Service For installation operation maintenance and troubleshooting see the ProLINE RoadRunner Owner s Manual Data I O has made a conscientious effort to ensure that the information in this document

NXT User Guide G n ration Robots

NXT User Guide G n ration Robots

NXT brick display without a computer go to the NXT Building Guide Introduction 5 Attaching the sensors Sensors can be plugged into any input port numbered 1 4 Any wires except the converter wire can be used to connect the sensors The default settings used for the test programs on the NXT and for many sample programs in the Robot Educator are as follows Port 1 Touch Sensor Port 2 Sound

FUJI PICK AND PLACE AdoptSMT

FUJI PICK AND PLACE AdoptSMT

FUJI PICK AND PLACE CATALOG MAY 2019 NOZZLES amp CONSUMABLES FEEDERS SPARES AND SERVICE EQUIPMENT SPARES www AdoptSMT com Catalog FUJI Pick and Place E 05 2019 NOZZLES NOZZLES FOR FUJI NXT PAGES 4 7 Nozzles for Heads H01 H04 H04S H08 H12 H08M and H24 NOZZLES FOR NXT OF HEAD PAGE 8 NOZZLES FOR NXT DX PAGE 9 DYNAHEAD S1 R4 NOZZLES FOR FUJI CP PAGE 10 Premium Nozzles for CP4 and CP6

Manual Update Notice islandsmt com

Manual Update Notice islandsmt com

Fuji Flexa and the NXT NXT Programming Manual 3 2 Fuji Flexa and the NXT 2 1 Introduction The NXT represents a new concept in the SMT fi eld and is very different from previous Fuji machines Due to these differences there some different procedures when programming for the NXT in Fuji Flexa A brief listing of the major differences is included below The line configuration for NXT

Fuji Scalable Placement Platform NXT IslandSMT

Fuji Scalable Placement Platform NXT IslandSMT

NXT Setup Manual 1 1 Safety Guideline Fuji machines are designed and produced with safety as one of our main considerations However even a perfectly designed machine can be damaged or someone can still be injured if the user does not follo w the safety rules It is the responsibility of th e user to make sure all safety rules are followed during operation and maintenance Be sure to read

Second Step Middle School Remote Learning Advisory Guide

Second Step Middle School Remote Learning Advisory Guide

Brainstorm The Power and Purpose of the Teenage Brain Every child deserves a champion an adult who will never give up on them who understands the power of connection and insists that they become the best that they can possibly be Rita F Peirson EdD Every Kid Needs a Champion TED Talk

BRAINSTORMING

BRAINSTORMING

brainstorm sessions in the sense that they were using the brain to storm a problem The term brainstorming has now become the accepted way of referring to group attempts to solve specific problems or develop new ideas by amassing spontaneous unrestrained contributions by members Osborn 1979 credited the origin of the process to Hindu teachers in India who have used the method of

Lisa Firestone Ph D

Lisa Firestone Ph D

From Brainstorm The Power and Purpose of the Teenage Brain Are you A parent of an adolescent A professional who works with adolescents An adolescent 12 24 years old Other THE BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF ADOLESCENCE From Brainstorm The Power and Purpose of the Teenage Brain 1 Novelty seeking 2 Social engagement 3 Increased emotional intensity 4 Creative exploration ESSENCE OF

Brainstorm The Power and Purpose of the Teenage Brain

Brainstorm The Power and Purpose of the Teenage Brain

Brainstorm The Power and Purpose of the Teenage Brain May be to begin tell us how did your interest in adolescence come about that led you writing the book Dr Dan Siegel Well it came about both by my personal experience having adolescents at home and also by being a therapist who works with adolescents I am a child and adolescent psychiatrist I was really interested in combining those

CSEC Physics Revision Guide Answers

CSEC Physics Revision Guide Answers

Collins Concise Revision Course CSEC Physics Answers to revision questions 1 Scientific method 1 a The calculator gives 4653 376 The least number of significant figures of any of the items is TWO The answer is best represented to TWO significant figures i e 4700 b The calculator gives 21 32 The least precise item is represented to one