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ECE TRANS 180 Add 15, Global technical regulation on Worldwide harmonized Light. vehicles Test Procedure, I Statement of technical rationale and justification 5. A Introduction 5, B Procedural background and future development of the WLTP 6. C Background on driving cycles and test procedures 7. D Technical feasibility anticipated costs and benefits 8. II Text of the global technical regulation 10,1 Purpose 10. 2 Scope and application 10,3 Definitions 10,4 Abbreviations 16.
5 General requirements 18,6 Performance requirements 20. 1 Worldwide light duty test cycles WLTC 22, 2 Gear selection and shift point determination for vehicles equipped with manual transmissions 72. 3 Reference fuels 76,4 Road load and dynamometer setting 91. Appendix 1 Calculation of road load for the dynamometer test 117. Appendix 2 Adjustment of chassis dynamometer load setting 119. 5 Test equipment and calibrations 121,6 Type 1 test procedure and test conditions 165. Appendix 1 Emissions test procedure for all vehicles equipped with periodically. regenerating systems 180, Appendix 2 Test procedure for electric power supply system monitoring 185.
7 Calculations 190,8 Pure and hybrid electric vehicles 205. Appendix 1a RCB profile OVC HEV charge depleting and charge sustaining tests 223. Appendix 1b RCB profile OVC HEV and NOVC HEV charge sustaining test 224. Appendix 1c RCB profile PEV electric range and electric energy consumption test 225. Appendix 2 REESS charge balance RCB correction 226. ECE TRANS 180 Add 15, Appendix 3 Measuring the electricity balance of NOVC HEV and OVC HEV batteries 229. Appendix 4 Preconditioning of PEVs and OVC HEVs 230. Appendix 5 Utility factor UF for OVC HEVs 232, Appendix 6 RESERVED Determining the range of PEVs on a per phase basis 233. 9 RESERVED Determination of system equivalence 234. ECE TRANS 180 Add 15, I Statement of technical rationale and justification. A Introduction, 1 The compliance with emission standards is a central issue of vehicle certification.
worldwide Emissions comprise criteria pollutants having a direct mainly local negative. impact on health and environment as well as pollutants having a negative environmental. impact on a global scale Regulatory emission standards typically are complex documents. describing measurement procedures under a variety of well defined conditions setting limit. values for emissions but also defining other elements such as the durability and on board. monitoring of emission control devices, 2 Most manufacturers produce vehicles for a global clientele or at least for several. regions Albeit vehicles are not identical worldwide since vehicle types and models tend to. cater to local tastes and living conditions the compliance with different emission standards. in each region creates high burdens from an administrative and vehicle design point of. view Vehicle manufacturers therefore have a strong interest in harmonizing vehicle. emission test procedures and performance requirements as much as possible on a global. scale Regulators also have an interest in global harmonization since it offers more efficient. development and adaptation to technical progress potential collaboration at market. surveillance and facilitates the exchange of information between authorities. 3 As a consequence stakeholders launched the work for this global technical. regulation gtr on Worldwide harmonized Light vehicle Test Procedures WLTP that aims. at harmonizing emission related test procedures for light duty vehicles to the extent this is. possible Vehicle test procedures need to represent real driving conditions as much as. possible to make the performance of vehicles at certification and in real life comparable. Unfortunately this aspect puts some limitations on the level of harmonization to be. achieved since for instance ambient temperatures vary widely on a global scale In. addition due to the different levels of development different population densities and the. costs associated with emission control technology the regulatory stringency of legislation. is expected to be different from region to region for the foreseeable future The setting of. emission limit values therefore is not part of this gtr for the time being. 4 The purpose of a gtr is its implementation into regional legislation by as many. Contracting Parties as possible However the scope of regional legislations in terms of. vehicle categories concerned depends on regional conditions and cannot be predicted for the. time being On the other hand according to the rules of the 1998 UNECE agreement. Contracting Parties implementing a gtr must include all equipment falling into the formal gtr. scope Care must be taken so that an unduly large formal scope of the gtr does not prevent its. regional implementation Therefore the formal scope of this gtr is kept to the core of light. duty vehicles However this limitation of the formal gtr scope does not indicate that it could. not be applied to a larger group of vehicle categories by regional legislation In fact. Contracting Parties are encouraged to extend the scope of regional implementations of this gtr. if this is technically economically and administratively appropriate. 5 This first version of the WLTP gtr in particular does not contain any specific test. requirements for dual fuel vehicles and hybrid vehicles not based on a combination of an. internal combustion engine and an electric machine For example specific requirements for. hybrids using fuel cells or compressed gases as energy storage are not covered Thus these. vehicles are not included in the scope of the WLTP gtr Contracting Parties may however apply. the WLTP gtr provisions to such vehicles to the extent possible and complement them by. additional provisions e g emission testing with different fuel grades and types in regional. legislation,ECE TRANS 180 Add 15, B Procedural background and future development of the WLTP. 6 In its November 2007 session WP 29 decided to set up an informal WLTP group. under GRPE to prepare a road map for the development of the WLTP After various. meetings and intense discussions WLTP presented in June 2009 a first road map consisting. of 3 phases which was subsequently revised a number of times and contains the following. main tasks, a Phase 1 2009 2014 Development of the worldwide harmonized light duty. driving cycle and associated test procedure for the common measurement of. criteria compounds CO2 fuel and energy consumption. b Phase 2 2014 2018 Low temperature high altitude test procedure. durability in service conformity technical requirements for on board. diagnostics OBD mobile air conditioning MAC system energy efficiency. off cycle real driving emissions, c Phase 3 2018 Emission limit values and OBD threshold limits. definition of reference fuels comparison with regional requirements. 7 It should be noted that since the beginning of the WLTP process the European. Union had a strong political objective set by its own legislation Regulations EC. 443 2009 and 510 2011 to implement a new and more realistic test cycle by 2014 which. was a major political driving factor for setting the time frame of phase 1. 8 For the work of phase 1 the following working groups and subgroups were. established, a Development of Harmonised Cycle DHC construction of a new Worldwide.
Light duty Test Cycle WLTC i e the driving curve of the WLTP based on. the statistical analysis of real driving data, The DHC group started working in September 2009 launched the collection. of driving data in 2010 and proposed a first version of the driving cycle by. mid 2011 which was revised a number of times to take into consideration. technical issues such as driveability and better representativeness of driving. conditions after a first validation, b Development of Test Procedures DTP development of test procedures with. the following specific expert groups, i PM PN Particle mass PM and particle number PN measurements. ii AP Additional Pollutant measurements i e measurement. procedures for exhaust substances which are not yet regulated yet as. compounds but may be regulated in the near future such as NO 2. ethanol aldehydes and ammonia, iii LabProcICE test conditions and measurement procedures of existing. regulated compounds for vehicles equipped with internal combustion. engines other than PM and PN, iv EV HEV specific test conditions and measurement procedures for.
electric and hybrid electric vehicles,v Reference fuels definition of reference fuels. The DTP group started working in April 2010,ECE TRANS 180 Add 15. 9 This first version of the gtr will only contain results of phase 1 During the work of. the DTP group it became clear that a number of issues in particular but not only in relation. to electric and hybrid electric vehicles could not be resolved in time for an adoption of the. first version of the WLTP gtr by WP 29 in March 2014 Therefore it was agreed that these. elements would be further developed by the existing expert groups and should be adopted. as a phase 1b amendment to the WLTP gtr within an appropriate time frame Without. claiming completeness phase 1b should address the following work items. a LabProcICE,i Normalization methods speed trace index. ii Energy economy rating and absolute speed change rating for speed. trace violations, iii Wind tunnel as alternative method for road load determination. iv Supplemental test with representative regional temperature and soak. i Calculation method of each phase range for Pure Electric Vehicles. ii Shortened test procedure for PEV range test, iii Combined CO2 fuel consumption of each phase for Off Vehicle.
Charging Hybrid Electric Vehicles OVC HEVs, iv Hybrid Electric Vehicle HEV PEV power and maximum speed. v Combined test approach for OVC HEVs and PEVs,vi Fuel cell vehicles. vii Utility factors,viii Preconditioning,ix Predominant mode. Measurement method for ammonia ethanol and aldehydes. i Speed violation criteria, ii Further downscaling in Wide Open Throttle WOT operation. iii Sailing and gear shifting, C Background on driving cycles and test procedures.
10 The development of the worldwide harmonized light duty vehicle driving cycle was. based on experience gained from work on the World wide Heavy Duty Certification. procedure WHDC World wide Motorcycle Test Cycle WMTC and other national. ECE TRANS 180 Add 15, 11 The WLTC is a transient cycle by design For constructing the WLTC driving data. from all participating Contracting Parties were collected and weighted according to the. relative contribution of regions to the globally driven mileage and data collected for WLTP. 12 The resulting driving data were subsequently cut into idling periods and short trips. i e driving events between two idling periods By randomised combinations of these. segments a large number of draft cycles were generated From the latter draft cycle. family the cycle best fitting certain dynamic properties of the original WLTP database was. selected as a first raw WLTC In the subsequent work the raw WLTC was further. processed in particular with respect to its driveability and better representativeness to. obtain the final WLTC, 13 The driveability of the WLTC was assessed extensively during the development. process and is supported by three distinct validation phases Specific cycle versions for. certain vehicles with limited driving capabilities due to a low power mass ratio or limited. maximum vehicle speed have been introduced In addition the speed trace to be followed. by a test vehicle will be downscaled according to a mathematically prescribed method if the. vehicle would have to encounter an unduly high proportion of full throttle driving in. order to follow the original speed trace Gear shift points are determined according to a. mathematical procedure that is based on the characteristics of individual vehicles which. also enhances the driveability of the WLTC, 14 For the development of the test procedures the DTP subgroup took into account. existing emissions and energy consumption legislation in particular those of the 1958 and. 1998 Agreements those of Japan and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. US EPA Standard Part 1066 These test procedures were critically reviewed compared to. each other updated to technical progress and complemented by new elements where. D Technical feasibility anticipated costs and benefits. 15 In designing and validating the WLTP strong emphasis has been put on its. practicability which is ensured by a number of measures explained above. 16 While in general the WLTP has been defined on the basis of the best technology. available at the moment of its drafting the practical facilitation of the WLTP procedures on. a global scale has been kept in mind as well The latter had some impact e g on the. definition of set values and tolerances for several test parameters such as the test. temperature or deviations from the speed trace Also facilities without the most recent. technical equipment should be able to perform WLTP certifications leading to higher. tolerances than those which would have been required just by best performing facilities. 17 The replacement of a regional test cycle by the WLTP initially will bear some costs. for vehicle manufacturers technical services and authorities at least considered on a local. Established in the Global Registry on 12 March 2014 UNITED NATIONS ECE TRANS 180 Add 15 12 May 2014 ECE TRANS 180 Add 15 3 Global technical regulation on Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedure Contents Page I Statement of technical rationale and justification 5 A Introduction 5 B Procedural background and future development of the WLTP 6 C Background on

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