European Asylum Support Office,Country of Origin,Information Report. Targeting of Individuals,November 2018, More information on the European Union is available on the Internet http europa eu. ISBN 978 92 9476 045 6,doi 10 2847 119608,European Asylum Support Office EASO 2018. Reproduction is authorised provided the source is acknowledged unless otherwise stated. For third party materials reproduced in this publication reference is made to the copyrights. statements of the respective third parties, Cover photo Utenriksdepartementet UD Banki IDP camp Borno state northeast Nigeria. On 9 November 2016 women and children collect water from a borehole in Mafa IDP Camp. Borno State northeast Nigeria, EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS 3. Acknowledgements,This report was drafted by EASO, The following national asylum and migration departments reviewed this report. The Netherlands Immigration and Naturalisation Service Office for Country Information and. Language Analysis OCILA, Sweden Migrationsverket Swedish Migration Agency Lifos Centre for Country of Origin. Information and Analysis, The following external expert reviewed this report. Dr Megan Turnbull Assistant Professor of Comparative Politics at the University of Georgia in. the Department of International Affairs, It must be noted that the review carried out by the mentioned departments experts or organisations. contributes to the overall quality of the report but does not necessarily imply their formal. endorsement of the final report which is the full responsibility of EASO. 4 EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS. EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS 5. Acknowledgements 3,Contents 5,Disclaimer 9,Glossary and abbreviations 10. Introduction 16,Methodology 16,Defining the Terms of Reference ToR 16. Collecting information 16,Quality control peer and external review 16. Structure and use of the report 17,1 General introduction on Nigeria 19. 2 Actors targeting individuals 21,2 1 Boko Haram 21. 2 1 1 Objectives 22,2 1 2 Structure 24,2 1 3 Modus operandi 28. 2 1 4 Recruitment by Boko Haram 30,2 1 5 Forced recruitment 33. 2 1 6 Child soldiers 34,2 1 7 Women and girls 34,2 2 Militant groups in the Niger Delta 35. 2 2 1 General 36, 2 2 2 Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta MEND 38. 2 2 3 Niger Delta Avengers NDA 40,2 3 Student university cults 43. 2 3 1 Structure 44,2 3 2 Objective 45,2 3 3 Modus operandi 45. 2 3 4 Recruitment and initiation 47,2 4 Traffickers 48. 2 4 1 Structure 49, 6 EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS. 2 4 2 Objectives 50,2 4 3 Modus operandi including recruitment 51. 2 5 State or state affiliated actors 52,2 5 1 Nigerian armed forces 53. 2 5 2 Nigeria Police Force 55,2 5 3 Islamic Police hisbah 57. 2 5 4 Civilian Joint Task Force CJTF 62,2 6 Death penalty 65. 2 6 1 Sharia penal code and the death penalty 66, 2 6 2 Offences subjected to death penalty in the Sharia law 67. 3 Targeted individuals 69,3 1 Persons targeted by Boko Haram 69. 3 1 1 General 69, 3 1 2 People perceived as government supporters 70. 3 1 3 Persons rejecting Sharia law Infidels 70,3 1 4 Christians 70. 3 1 5 Teachers education 72,3 1 6 Health workers 74. 3 1 7 Women and children 75,3 1 8 IDPs 76,3 1 9 Journalists 78. 3 2 Persons involved in militant groups in the Niger Delta 79. 3 2 1 Definition of profile 79, 3 2 2 Attitude by authorities and human rights violations 79. 3 3 Members and adherents of separatist movements 80. 3 3 1 MASSOB members and adherents 81,3 3 2 IPOB members 82. 3 3 3 Attitude by authorities 84,3 3 4 Human rights violations incidents 84. 3 3 5 Means of redress 86,3 4 Members or supporters of political parties 86. 3 4 1 Definition of profile 86,3 4 2 Human rights violations 86. 3 5 Journalists bloggers and other media workers 89. 3 6 Human rights defenders 91, 3 7 Persons involved in herders farmers conflict 93. EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS 7. 3 7 1 Definition of profile 93, 3 7 2 Human rights violations and or discrimination 97. 3 7 3 Possibility to relocate 98,3 7 4 Means of redress 99. 3 8 Religious minorities 100,3 8 1 Introduction 100. 3 8 2 Treatment of religious minorities 101,3 8 3 Specific religious minorities 102. 3 8 4 Means of redress 104, 3 9 Persons affected by witchcraft or ritual killings 104. 3 9 1 Description of witchcraft 104,3 9 2 Persons accused of witchcraft 106. 3 9 3 Ritual killings 110,3 9 4 Persons refusing chieftaincy titles 112. 3 10 Persons affected by secret societies 115,3 10 1 Ogboni 115. 3 10 2 Definition of profile 115,3 10 3 Organisation 116. 3 10 4 Membership 116,3 10 5 Former members of the Ogboni 117. 3 10 6 Persons refusing to join secret societies Ogboni 117. 3 10 7 Persons criticising Ogboni 117, 3 11 Persons affected by student university cults 117. 3 11 1 Members or former members of university cults 119. 3 11 2 Persons refusing to join cults 120, 3 12 Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender persons LGBT 120. 3 12 1 Legal and societal attitude 120, 3 12 2 Human rights violations and or discrimination 123. 3 12 3 Possibility to relocate 125,3 12 4 Means of redress 125. 3 12 5 Organisations supporting LGBT rights 126,3 13 Women and girls 127. 3 13 1 Gender Based Violence GBV 127,3 13 2 Forced early marriages 128. 3 13 3 Female Genital Mutilation Cutting FGM C 129. 3 13 4 IDP women 133, 8 EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS. 3 14 Children 134,3 15 Victims of trafficking in human beings 134. 3 15 1 General context 135,3 15 2 Women 136,3 15 3 Men 137. 3 15 4 Children 138,3 15 5 Return to Nigeria state support 141. 3 15 6 Re trafficking 142, 3 15 7 Trafficking in persons for the purpose of organ removal 142. 3 16 Persons with disabilities or severe medical issues 143. 3 16 1 Legal framework 143,3 16 2 Human rights situation 144. 3 16 3 Disabled People s Organisation DPOs and civil society 144. Annex 1 Bibliography 146,Annex 2 Terms of Reference 198. EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS 9. Disclaimer, This report was written according to the EASO COI Report Methodology 2012 1 The report is based. on carefully selected sources of information All sources used are referenced. The information contained in this report has been researched evaluated and analysed with utmost. care However this document does not claim to be exhaustive If a particular event person or. organisation is not mentioned in the report this does not mean that the event has not taken place or. that the person or organisation does not exist Any event taking place after the finalisation of this. report is not included, Furthermore this report is not conclusive as to the determination or merit of any particular. application for international protection Terminology used should not be regarded as indicative of a. particular legal position, Refugee risk and similar terminology are used as generic terminology and not in the legal sense as. applied in the EU Asylum Acquis the 1951 Refugee Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the. Status of Refugees, Neither EASO nor any person acting on its behalf may be held responsible for the use which may be. made of the information contained in this report, The drafting of this report including review was finalised on 17 October 2018 Any event taking place. after this date is not included in this report More information on the reference period for this report. can be found in the methodology section of the Introduction. 1The EASO methodology is largely based on the Common EU Guidelines for processing Country of Origin Information COI. 2008 and can be downloaded from the EASO website url. 10 EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS. Glossary and abbreviations,ABA Adaka Boro Avengers. ABC American Broadcasting Company,AC Action Congress. ACAPS Assessment Capacities Project, ACCORD Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation. ACHPRRWA African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights on the Rights of the Women in Africa. ACHR African Charter on Human Peoples Rights, ACHPR African Charter on Human rights and Peoples Rights. ACLED Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project. ACN Action Congress of Nigeria, ACRWC African charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child. AD Alliance for Democracy,AGE Advocates for Grass root Empowerment. AGHI Access to Good Health Initiative,AI Amnesty International. alfa Witchcraft practitioners, Almajiri in Nigerian context those who left their villages or town parents relations and. friends in search of Islamic religious knowledge and scholarship. ANPP All Nigeria Peoples Party,APC All Progressives Congress. APGA All Progressives Grand Alliance,AQIM Al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. ARC Asylum Research Consultancy, ASCEND Association of Comprehensive Empowerment of Nigerians with Disabilities. AYM Aggrieved Youth Movement,BBC British Broadcasting Corporation. BIM Biafra Independent Movement,BOI Board of Inquiry. BOYES Borno Youths Empowerment Scheme,CAN Action Congress of Nigeria. CDSR The Coalition for the Defense of Sexual Rights. CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women. CFR Council on Foreign Relations, CGRS Commissioner General for Refugees and Stateless Persons. EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS 11. CHD Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue,CJTF Civilian Joint Task Force. COI Country of Origin Information, COMA Coalition for Militant Action in the Niger Delta. CPC Congress for Progressive Change,CRARN Child s Right and Rehabilitation Network. CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child, CRPD Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities. CRU Complaints Response Unit,CSO Civil Society Organisation. CSW Christian Solidarity Worldwide,CTU Counter Terrorism Unit. DDR Disarmament Demobilisation and Reintegration, DFAT Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. DHS Demographic and Health Survey,DPO Disabled People s Organisation. DSS Department of State Services,EASO European Asylum Support Office. EC European Commission, EiEWGN Education in Emergencies Working Group Nigeria. ENDS Every Nigerian Do Something Foundation,EP European Parliament. EU European Union, EU countries 28 EU member states and Norway and Switzerland. FIDH F d ration Internationale des Ligues des Droits de l Homme International Federation. for Human Rights,FMoE Nigerian Federal Ministry of Education. GBV Gender based violence, GCPEA Global Coalition to Protect Education from Attack. GTI Global Terrorist Index,FATF Financial Action Task Force. FGM C Female Genital Mutilation Cutting, Hadd offences or punishments that are fixed under the Sharia plural hudud. Hisbah hispa Islamic law enforcement agency,HIV Human immunodeficiency virus. HORF House of Rainbow Fellowship, 12 EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS. HRD Human rights defenders,HRW Human Rights Watch, Hudud offences or punishments that are fixed under the Sharia plural of hadd. IAH Initiative for Advancement of Humanity, ICARH International Centre for Advocacy on Rights to Health. ICAT Inter Agency Coordination Group Against Trafficking in Persons. ICC International Criminal Court,ICG International Crisis Group. ICT Information and communication technology,IDP Internally displaced people. IGP Inspector General of Police, IJPCS Ibadan Institute for Peace and Strategic Studies. ILGA International Lesbian Gay Bisexual Trans and Intersex Association. IMH Initiative for Improved Male Health,IMN Islamic Movement in Nigeria. IOM International Organisation for Migrations,IPOB Indigenous People of Biafra. IRB Immigration and Refugee Board Canada,IRIN Integrated Regional Information Networks. ISIS Islamic State in Iraq and Syria,ISIS WA Islamic State West Africa. ISWAP Islamic State in West Africa Province,IVF In Vitro Fertilization. IYC Ijaw Youth Council,JAS Jama atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda awati wal Jihad. JNDLF Joint Niger Delta Liberation Force, JONAPWD The Joint National Association of Persons with Disabilities. JTF Joint Task Force,juju Belief in witchcraft,kuffir non believers. Landinfo Norwegian Country of Origin Information Centre. LG Local governments,LGAs Local Government Areas,LGB Lesbians Gay and Bisexual persons. LGBT Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender persons, LGBTI Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender and Intersex persons. EASO COUNTRY OF ORIGIN REPORT NIGERIA TARGETING OF INDIVIDUALS 13. LGBTQI Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender Queer and or Intersex persons. LIFFE Levites Initiative for Freedom and Enlightenment. LIFOS COI unit of the Swedish Migration Agency Migrationsverket. mafias organised crime groups, MASSOB Movement for the Actualization of the Sovereign State of Biafra. MEND Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta. MMC Maiduguri Municipal Council, MOSOP Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People. NAPTIP Nigerian National Agency for Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons. NBM Neo Black Movement of Africa,NBS Nigerian National Bureau of Statistics. NDA Niger Delta Avengers,NDGJM Niger Delta Greenland Justice Mandate. NDPVF Niger Delta People s Volunteer Force,NDV Niger Delta Vigilantes. NERI North East Regional Initiative,NFI Non Food Items. NGO Non governmental organisation,NHRC Nigerian National Human Rights Commission. NNDEF New Niger Delta Emancipation Front,NPF Nigeria Police Force. NRHC National Human Rights Commission,NUJ Nigerian Union for Journalists. OFF Otugas Fire Force, OFPRA Office fran ais de protection des r fugi s et apatrides. OIM Organizzazione Internazionale per le Migrazioni. OPC Oodua People s Congress, Qisas punishments inflicted upon the offenders by way of retaliation for causing death of. or injuries to a person,PCD Preliminary Certificate of Disability. PDC Permanent Disability Certificate,PDP People s Democratic Party. PMF Police Mobile Force,PSC Police Service Commission.
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