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Dynamic Simulation of Power Systems using Three Phase
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Dynamic Simulation of Power Systems using Three Phase Integrated. Transmission and Distribution System Models Case Study Comparisons with. Traditional Analysis Methods, Himanshu Jain, ABSTRACT academic. Solar PV based distributed generation has increased significantly over the last few years and. the rapid growth is expected to continue in the foreseeable future As the penetration levels of. distributed generation increase power systems will become increasingly decentralized with bi. directional flow of electricity between the transmission and distribution networks To manage such. decentralized power systems planners and operators need models that accurately reflect the. structure of and interactions between the transmission and distribution networks Moreover. algorithms that can simulate the steady state and dynamics of power systems using these models. are also needed In this context integrated transmission and distribution system modeling and. simulation has become an important research area in recent years and the primary focus so far has. been on studying the steady state response of power systems using integrated transmission and. distribution system models, The primary objective of this dissertation is to develop an analysis approach and a program that. can simulate the dynamics of three phase integrated transmission and distribution system models. and use the program to demonstrate the advantages of evaluating the impact of solar PV based. distributed generation on power systems dynamics using such models To realize this objective a. new dynamic simulation analysis approach is presented the implementation of the approach in a. program is discussed and verification studies are presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the. program A new dynamic model for small solar PV based distributed generation is also. investigated This model can interface with unbalanced networks and change its real power output. according to the incident solar irradiation Finally application of the dynamic simulation program. for evaluating the impact of solar PV units using an integrated transmission and distribution system. model is discussed, The dissertation presents a new approach for studying the impact of solar PV based distributed. generation on power systems dynamics and demonstrates that the solar PV impact studies. performed using the program and integrated transmission and distribution system models provide. insights about the dynamic response of power systems that cannot be obtained using traditional. dynamic simulation approaches that rely on transmission only models. Dynamic Simulation of Power Systems using Three Phase Integrated. Transmission and Distribution System Models Case Study Comparisons with. Traditional Analysis Methods, Himanshu Jain, ABSTRACT public. To ensure that electricity is delivered to consumers in a reliable manner power system planners. and operators rely on computer based modeling and analysis of the electric grid The software. currently being used for this purpose are designed to simulate either the high voltage transmission. networks or the low voltage distribution networks Till now these software have worked well as. the electricity flow in the electric grid is largely unidirectional from the transmission network to. the distribution network Neglecting the distribution network topology in transmission network. models or vice versa in such a structure of the electric grid does not introduce significant. calculation errors However the rapid growth of consumer owned and operated solar photovoltaics. PV based distributed generation over the last few years which is expected to continue in the. foreseeable future has necessitated a rethink of this modeling and analysis paradigm As the. penetration levels of distributed generation increase the electric grid will become increasingly. decentralized and there will be bi directional flow of electricity between the transmission and. distribution networks Accurate analysis of such a decentralized electric grid cannot be performed. if either the distribution or the transmission network topology is neglected in the models Integrated. transmission and distribution system modeling and simulation where transmission and. distribution networks are modeled as one single unit has therefore become an important research. area in recent years, This dissertation makes a contribution to this research area by presenting an analysis approach.
and a program that can be used to simulate the dynamics time varying behavior of the electric. grid when subjected to disturbances such as short circuits of integrated transmission and. distribution system models A dynamic model of solar PV based distributed generation that can. be used to simulate their behavior during dynamic simulations is also investigated Finally an. application of the program is discussed where the impact of solar PV based distributed generation. on the dynamics of the electric grid is studied by using the solar PV model and an integrated. transmission and distribution system model, The dissertation shows that by simulating integrated transmission and distribution system. models using the dynamic simulation program insights about the impact of solar PV based. distributed generation on the dynamics of the electric grid can be obtained which the transmission. only models cannot provide, DEDICATION, This dissertation is dedicated to my grandmother Smt Rajkumari Jain who passed away earlier. this year Without her love affection and blessings I would not have been able to complete this. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT, Words are not enough to express my gratitude and appreciation to my advisor Dr Robert. Broadwater for his guidance and support all through the PhD Dr Broadwater was a constant. source of encouragement and made the PhD fun and a great learning experience I also want to. thank Dr Saifur Rahman Dr Alexander Elgart Dr Steve Southward and Dr Virgilio Centeno. for serving on my committee and promptly providing any guidance and help that I needed. I want to acknowledge the constant support of my parents Mr Hemant Kumar Jain and Mrs. Sunita Jain who ensured that I had everything I needed to do well in studies I also want to thank. my younger brother Akshay Kumar Jain who was always there to help me. Finally I want to say a big thank you to my wife Surabhi who stood like a wall behind me and. took care of all other responsibilities so that I could focus on my research I cannot thank her. enough for the support she provided during the PhD and for being incredibly patient with me. Table of Contents, Chapter 1 Introduction and Literature Review 1. 1 1 Brief History of Power Systems Analysis 1, 1 2 Distributed Generation Need for Integrated Transmission and Distribution Systems Analysis 3.
1 3 Studying Power Systems Dynamics using Three Phase Integrated Transmission and Distribution. System Models 6, 1 4 Objective of the Dissertation 7. 1 5 Organization of the Dissertation 7, Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Graph Trace Analysis based Power Flow Analysis Programs 9. 2 1 Introduction 9, 2 2 Edge Edge Graphs An Alternative to Matrix based Modeling and Storage of Electric Networks 9. 2 2 1 Obtaining the Edge Edge Graph of a Network 10. 2 2 2 Comparing the Sparse Matrix of an Electric Network with its Edge Edge Graph 16. 2 3 Edge Edge Graphs and GTA 18, 2 3 1 Re assigning Edge Indices and Solving Radial Circuits using GTA 18. 2 3 2 Power Flow Analysis on Circuits with Loops using GTA 22. 2 4 Concluding Remarks 35, Chapter 3 Dynamic simulation of Power Systems using Three Phase Network Models 37.
3 1 Introduction 37, 3 2 Challenge of DAEs based Modeling of Power Systems using Three Phase Network Models 38. 3 3 Impact of Network Unbalance on Frame Quantities 40. 3 4 Synchronous Generator Model and its Interface under Network Unbalance 44. 3 5 Approach Developed in TPDA to Obtain Three Phase Network Voltages 48. 3 5 1 Obtaining six dq0 Frame Voltages 48, 3 5 2 Calculation of Three Phase Voltage Phasors from Six Frame Voltages 49. 3 6 Architecture of TPDA and its Key Features 51, 3 6 1 Partitioned Implicit Approach for Solving the DAEs 52. 3 6 2 Modeling of Synchronous Generators as Voltage Sources 55. 3 6 3 Models for Synchronous Generator Exciters 55. 3 6 4 Models for Synchronous Generator Turbine Governors 56. 3 6 5 Model for Distributed Solar PV 56, 3 6 6 Initialization under Unbalance 57. 3 6 7 Assumptions and Limitations of TPDA 61, 3 7 Concluding Remarks 61.
Chapter 4 Dynamic Model of Solar PV based Distributed Generation 62. 4 1 Introduction 62, 4 2 Dynamic Model for Small Solar PV Units 63. 4 2 1 Key Features of the Solar PV Model 63, 4 2 2 Equations for Controlling Real and Reactive Powers in the D PV Model 67. 4 2 3 Simplifying the Equations for Controlling Real and Reactive Powers Neglecting Real Power. 4 2 4 Simplifying the Equations for Controlling Real and Reactive Powers Neglecting Real and. Reactive Power Losses 77, 4 2 5 Interfacing the D PV Model with the Network 78. 4 2 6 Initialization of the D PV Model 79, 4 3 Concluding Remarks 80. Chapter 5 Verification Studies for TPDA and the D PV Model 81. 5 1 Introduction 81, 5 2 Verification of TPDA 81, 5 2 1 Case Study 1 82.
5 2 2 Case Study 2 88, 5 2 3 Case Study 3 95, 5 2 4 Case Study 4 98. 5 2 5 Case Study 5 101, 5 3 Verification of the D PV Model 104. 5 4 Verification of the D PV Model under Solar Transients 104. 5 4 1 Test 1 105, 5 4 2 Test 2 106, 5 5 Verification of the D PV Model Control Methodology under Network Unbalance 108. 5 6 Concluding Remarks 109, Chapter 6 Solar PV Impact Assessment Studies using TPDA 110. 6 1 Introduction 110, 6 2 Developing Network Models for the Case Studies 110.
6 2 1 Developing the Hybrid Model 111, 6 2 2 Preparing the Unbalanced T Only Model from the Hybrid Model 115. 6 2 3 Preparing the Balanced T Only Model from the Unbalanced T Only Model 115. 6 3 Description of Case Studies 116, 6 3 1 Modeling Solar PV Penetration 117. 6 3 2 Fault Simulation 120, 6 3 3 Solar Transient in Case Study 2 121. 6 4 Case Study Results 123, 6 5 Concluding Remarks 131. Chapter 7 Conclusions Contributions and Future Work 133. 7 1 Conclusions and Contributions 133, 7 2 Future Work 135.
Bibliography 138, Appendix Reuse of IEEE Articles 146. List of Figures, Fig 1 Tree and Cotree of a Graph 11. Fig 2 Tree and Cotree of the IEEE 39 Bus System 16. Fig 3 Forward Trace based Edge and Feeder Path Numbering 19. Fig 4 Forward Trace based Edge and Feeder Path Numbering for Graph of Fig 3 with Loads 19. Fig 5 Forward Trace and Feeder Path Indices for Fig 1 a 22. Fig 6 Converting a Looped Circuit into a Radial Circuit 23. Fig 7 Circuit with one Reference Source and One Loop 25. Fig 8 Thevenin Equivalent of Fig 7 d as seen from the Location of Cotree Voltage in 1st Iteration 26. Fig 9 Thevenin Equivalent of Fig 7 d as seen from the Location of Cotree Voltage in 2nd Iteration 27. Fig 10 Fixed Tangent Method of Finding Zero of the Cotree Voltage Cotree Current Equation 28. Fig 11 Iterations for Solving the Circuit of Fig 7 a 29. Fig 12 Circuit with One Reference Source and Two Loops 30. Fig 13 Iterations for Solving the Circuit of Fig 12 a 32. Fig 14 Circuit with Two Reference Sources and Two Loops 33. Fig 15 Iterations for Solving the Circuit of Fig 14 a 35. Fig 16 Three phase Frame Phasors as Sum of Positive Negative and Zero Sequence Phasors 41. Fig 17 Flowchart of Algorithm used in TPDA 17 2016 IEEE 53. Fig 18 Block Diagram of the D PV Model during the Simulation 79. Fig 19 One Line Diagram of the WSCC 9 Bus System built with DEW 82. Fig 20 Rotor Speed Deviations Hz in TPDA Verification Case Study 1 86. Fig 21 Generator Terminal Voltages p u in TPDA Verification Case Study 1 87. Fig 22 Rotor Speed Deviations Hz in TPDA Verification Case Study 2 91. Fig 23 Three Phase Voltages at Bus 5 in TPDA Verification Case Study 2 92. Fig 24 Three Phase Voltages at Bus 6 in TPDA Verification Case Study 2 93. Fig 25 Three Phase Voltages at Bus 8 for TPDA Verification Case Study 2 94. Fig 26 One Line Diagram of the IEEE 39 Bus System built with DEW 95. Fig 27 Rotor Speed Deviation of Generator at Bus 31 in TPDA Verification Case Study 3 97. Fig 28 Terminal Voltage of Generator at Bus 32 in TPDA Verification Case Study 3 97. Fig 29 Rotor Speed Deviation of Generator at Bus 31 in TPDA Verification Case Study 4 99. Fig 30 Three Phase Voltage at Bus 11 in TPDA Verification Case Study 4 100. Fig 31 Rotor Speeds of all the Generators in TPDA Verification Case Study 5 103. Fig 32 Terminal Voltage at Generator Bus 38 in TPDA Verification Case Study 5 103. Fig 33 Network Topology used for Verification of the D PV Model under Solar Transients 105. Fig 34 Solar Irradiation Transient and Injected Currents on the Low Voltage side of Transformer T1 by. the Solar PV Unit 106, Fig 35 Solar Transient Profile 106. Fig 36 Line Current Injected by the Solar PV Models on the Low Voltage side of Transformer T1 107. Fig 37 Line Current Injected by the Solar PV Models on the High Voltage side of Transformer T1 107. Fig 38 Real Power at Inverter Terminal obtained with the D PV model 109. Fig 39 Variation of Minimum Voltage vs Total Load in the IEEE 123 bus Feeder 112. Fig 40 Actual Load at the Transmission Load Buses in the T Only Model and the Hybrid Model when the. Nominal Load of the IEEE 39 Bus System Load is scaled to 10 of the Original Load 113. Dynamic Simulation of Power Systems using Three Phase Integrated Transmission and Distribution System Models Case Study Comparisons with Traditional Analysis Methods Himanshu Jain ABSTRACT academic Solar PV based distributed generation has increased significantly over the last few years and the rapid growth is expected to continue in the foreseeable future As the penetration levels of

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