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Figure 2 Extended plenum duct system single plenum. Figure 3 Extended plenum duct system double plenum. Never start a branch run from the end cap of an ex regain the velocity in the remaining portion of the. tended plenum For best results the starting collar of plenum This reduction also improves the air flow. a branch run should never be any closer than 24 in characteristics at the branch ducts that are closest to. from the end cap To sum up observe the following the air handling unit The 50 rule is demonstrated in. general rules for the extended plenum system Figure 5 on the next page Note that at the start of the. plenum there is an available air volume of 1 200 cfm. Single plenums should not exceed 24 ft in length and an available velocity of 900 ft min After the third. branch run a total of 600 cfm has been distributed to. Double plenums should not exceed 48 ft in total the branches and the velocity in the plenum has been. length reduced to 450 ft min These conditions indicate that. the proper location for the reduction in the plenum is. Keep branch run starting collars 24 in from the after the third branch The outlet side of the reduction. end caps is sized to restore the velocity in the plenum to. approximately 900 ft min,Never locate a takeoff in the end cap. This system is relatively easy to fabricate and install. Reducing plenum system Additional sheet metal sometimes is required to build. the system but if done correctly it can deliver good. The reducing plenum duct system see Figure 4 can results It may be necessary to balance the system. be used when the physical size or layout of the struc branch dampers properly. ture calls for greater distances than the length con. straints imposed on the extended plenum 24 ft The Reducing trunk system. concept of the reducing plenum system is simple, when the air velocity lost to the branch runs reaches The reducing trunk duct system see Figure 6 on. approximately 50 the plenum size is reduced to the next page is very similar to the reducing plenum. Figure 4 Reducing plenum duct system,Figure 5 Reducing plenum 50 rule. system with the exception that the trunk run is reducing trunk system Each secondary trunk has a. reduced in size after each branch takeoff These mul cross sectional area that is smaller than that of the. tiple reductions make it possible to maintain a con primary trunk The secondary trunks are sized to. stant velocity ft min in the trunk even though the deliver the proper air volume to each branch at the. total air volume is reduced as each branch is sup proper velocity This type of system can be used very. plied This type of system generally takes more sheet successfully in a structure that spreads out in two or. metal to build and requires more labor to fabricate more directions. and install Another major concern is,that there are more joints to seal to pre. vent air leakage The reducing trunk,system also can be applied using.
lengths of round duct and manufactured,fittings Round duct systems can signifi. cantly reduce the cost of labor for fabri,cation and installation and produce very. satisfactory results if properly applied,Another configuration that may be used. in some cases is known as the primary,secondary trunk system see Figure 7. This type of system has a primary trunk,and two or more secondary trunks The.
tee fitting located at the end of the pri,mary trunk in this system performs the. same function as the reduction in the Figure 6 Reducing trunk duct system. Perimeter loop system,The perimeter loop duct system see. Figure 8 on the next page is well suited,for buildings that are constructed using. concrete slab on grade It generally per,forms better than the radial system in. such applications especially in cold cli,mates However the perimeter loop sys.
tem does have the disadvantage of,being a little more difficult to design and. more expensive to install It is basically,laid out around the perimeter of the. structure next to the edge of the slab,The entire perimeter loop is the same. size duct The loop is fed by four or more,ducts radiating out from the central. plenum They are usually the same size,as the loop duct The boot boxes are.
sized to deliver the proper cfm to each,Figure 7 Primary secondary trunk system. room of the structure,SUPPLY DUCT SYSTEM LOCATIONS. can accommodate one or more of these configura, Decisions regarding the location of a supply air dis tions One of the most important jobs of the designer. tribution system should be made based on the winter is to select the type of installation that best suits the. design temperature for the structure s geographic air distribution requirements of the structure and the. location Table 1 in ACCA s Manual J lists design con needs and desires of the customer This must be bal. ditions for locations in the U S and Canada This anced with the cost of the installation and the comfort. information should be consulted to ensure that the conditions within the structure The six basic locations. proper type and location of duct system is selected for supply duct systems are as follows. for the structure in question The ASHRAE Funda, mentals Handbook contains HVAC design criteria for attic installations. most countries around the world,basement installations.
The general guidelines state that if the winter design. temperature for the location of the structure is above between floors of multistory structures. 35 F then both perimeter floor and ceiling distribu. tion systems will provide satisfactory results If the crawl space installations. winter design temperature for the location of the, structure is below 35 F the ceiling distribution sys conditioned space installations. tem is not recommended and the floor distribution, system should be considered A modified type of ceil embedded in concrete slab. ing distribution system can be used if the registers. are moved closer to the outside walls and the primary Attic installations. air is directed out of the occupied zone and toward. the window and door openings Attic installations lend themselves readily to all of the. duct system types A duct system located in an attic. There are six basic locations for supply duct systems must be insulated and must have a vapor barrier. in residential structures Most residential structures installed to prevent condensation on the exterior of. installed in an attic is the requirement for an auxiliary. drain pan along with a condensate line and or emer. gency float switch to shut down the system in case of. a condensate overflow Locating the return air filter. grilles in the conditioned space is recommended with. attic installations This allows the homeowner to, change the filters without having to enter the attic. The duct system types that lend themselves to attic. installations include the extended plenum the reduc. ing trunk and the radial arrangements A wide vari,ety of duct materials can be used with attic. installations However great care must be taken,when installing a flexible duct system Improper.
installation that allows sagging sharp bends kinks. and crimping of flexible duct will increase the friction. loss of the system and increase the total amount of. static pressure that the indoor blower must over, come This can result in service problems and possi. ble equipment failure It is always necessary to follow. Figure 8 Perimeter loop duct system,the recommendations of the manufacturer when. installing a system utilizing flexible duct products. the ductwork Condensation can cause corrosion and Basement installations. rusting of the duct system and possible structural. damage to the ceilings All joints and side seams Basement installations also lend themselves to all of. must be sealed to prevent duct leakage Some local the duct system types A basement system must be. codes do not permit the use of duct tape as a insulated and must have a vapor barrier installed to. sealant In these cases waterproof mastic must be prevent condensation on the exterior of the ductwork. used Depending on the type of equipment being if the basement is to be unconditioned If the base. used the air handler or furnace may be installed in ment is to be conditioned then the ductwork is con. the attic space in the garage area or in an alcove or sidered to be in a conditioned space and insulation. closet in the interior of the structure A packaged unit may not be required However it is recommended. located outside the structure can be installed on the that a duct liner be installed for sound attenuation All. roof on the ground or on a stand raised above joints and side seams must be sealed to prevent duct. ground level Special insulation and waterproofing leakage Again be aware that some local codes do. must be applied to all ductwork that is exposed to not permit the use of duct tape as a sealant In these. outdoor weather conditions cases waterproof mastic must be used The air han. dler or furnace may be installed in the basement or. The air handler should be located where the shortest outside the structure if a packaged unit is to be. duct runs possible are attained The shorter the duct installed Any ductwork exposed to outdoor weather. runs are the lower the resistance to air flow and the conditions must be specially treated with insulation. lower the heat gains and heat losses will be One dis and waterproofing. advantage to locating the air handler in the attic space. is serviceability Provisions for service access must be As in an attic installation the air handler should be. provided Most local codes require a floored walkway located where the shortest duct runs possible are. from the attic entry to the unit A floored area must attained One advantage to locating the air handler in. extend at least 3 ft on all sides of the unit to provide a the basement is serviceability Return air filters may. platform for service work Another consideration to be located at the unit in a basement installation or. take into account when the furnace or air handler is filter grilles in the conditioned space may be used. The duct system types best suited to basement installed between the floors of the multistory struc. installations are the extended plenum and the reduc tures Many types of duct materials can be used with. ing trunk arrangements Due to headroom and between floor installations However flexible duct. appearance considerations the radial duct system materials generally are discouraged because they. does not always lend itself to basement installations are not as durable as metal ductwork Once the duct. although it can be used in some cases system is installed it is a major project to make. repairs if needed,All types of duct materials can be used with base. ment installations However flexible duct materials Crawl space installations. are discouraged largely because of the appearance, and the problem of providing proper support Sag Crawl space installations are adaptable to all of the. ging ductwork will increase the friction loss of the duct system types A crawl space system must be. system and increase the total amount of static pres insulated and must have a vapor barrier installed to. sure that the indoor blower must overcome resulting prevent condensation on the exterior of the ductwork. in service problems and even equipment failure All joints and side seams must be sealed to prevent. duct leakage If local codes do not permit the use of. Between floors of multistory structures duct tape as a sealant waterproof mastic must be. used The air handler or furnace may be installed in. Between floor installations usually are installed in fir the crawl space in the garage area in the interior of. down areas with branch ducts running between the the structure as permitted by local codes or if a. combination ceiling floor joists These systems gener packaged unit is to be installed outside the structure. ally are constructed of lined sheet metal Sometimes. duct board is used for sound and noise control The air handler should be located where the shortest. Between floor ductwork normally does not require duct runs possible are attained The main disadvan. insulation since it is located within the conditioned tage to locating the air handler or furnace in the crawl. space Ductwork that passes through an uncondi space is serviceability Provisions for service access. tioned space must be insulated and must have a must be made With crawl space installations return. vapor barrier installed to prevent condensation from air filter grilles in the conditioned space should be. accumulating on the exterior of the ductwork All joints used. and side seams must be sealed to prevent duct leak. age If local codes do not permit the use of duct tape The duct system types that lend themselves to crawl. as a sealant waterproof mastic must be used The air space installations include the extended plenum the. handler or furnace may be installed in a garage in an reducing trunk the radial and the perimeter loop. interior alcove or closet as permitted by local codes arrangements Although many types of duct materi. or if a packaged unit is to be installed outside the als can be used in crawl space installations flexible. structure Any ductwork located outside the structure duct materials are discouraged due to the problem of. must be specially treated with insulation and water providing proper support for the ductwork. proofing if exposed to outdoor weather conditions,Conditioned space installations.
The air handler should be located where the shortest. duct runs possible are attained One of the major Some basement installations installations between. advantages of a between floor installation is that the floors and fir down duct systems can be considered. heat gains and losses often associated with ductwork conditioned space installations Each of these types. are negated because the ductwork is in the condi of systems has its own considerations previously dis. tioned space With this type of installation return air cussed Generally speaking duct systems that are. filters may be located at the unit or filter grilles in the installed within a conditioned space do not require. conditioned space may be used thermal insulation to prevent heat loss and heat gain. It is desirable however to use duct materials such as. The reducing trunk and the extended plenum config duct liners or duct board systems constructed prop. urations are the most common types of duct systems erly for sound attenuation In warm moist climates. duct systems installed in conditioned spaces may or treated for corrosion but they still must be graded. need to be insulated to prevent condensation from back toward the plenum for ground water removal. forming on the exterior surfaces of the ductwork and and installed above the final lot grade A wide selec. causing mold mildew and structural damage The tion of fittings boots and plenums constructed from. most common types of duct systems applied to con PVC materials is available today When PVC duct. ditioned space installations are the extended plenum materials are used all joints are glued thus creating. and the reducing trunk arrangements Both the a water resistant duct system Some codes do not. extended plenum and the reducing trunk systems fre allow for the use of screws in the assembly of PVC. quently are installed in fir down areas above hallways duct systems. cabinets and closets They typically are associated. with the high inside wall type of supply outlets Another factor that is sometimes a detractor to the. embedded slab system is the code requirement stip, Embedded in concrete slab ulating that the duct system must be installed above. the final grade The builder may be required to, Different types of construction present different prob increase the foundation stem wall height from the nor. lems for system designers and installers In climates mal 16 in to 20 to 24 in to accommodate the duct. where the average winter temperature is below 35 F system installation In some areas builders may resist. slab on grade construction is used The floor distrib this additional expense in the cost of the structure. ution duct system must be embedded in the slab, which can create several challenges for the The boot boxes and terminal devices used with an. designer installer Most codes require that the duct embedded concrete slab system should be located. system in such cases be installed above the final lot under or near doors and windows They must dis. grade If metal duct material is to be used it must be charge into the unoccupied space of the room to pre. treated to prevent rust and corrosion and completely vent the primary airstream from coming in contact. encased in a minimum of 2 in of concrete grout Fail with the room s occupants The number of outlets for. ure to treat the metal duct properly can lead to the each room depends on the room s usage its physi. failure of the duct system due to rust and corrosion cal layout cfm requirements and the heating and. In areas where the ground water table is high or cooling loads as determined by a room by room load. proper drainage is not ensured the collapse of the calculation. duct system can occur in as little as five years, When a floor distribution system is used it is always. When this happens the system usually must be a good idea to be mindful of furniture placement in. abandoned and the supply duct system must be the room The main goal of good system design is to. installed in some other location e g in the ceiling have the outlets discharging into the unoccupied. It also means filling the outlet boots with concrete zone of the room The occupied zone of a room is. and most likely replacing the flooring materials in the generally defined as the volume of space that exists. structure Needless to say this is a very expensive between the floor and 6 ft above the floor in the ver. and time consuming undertaking one that is not tical direction and is 2 ft or more from the walls in the. possible in some multistory structures without major horizontal direction see Figure 9 Outlets should. remodeling work Sometimes the floor must be not be placed where room furnishings will cover. removed completely so that repairs can be made them This may require having multiple outlets in. The duct system must be graded back toward the some rooms to ensure that the distribution air being. supply air plenum for drainage and removal of any delivered matches the load. ground water that may enter the duct system The, best way to avoid such problems is to make sure that SUPPLY AIR OUTLET LOCATIONS.
the design and installation are right the first time. One of the most critical tasks in the design of an air. PVC duct materials offer a large advantage over distribution system is the selection of the proper type. metal in this type of system installation PVC duct and proper placement of the supply outlets The. systems do not need to be encased in concrete grout designer must select locations that will deliver the. cfm the volume of air that the outlet device,delivers as a result of the face velocity cfm. stands for cubic feet per minute,noise criteria NC a measure of the air noise. associated with the outlet device,pressure loss the amount of pressure loss. associated with the outlet device measured in,spread the width of the primary air envelope. measured at the point of terminal velocity,terminal velocity the velocity of an airstream at.
the end of its throw measured in ft min,Figure 9 Occupied zone of a room. throw the distance from the face of the outlet,that the air travels before reaching terminal. conditioned air into the space to be conditioned in. such a way that the high heat gain heat loss load AK factor effective area the calculated area of. areas doors and windows are covered by the pri the outlet device based on the average measured. mary airstream In addition the secondary air room velocity between the fins. air must mix with the primary airstream to ensure, even temperatures throughout the room The design drop the vertical distance between the base of. should accomplish these objectives while keeping the outlet and the bottom of the airstream at the. the primary airstream from entering the occupied end of the horizontal throw. zone within the room, In addition you should be familiar with the following. By delivering the primary air into the unoccupied terms. zone of the room and mixing it with the secondary air. the designer ensures that the primary airstream does diffuser an outlet that discharges supply air in a. not come in direct contact with the room occupants spreading pattern. If the primary airstream is allowed to come in contact. with the room occupants the result will be complaints grille a louvered covering for an opening. of drafts and the overall comfort of the occupants will through which air passes. suffer In most cases depending on the location of, the duct system and the location of the outlet this register a grille equipped with a damper or a.
problem is next to impossible to solve without the control valve that directs air in a nonspreading. investment of major time and expense The best time jet. to prevent this potential problem is when the system. is being designed and installed Floor locations, There are several specifications listed in the engi Grilles and registers installed in the floor should be. neering tables for outlet devices that are very impor located in the unoccupied zone of the room They. tant to the designer They include should be positioned to cover high load areas such. as door and window locations As mentioned previ, face velocity the velocity of the air leaving the ously consideration also must be given to the place. outlet measured in ft min ment of furniture within the room The selection of the. proper grille or diffuser outlet device is one of the face velocity of 500 to 750 ft min generally is accept. designer s more critical tasks The outlet device must able for residential structures The outlet devices. be selected to deliver the required air volume cfm at selected will deliver 100 cfm at 600 ft min with a. the correct velocity ft min to condition the space noise level of NC30 The throw at these conditions is. shown in engineering data to be 6 5 ft at a terminal. Ceiling location center of room velocity of 35 ft min for heating and 8 5 ft at 50 ft min. for cooling The terminal velocity listed for heating is. There are basically two different types of ceiling out the most critical Most people are more sensitive to. let locations The first is in the center of the room drafts during the heating season and more tolerant. with the directional pattern of the device being essen of air movement during the cooling season. tially circular This type of installation may work well. for cooling only applications however it is one of To locate the position of the outlet so that the primary. the poorest selections for heating systems In the airstream does not come in contact with the room. heating season higher velocities of the conditioned occupants the designer s first task is to make sure. air must be attained in order to force the heated air that the primary airstream is directed toward the. down into the conditioned space Higher noise levels unoccupied zone of the room Chairs and other room. will accompany the higher discharge velocities furnishings sometimes can be placed in the unoccu. required from the outlet If the winter design temper pied zone The primary air envelope therefore. ature is below 35 F this type of delivery outlet device should not move down the wall past the 4 to 5 ft level. is not recommended for systems that will be used in For example assume that the ceiling height is 8 ft. the heating season The terminal velocity for the selected outlet device is. 6 5 ft for heating If you start at the 5 ft level on the. Ceiling location modified exterior wall and measure up the wall and across the. ceiling 6 5 ft the location of the outlet will be 3 5 ft. The second type of ceiling outlet is one that is moved from the wall to the center of the outlet The primary. away from the center of the room and out toward the air envelope air moving faster than 35 ft min will. exterior wall The discharge is directed toward the terminate at the 5 ft level on the exterior wall. high load areas of the room doors and windows The, location of the outlet must be determined by studying A ceiling supply system designed and installed in this. the manufacturer s engineering data supplied for the manner can be used successfully in areas where the. selected outlet device winter design temperatures are below 35 F This out. let design approach can be utilized with all of the duct. The outlet device should be selected to deliver the system types used in ceiling distribution systems. required amount of air cfm at the proper velocity, ft min with an acceptable throw to match the room High inside wall locations. heat loss heat gain It is recommended that the pri. mary air envelope air moving faster that 35 ft min for A high inside wall outlet system delivers air into the. heating and faster than 50 ft min for cooling from the conditioned space from the interior walls The selec. outlet not be allowed to come in contact with the tion of the outlet device which is very similar to the. room occupants procedure described above for modified ceiling loca. tions is critical to a successful system This type of. For example let s assume that the room cfm require delivery normally is associated with fir down duct. ment is 200 cfm Due to the physical characteristics systems. of the room it is determined that the best solution is. to install two outlets to cover the high load areas Again the designer must select the outlet device that. there is a large amount of glass in the room The will deliver the required volume of air cfm at the. designer selects two outlet devices each of which will proper velocity ft min to condition the space The. deliver 100 cfm at a face velocity that meets the noise velocity becomes even more critical with this type of. criteria for residential structures normally NC35 or delivery system because the airstream must be. below Depending on the outlet device selected a directed across the ceiling all the way to the exterior. wall and part way down the wall to provide coverage system If the leaks are large enough in the return. of the high load areas in the room If the room is system the 350 cfm shortfall will be drawn from the. 20 ft wide the outlet device must be selected with a high temperature air in the attic In some areas attic. throw of more than 20 ft in order to guarantee that the temperatures can reach 140 to 150 F db dry bulb. primary airstream will remain in the unoccupied por even if the attic is vented properly Under these con. tion of the room If the selected device does not have ditions the mixed air temperature entering the evap. sufficient throw the primary airstream will drop into orator coil will be 91 9 to 96 9 F db instead of the. the occupied zone of the room and comfort condi normal 75 to 80 F db For most systems the T. tions will suffer The throw and drop characteristics across the evaporator is 18 to 20 F db which means. are very important to the successful application of that in this case the air leaving the evaporator will be. this type of supply outlet 73 9 to 76 9 F db instead of the normal 55 to 60 F db. If the relative humidity of the air in the attic is high it. Unless a high quality outlet device is used noise also will increase the latent load on the evaporator. problems with this type of delivery system can be and degrade the system s capacity to maintain the. very common The outlet device selected should desired comfort conditions in the structure. have adjustable deflection vanes and should be, equipped with a damper for volume control and bal As a general rule when framing members are used.
ancing a register The noise criteria specifications as part of the return air duct system the following. for the register should be in the range of NC30 to 35 approximate cfm values are recommended. RETURN AIR DUCT SYSTEMS 2 4s on 16 in centers 150 cfm. 2 4s on 24 in centers 200 cfm, The return air duct system is just as important as the 2 6s on 16 in centers 210 cfm. supply system and too often it is largely ignored In 2 6s on 24 in centers 340 cfm. many cases the return system consists of one or two 2 8s on 16 in centers 340 cfm. improperly sized openings connected back to the air 2 8s on 24 in centers 560 cfm. handler through improperly sized return ducts or 2 10s on 16 in centers 500 cfm. through wall floor and ceiling framing cavities 2 10s on 24 in centers 800 cfm. Although panned framing members can be used for 2 12s on 16 in centers 700 cfm. return systems they generally should be avoided 2 12s on 24 in centers 1 020 cfm. These types of installations are next to impossible to. seal Air leaking into the system can cause additional The approximate cfm values listed here are based on. sensible and latent loads on the HVAC system and the true net free areas They do not take into account. lead to comfort complaints from the occupants of the the complications encountered with sealing cavities. structure against air infiltration and other problems discussed. Duct leakage, If the return air duct system is located in the crawl. If duct leakage occurs in the attic space during the space of the structure and panned joists are used for. cooling season warm moist air can be pulled into the return system duct leakage can add a large. the return resulting in an increase in both the latent latent load on the HVAC system resulting in reduced. load and the sensible load on the HVAC system This sensible heat removal capacity and increased oper. infiltration into the return system will be aggravated if ating costs for the homeowner Complaints about the. the return system is undersized For example con comfort conditions within the structure are also likely. sider a 3 ton system that requires 450 cfm per ton for. cooling 1 350 cfm Assume that the return is As you can see a properly sized sealed return duct. improperly sized and can handle only 1 000 cfm Due system is just as important as a properly sized. to the undersizing of the return and the available sta sealed supply duct system in ensuring that the com. tic pressure of the blower the blower will try to pull air fort conditions within the structure are maintained in. from the attic space if leaks are present in the duct an economical manner. CENTRAL RETURN SYSTEMS order to ensure a proper return air flow from the. room A better solution would be to install a boot, Central return systems can be applied in smaller sleeve above the door and nonvision non see. structures with success These systems consist of through transfer grilles on either side or install non. one or more return inlets strategically located within vision transfer grilles in the door itself a 12 in 8 in. the structure and sized to return the total amount of transfer grille would be required in this case. the supplied air volume to the indoor blower Both the. inlet box and the return connecting ductwork should Larger structures require multiple returns in order to. be sized where the room air will flow back to the achieve satisfactory results Each of the returns must. blower at a relatively low velocity As emphasized be sized to return the amount of air delivered to the. above the return duct system must be free of leaks rooms or zones where the return grille is located It is. It is sometimes desirable to have some turns or other worth repeating that the return system must be. fittings in the duct run in order to prevent blower noise capable of handling the same amount of air as that. from being transmitted down the duct and exiting the delivered by the supply side of the system. return air grille The return air box should be lined with. sound attenuation insulation and insulated on the INDIVIDUAL ROOM RETURN SYSTEMS. outside to prevent or retard heat gain and heat loss. In some structures it may be desirable to install indi. Air delivered to all rooms of the structure should have vidual room returns Of course this means that the. an unrestricted path back to the return grille This return system is just as elaborate as the supply sys. means that closed doors must not isolate a room tem Each individual room return is sized to return the. The most common method seen in construction same amount of air that is delivered to the room by. today is to undercut the doors thus allowing air to the supply system The results are excellent if the lay. pass under a door if it is closed The amount of the out and sizing are done properly in fact there is no. undercut is determined by using the same methods other return system that performs as well as the indi. as those used to size the return grille or the connect vidual room return system The major drawback to. ing return duct that is when the door is closed this approach is the initial cost. there must be adequate free area to ensure that the. room does not become pressurized If a room is SUMMARY. allowed to become pressurized the delivery of the, supply air will be impeded comfort conditions in the It is the goal of this document to offer an overview of. room will suffer and the exfiltration of room air will the general principles of duct system design and to. occur Assume for example that the room in ques call attention to some of the special considerations. tion has a cfm requirement of 200 cfm and a 32 in that need to be given to the process to ensure a sat. entry door Based on a design friction loss factor for isfactory result The ultimate objective is to provide a. the return system of 0 05 in w g the opening at the dependable system that not only serves the needs of. bottom of the door would need to be approximately the consumer but also increases profits for the. 3 in of free space excluding any floor coverings in installing contractor by reducing callbacks. Refrigeration Service Engineers Society,1666 Rand Road Des Plaines IL 60016 847 297 6464.

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