This page intentionally left blank, DOW S,FIRE EXPLOSION INDEX. HAZARD CLASSIFICATION, SEVENTH EDITION, a AIChE techrzical manual published by. the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street New York NY 10017. ACKNOWLEDGMENT, T h e American Institute of Chemical Engineers wishes to acknowledge the cooperation. of The Dow Chemical Company in releasing their 7th edition of the Fire a d Explosion. Index Hazard ClassiJicarionGuide for publication Special thanks to N E Scheffler . W R Heitzig J F Murphy S M Hartnagle N H Humphrey B H Scortichini. and T 0 Gibson of The Dow Chemical Company whose careful evaluation and. review of this material provided some important innovations to make the Guide more. useful to the chemical industry , Copyright in U S A 0 1994. LC 80 29237, ISBN 0 8169 0623 8, TABLE OF CONTENTS. Preface 1,Introduction The Fire Explosion Index System 2. Pmxdure for Risk Analysis Calculations 3,Selection of Pertinent Process Units 8. Determination of Material Factor 10,Process Unit Hazards Factors 15. General Process Hazards 16,Special Process Hazards 20. Determination of Process Unit Hazards Factor 37,Determination of Fire and Explosion Index 38. Loss Control Credit Factors 39,Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary 47. Discussion of MPPD BI and Plant Layout 57,Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Summary 58. Risk Analysis Package 59, 1 Material Factor Determination Guide 13. 2 Material Factor Temperature Adjustment 14, 3 Dust Explosion Penalty 21. 4 High Pressure Penalty for Flammable and Combustible Liquids 22. 5 Hot Oil Heat Exchange System Penalty 36, 6 Degree of Hazard for F EI 38. 1 procedure for Calculating F EI and Other Risk Analysis Information 4. 2 Pressure Penalty for Flammable and Combustible Liquids 23. 3 Liquids or Gases in Process 27, 4 Liquids or Gases in Storage 29. 5 Combustible Solids in Storage Dust in Process 31. 6 Fired Equipment Penalty 34, 7 Radius of Exposure 48. 8 Damage Factor 53, 9 Maximum Probable Days Outage 55. Fire and Explosion Index Form 5, Loss Control Credit Factors Form 6. Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary Form 6, Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Summary Form 7. APPENDICES, A Material Factors 60, B Special Material Factor Considerations for Mixtures 72. C Basic Preventive and Protective Features 74, D Loss Prevention Checklist 75. E Equations for Damage Factor Data 81, F Acronyms and Abbreviations 83. This page intentionally left blank, PREFACE, Since the first edition of this guide was issued in 1964 the Fire Explosion Index F EI has evolved. through the past 29 years into a comprehensive index that gives a relative value to the risk of individual. process unit losses due to potential fires and explosions The primary purpose of the F EI is to serve as a. guide to the selection of ire protection methods Its broader purpose was to have a method for the relative. ranking of individual process units focused on key items of equipment . This index has been widely used in Dow and outside of Dow It is the leading hazard index recognized by. the chemical industry The present F EI provides key information to help evaluate the overall risk from. fire and explosion The F EI can be used in conjunction with the Chemical Exposure Index Guide 2nd. ed and other process information to form a Risk Analysis Package to better understand the potential risks. to a manufacturing unit This package is an important part of the Consolidated Audit process . The F EI is one of the tools used for evaluation of realistic fire explosion and reactivity potential of proc . ess equipment and its contents The F EI is also tied into the Distribution Ranking Index DRI . Ihe seventh edition is primarily an update of the sixth edition and there are no major conceptual changes . Improvements have been made in wording and updating has been done to remain consistent with Codes and. Loss Prevention Principles A major update has been made in Appendix A Material Factors which gives. the latest NFPA ratings flash points boiling points and most importantly Material Factors . Improvements in the seventh edition include , Correction of the errata which had been noted in the sixth edition . Incorporation of a table of F EI versus Degree of Hazard . Major updating of Appendix A to give most recent NFF A ratings and Material Factors which agree. with Table 1 , Revision of F EI forms that have been streamlined and put into computerized spreadsheet formats . Updating of the Determination of Material Factor and Toxic Materials NFPA ratings in accordance. with the latest NFPA 704 definitions , Addition of equations for the curves in the figures to aid in the calculation of factors and allow for. computer determination of values , Inclusion of SI International System of Units units in addition to UsBritish units . Improvement and addition of examples , Some revamping in the Loss Control Credit Factors area with elimination of buried tank credit and. reference to halons and new credit for process hazard reviews . Reorganization of Process Unit Risk Analysis Summary section . Updating discussion regarding Maximum Probable Property Damage and plant layout considerations . Minor revisions to the Loss Prevention Checklist . Ihe Fire Explosion I n d e x Hazard Classification Guide has been made available as an edited version to. all interested parties through the American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE 345 East 47th Street . New Yo NY 10017 Phone 212 705 7657 Various countries have referenced the F EI guide in their. respective governmental regulations , INTRODUCTION THE FIRE AND EXPLOSION INDEX. The Fire and Explosion Risk Analysis System is a step by step objective evaluation of the realistic fire . explosion and reactivity potential of process equipment and its contents The quantitative measurements. used in the analysis are based on historic loss data the energy potential of the material under study and the. extent to which loss prevention practices are currently applied . The purpose of the F EI system is to , 1 QUANTIFY the expected damage of potential fire explosion and reactivity incidents in realistic terms . 2 IDENTIFY equipment that would be likely to contribute to the creation or escalation of an incident . 3 COMMUNICATE the F EI risk potential to management . Beneath all the numbers graphs and figures however lies the most important goal of the F EI System . to make the engineer aware of the loss potential of each process area and to help the engineer identify. ways to lessen the severity and resultant dollar loss of potential incidents in an efficient and cost effective. The F EI is used in the Dow Risk Review Process Determination of the F EI must be done in conduct . ing a Process Hazard Analysis or Level I Risk Review . Insurance company assessments of potential exposures are typically based on the worst imaginable. incident hey might anticipate for example that the complete contents of a reactor dump could vaporize. instantaneously and ignite and their insurance loss estimates which are determined in part from this kind. of analysis can be extremely large From a realistic point of view this kind of situation is rare . The Dow F EI system attempts to determine the realistic maximum loss that can occur to a process plant. or process unit or related facility a loss that could actually be experienced under the most adverse o p. erating conditions he calculation is based on quantifiable data Finite spill rates process temperature in. relation to material flash points and boiling points and reactivity are just a few of the many contributors to. a probable incident , Although the F EI system is primarily designed for any operation in which a flammable combustible or. reactive material is stored handled or processed it may also be used in analyzing the loss potential of sew . age treating facilities distribution systems pipelines rectifiers transformers boilers thermal oxidizers and. certain elements of power plants The system can also be used for risk evaluations of small processes with. modest inventories of potentially hazardous materials its application to pilot plants is stmgly recom . mended The system can be applied if handling a minimum of approximately 1 OOO lb 454 kg of a. flammable or reactive material , A word of caution is in order for those planning to use the F EI system for the risk evaluation of facili . ties Common sense and good judgment must be used during the actual calculation and in the interpretation. of its results Process hazards that contribute to the magnitude and probability of losses have been. quantified as penalties to provide factors for computation Not every penalty may be applicable to a. specific situation and perhaps some may have to be adjusted . PROCEDURE FOR RISK ANALYSIS CALCULATIONS, To develop an F EI and Risk Analysis Summary the following are needed . a An accurate plot plan of the plant manufacturing unit . b A process flow sheet, c A Fire Explosion Index Hazard Classification Guide Seventh Edition. d An Fire Explosion Index Form page 5 F EI Seventh Edition . e A Loss Control Credit Factors Form page 6 F EI Seventh Edition . f A Process Unit Analysis Summary Form page 6 F EI Seventh Edition . g A Manufacturing Unit Risk Analysis Summary Form page 7 F EI Seventh Edition . h Replacement cost data for the installed process equipment under study . The procedure to be followed is listed below Figure 1 page 4 presents a flowchart outlining the. procedure for risk analysis calculations , 1 Selection should be made on the plot plan of the Pertinent Process Units that are considered of key. importance to the process and that would have the greatest impact on the magnitude of a potential fire. or explosion , 2 Determination is to be made of the Material Factor MF for each Process Unit The MF for a. particular material in the Process Unit is to be obtained from Table 1 page 13 or Appendices A or B . pages 60 to 73 , 3 Calculation is to be completed for the General Process Hazards Factor with application of the. appropriate penalties according to the F EI Form page 5 . 4 Calculation is to be completed for the Special Process Hazards Factor with application of the. appropriate penalties according to the F EI Form page 5 . 5 Determination of the Process Unit Hazards Factor is to be done by calculating the product of the. General and Special Process Hazards Factors , 6 Determination of the F EI is to be done by calculating the product of the Process Unit Hazards. Factor and the Material Factor , 7 Determination of the Area of Exposure surrounding the Process Unit being evaluated is to be. performed based on Radius of Exposure from Figure 7 page 48 and pages 47 to 50 . 8 Determination of the replacement value of all equipment within the Area of Exposure and the. inventory is to be done , 9 Determination of the Damage Factor which represents the degree of loss exposure is to be done using. Figure 8 page 53 based on the MF and the Process Unit Hazards Factor F3 . 10 Determination of the Base Maximum Probable Property Damage Base MPPD is to be made by. multiplying the Value of the Area of Exposure by the Damage Factor . 11 Application of the Loss Control Credit Factor to the Base MPPD allows for the determination of the. Actual MPPD , 12 Determination of the Maximum Probable Days Outage MPDO is performed by using Figure 9 page. 55 knowing the Actual MPPD , 13 Determination of the Business Interruption I is done by using the equation given on page 56 w h e . the MPDO is multiplied by the Value of Production for the Month VPM and by 0 70 30 . Each of the steps given above is outlined and explained in the following pages of this guide Appendix C . Basic Preventive and Protective Features and Appendix D Loss Prevention Checklist are also provided. for use in assessing the important loss control areas in a plant or manufacturingunit . When developing the F EI it is recommended that p p l e with a working knowledge of the plant s his . toq experiences be contacted to discuss probable incident scenarios to assure the most viable F EIs are.
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