Disturbance Ecology And Forest Management A Review Of The-Books Pdf

Disturbance ecology and forest management a review of the
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Forest Service has adopted a policy of ecosystem management. The Author that emphasizes maintaining the values of sustainability biodiver. Paul Rogers is an ecologist in the Interior West Resource Inven sity productivity and forest health rather than focusing on particu. tory Monitoring and Evaluation Program at the Intermountain lar deliverable products. Research Station His primary responsibility is to conduct field work In the attempt to implement ecosystem management land. and report on Forest Health Monitoring efforts in the Interior West managers are asking basic scientific questions that go far beyond. He holds a B S degree in geography from Utah State University the scope of historical Forest Service research Concurrent with. and an M S degree in geography from the University of Wisconsin this demand are budgets being slashed and research positions. Madison Since beginning his career with the Forest Service in being eliminated Land managers are being asked to implement. 1987 Rogers has specialized in conducting large scale field and new knowledge intensive programs at a time when resources are. remote vegetative surveys being dramatically reduced To address this significant dilemma. we need to re evaluate how research is conducted within the. Forest Service and how more effectively to involve partners from. Research Summary the research community, Land managers are incorporating ecosystem perspectives into As a part of this effort we have established an Intermountain. their local and regional management decisions This review of the Center for research on Disturbance Ecology at the Logan For. disturbance ecology literature and how it pertains to forest man estry Sciences Laboratory Intermountain Research Station Al. agement is a resource for forest managers and researchers inter though the objectives of the center are more fully described in the. ested in disturbance theory specific disturbance agents their inter memorandum of understanding that created it the defining objec. actions and appropriate methods of inquiry for specific geographic tives of the center are. regions The approach is broadly interdisciplinary and includes Create an environment that is more responsive to the research. efforts from ecologists biologists geographers historians wildlife needs of the National Forest System. scientists foresters entomologists pathologists hydrologists and More effectively utilize information from ongoing Forest Ser. modelers The author broadly defines disturbance ecology as the vice research projects to address disturbance issues. study of any distinct events that disrupt the function of ecosystems Facilitate effective collaborations with universities and other. These disruptions may occur over widely varying scales of time and extramural research partners. space Greater understanding of multiple disturbance mechanisms. and how they interact within forests will contribute significantly to An important way in which the Intermountain Center for Re. land managers ability to work with natural systems rather than search on Disturbance Ecology hopes to encourage collaborative. battling against individual disturbance agents Implications for the research both within the Forest Service community and the re. future of disturbance ecology based management are discussed search community at large is through visiting collaborator posi. Additionally this paper introduces land managers to a wide body tions Working a few months to perhaps a few years in the. of literature pertaining to disturbance ecology and forest manage center visiting collaborators will reap the intellectual and practical. ment The References section is recommended as a resource benefits from interaction between scientists and land managers. with diverse work experiences and professional backgrounds We. anticipate that the resulting insights will be difficult to gain in any. Contents Page other way We anticipate additional material benefits products. that will advance the objectives of the center and facilitate the. Introduction 1 practical application of disturbance ecology principles to manage. Defining disturbance ecology 1 ment practices on public lands. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium 2 Paul Rogers was the first collaborator at the center Paul is an. Forest dynamics and disturbance agents 3 ecologist with the Interior West Inventory Project Intermountain. Abiotic disturbance agents 3 Station Ogden UT He received his B S degree in geography. Biotic disturbance agents 7 from Utah State University and an M S degree in geography from. Disturbance interactions on the landscape the University of Wisconsin Madison He has wide ranging inter. two case studies 10 ests in landscape and disturbance ecology Paul spent 2 months. Established methods in disturbance ecology 10 on detail as a visiting collaborator and given his relatively short. Historical sources 11 tenure we decided that a review of the disturbance ecology. Field ecological methods 11 literature pertaining to forest management issues would provide. Modeling 12 for both accomplishing his goals and furthering the interests of. Toward management with disturbance ecology 13 the center This review is the final product of Paul s efforts. References 14 Rather than providing an exhaustive listing of every reference on. disturbance ecology the objectives were to focus specifically on. Foreword the aspects of disturbance ecology that most directly impinge on. management of public lands and to identify key references that. Land managers in the National Forest System are currently provide an entry into the literature on these important issues As. faced with some of the most serious challenges in the history of the such this publication is similar in scope and objectives of an Annual. Forest Service U S Department of Agriculture No longer does a Review journal article Paul also initiated creation of a computer. career in the Forest Service result in an idyllic life of a free roving data base on disturbance ecology References in this review are a. ranger Increasingly it has become a life spent in front of a word subset of that data base. processor working on public law documents or in courtrooms The intention of the center is to continue developing the distur. facing litigation The land management decisions on our National bance ecology data base for providing an information resource for. Forests are subjected to excruciating scrutiny not only from the research community at large. traditional resource based industries but also from citizen groups Jesse A Logan. representing broadly based interests in the multifaceted values of Acting Director Intermountain Center for. our forested lands In response to these societal pressures the Research on Disturbance Ecology. March 1996, Disturbance Ecology and Forest, Management a Review of the. Literature, Paul Rogers, Then there are insects moths weevils cater understand their role at larger temporal and spatial. pillars worms beetles sawflys termites and scales, borers They march dig fly bore crawl repro If natural disturbance is fundamental to the devel. duce within trees and nourish themselves and opment of forest ecosystems then our management of. their young Some like the bark beetles are the natural areas should be based on an understanding of. mortal foe of conifers disturbance processes Attiwill 1994 Gordon 1993. Insects are the worst of all enemies of trees Grumbine 1994 Lorimer and Frelich 1994 Malanson. They cause twice as much damage as disease and and Butler 1984 Pfister 1993 Now as Federal land. seven times more damage than fire Frome 1962 management agencies adopt ecosystem management. p 240 philosophies it becomes critical that disturbance is. viewed as complementary rather than solely deleteri. Natural disturbances are quite common in all ous to human and forest functions Grumbine 1994. regions of North America and the world when Monnig and Byler 1992 Pfister 1993. viewed from a long term perspective Each area This review highlights recent work in a broad array. has characteristic frequencies and types of distur of studies related to disturbance ecology This publica. bances based on its climate soils vegetation tion is a resource for managers and researchers inter. animals and other factors Fires windstorms ested in disturbance theory specific disturbance agents. and other disturbances have specific behaviors their interactions and appropriate methods. and leave certain conditions for growth Oliver of inquiry for specific geographic regions. and Larson 1990 p 92 93, Previous to settlement of the country fires Defining Disturbance.
started by lightning and Indians kept the brush, thin kept the juniper and other woodland species Ecology. decimated and gave the grass the upper hand Disturbance ecology encompasses the study of inter. with respect to possession of the soil In spite of relationships between biotic and abiotic components. periodic fires the grass prevented erosion The of an environment White and Pickett 1985 give the. removal of the grass by settlers relieved the most widely quoted definition of disturbance Any. brush species of root competition and of fire dam relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosys. age and thereby caused them to spread and take tems community or population structure and changes. the country Leopold 1924 p 2 3 resources substrate availability or the physical envi. ronment No definition of disturbance will satisfy all. Introduction ecologists but White and Pickett speak to the critical. elements of disruption and changed resource alloca. How land stewards view ecological disturbance in tion A more thorough discussion of alternative defini. an ecosystem is an indicator of how a given landscape tions may be found in a recent publication by Glenn. will be managed The first two quotes above typify Lewin and van der Maarel 1992 Though both. different philosophies in different eras of forest man disturbance and ecology are defined somewhat. agement The third quote is an exceptional view of loosely together they focus primarily on distinct events. management by an early forest ranger Further scru that disrupt the function of ecosystems That broad. tiny reveals a paradigmatic shift from that of humans statement will be used as a working definition of. having a antagonistic relationship with nature to one disturbance ecology for the purposes of this review. of acceptance of nature as a regulator with which A further consideration is scale Definitions of dis. humans must work in tandem Leopold illustrated turbance cannot be limited by size or timing as these. that our capacity to work with natural systems in factors are relative to the systems being evaluated. cluding disturbance is only limited by our ability to For example disturbance in a fungal community may. take place several times a year and at a scale meas outbreaks which tend to kill more selectively are. ured in square feet while other disruptions such as spoken of in terms of patch disturbance rather than. tropical cyclones may cover hundreds of square miles gaps Amman 1978 Castello and others 1995. and occur in the same place on a temporal scale of A possible exception is a study Canham and others. centuries 1990 that compared light falling through tree fall. White and Pickett 1985 also clarify the use of gaps in forest types of the East to the relatively moist. perturbation and catastrophe as covering the rare Pacific Northwest The conclusion was that the gap to. small and large events respectively Perturbation height ratio of the Western forest precluded signifi. refers primarily to specific alteration of systems that cant resource availability from gap occurrence In this. are clearly and narrowly defined Most often perturba particular Douglas fir hemlock forest type one might. tions are purposeful human manipulations that can be conclude that other environmental factors most likely. measured in totality Catastrophes on the other hand large scale disturbance or nutrient availability take. are rare events especially destructive ones and are precedence over light allocation from single tree gap. unlikely to be repeated with regularity Though many formation The Eastern forests on the other hand. have used these terms interchangeably such as Fos immediately took advantage of the light resulting. ter 1988 Odum 1985 for this review I will use White from gap formation by filling in the space with new. and Pickett s narrower definitions which rely pre tree growth Still it appears likely that Pacific North. dominantly on the term disturbance to describe all western forests do take advantage of gaps by releasing. but the rarest events other resources to shade tolerant tree species thereby. Discussion of scale often centers around the median promoting an overall patchiness in the absence of. area and timing of disturbances for specific land large scale disturbance. scapes otherwise known as disturbance regimes These examples illustrate a basic dichotomy in the. Understanding disturbance regimes for a particular scale of prevailing disturbance mechanisms Further. landscape is fundamental to the study of disturbance discussion of disturbance processes and scale often. ecology In North America the scale of the dominant centers on the question of system stability or equilib. force of vegetation change for a given landscape de rium Botkin 1993 Glenn Lewin and van der Maartel. fines study parameters Glenn Lewin and van der 1992 Veblen 1992. Disturbance Ecology and Forest Management a Forest dynamics and disturbance agents in studies of forest disturbance in the Eastern

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