Diplomacy And Domestic Politics The Logic Of Two Level-Books Pdf

Diplomacy and Domestic Politics The Logic of Two Level
13 Aug 2020 | 22 views | 0 downloads | 35 Pages | 689.21 KB

Share Pdf : Diplomacy And Domestic Politics The Logic Of Two Level

Download and Preview : Diplomacy And Domestic Politics The Logic Of Two Level

Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Diplomacy And Domestic Politics The Logic Of Two Level



Transcription

Diplomacy and domestic politics, the logic of two level games. Robert D Putnam, Introduction the entanglements of domestic and. international politics, Domestic politics and international relations are often somehow entangled. but our thkories have not yet sorted out the puzzling tangle It is fruitless. to debate whether domestic politics really determine international relations. or the reverse The answer to that question is clearly Both sometimes. The more interesting questions are When and How This article offers. a theoretical approach to this issue but I begin with a story that illustrates. the puzzle, One illuminating example of how diplomacy and domestic politics can. become entangled culminated at the Bonn summit conference of 1978 In. the mid 1970s a coordinated program of global reflation led by the lo. comotive economies of the United States Germany and Japan had been. proposed to foster Western recovery from the first oil shock 2 This proposal. An earlier version of this article was delivered at the 1986 annual meeting of the American. Political Science Association For criticisms and suggestions I am indebted to Robert Axelrod. Nicholas Bayne Henry Brady James A Caporaso Barbara Crane Ernst B Haas Stephan. Haggard C Randall Henning Peter B Kenen Robert 0 Keohane Stephen D Krasner Jacek. Kugler Lisa Martin John Odell Robert Powell Kenneth A Shepsle Steven Stedman Peter. Yu members of research seminars at the Universities of Iowa Michigan and Harvard and. two anonymous reviewers I am grateful to the Rockefeller Foundation for enabling me to. complete this research, 1 The following account is drawn from Robert D Putnam and C Randall Henning The.
Bonn Summit of 1978 How Does International Economic Policy Coordination Actually Work. Brookings Discussion Papers in International Economics no 53 Washington D C Brookings. Institution October 1986 and Robert D Putnam and Nicholas Bayne Hanging Together. Cooperation and Conflict in the Seven Power Summits rev ed Cambridge Mass Harvard. University Press 1987 pp 62 94, 2 Among interdependent economies most economists believe policies can often be more. effective if they are internationally coordinated For relevant citations see Putnam and Bayne. Hanging Together p 24, International Organization 42 3 Summer 1988. 0 1988 by the World Peace Foundation and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 428 International Organization, had received a powerful boost from the incoming Carter administration and. was warmly supported by the weaker countries as well as the Organization. for Economic Co operation and Development OECD and many private. economists who argued that it would overcome international payments im. balances and speed growth all around On the other hand the Germans and. the Japanese protested that prudent and successful economic managers should. not be asked to bail out spendthrifts Meanwhile Jimmy Carter s ambitious. National Energy Program remained deadlocked in Congress while Helmut. Schmidt led a chorus of complaints about the Americans uncontrolled ap. petite for imported oil and their apparent unconcern about the falling dollar. All sides conceded that the world economy was in serious trouble but it. was not clear which was more to blame tight fisted German and Japanese. fiscal policies or slack jawed U S energy and monetary policies. At the Bonn summit however a comprehensive package deal was ap. proved the clearest case yet of a summit that left all participants happier. than when they arrived Helmut Schmidt agreed to additional fiscal stimulus. amounting to 1 percent of GNP Jimmy Carter committed himself to decon. trol domestic oil prices by the end of 1980 and Takeo Fukuda pledged new. efforts to reach a 7 percent growth rate Secondary elements in the Bonn. accord included French and British acquiescence in the Tokyo Round trade. negotiations Japanese undertakings to foster import growth and restrain. exports and a generic American promise to fight inflation All in all the. Bonn summit produced a balanced agreement of unparalleled breadth and. specificity More remarkably virtually all parts of the package were actually. implemented, Most observers at the time welcomed the policies agreed to at Bonn. although in retrospect there has been much debate about the economic. wisdom of this package deal However my concern here is not whether the. deal was wise economically but how it became possible politically My. research suggests first that the key governments at Bonn adopted policies. different from those that they would have pursued in the absence of inter. national negotiations but second that agreement was possible only because. a powerful minority within each government actually favored on domestic. grounds the policy being demanded internationally, Within Germany a political process catalyzed by foreign pressures was.
surreptitiously orchestrated by expansionists inside the Schmidt govern. ment Contrary to the public mythology the Bonn deal was not forced on. a reluctant or altruistic Germany In fact officials in the Chancellor s. Office and the Economics Ministry as well as in the Social Democratic party. and the trade unions had argued privately in early 1978 that further stimulus. was domestically desirable particularly in view of the approaching 1980. elections However they had little hope of overcoming the opposition of. the Finance Ministry the Free Democratic party part of the government. coalition and the business and banking community especially the leader. Diplomacy and domestic politics 429, ship of the Bundesbank Publicly Helmut Schmidt posed as reluctant to the. end Only his closest advisors suspected the truth that the chancellor let. himself be pushed into a policy that he privately favored but would have. found costly and perhaps impossible to enact without the summit s package. Analogously in Japan a coalition of business interests the Ministry of. Trade and Industry MITI the Economic Planning Agency and some ex. pansion minded politicians within the Liberal Democratic Party pushed for. additional domestic stimulus using U S pressure as one of their prime. arguments against the stubborn resistance of the Ministry of Finance MOF. Without internal divisions in Tokyo it is unlikely that the foreign demands. would have been met but without the external pressure it is even more. unlikely that the expansionists could have overridden the powerful MOF. Seventy percent foreign pressure 30 percent internal politics was the. disgruntled judgment of one MOF insider Fifty fifty guessed an official. from MITI 3, In the American case too internal politicking reinforced and was rein. forced by the international pressure During the summit preparations Amer. ican negotiators occasionally invited their foreign counterparts to put more. pressure on the Americans to reduce oil imports Key economic officials. within the administration favored a tougher energy policy but they were. opposed by the president s closest political aides even after the summit. Moreover congressional opponents continued to stymie oil price decontrol. as they had under both Nixon and Ford Finally in April 1979 the president. decided on gradual administrative decontrol bringing U S prices up to world. levels by October 1981 His domestic advisors thus won a postponement of. this politically costly move until after the 1980 presidential election but in. the end virtually every one of the pledges made at Bonn was fulfilled Both. proponents and opponents of decontrol agree that the summit commitment. was at the center of the administration s heated intramural debate during. the winter of 1978 79 and instrumental in the final d e i s i o n. In short the Bonn accord represented genuine international policy co. ordination Significant policy changes were pledged and implemented by the. key participants Moreover although this counterfactual claim is neces. sarily harder to establish those policy changes would very probably not. have been pursued certainly not the same scale and within the same time. frame in the absence of the international agreement Within each country. one faction supported the policy shift being demanded of its country inter. 3 For a comprehensive account of the Japanese story see I M Destler and Hisao Mitsuyu. Locomotives on Different Tracks Macroeconomic Diplomacy 1977 1979 in I M Destler. and Hideo Sato eds Coping with U S Japanese Economic Conjicts Lexington Mass. Heath 1982, 4 For an excellent account of U S energy policy during this period see G John Ikenberry. Market Solutions for State Problems The International and Domestic Politics of American. Oil Decontrol International Organization 42 Winter 1988. 430 International Organization, nationally but that faction was initially outnumbered Thus international. pressure was a necessary condition for these policy shifts On the other. hand without domestic resonance international forces would not have suf. ficed to produce the accord no matter how balanced and intellectually per. suasive the overall package In the end each leader believed that what he. was doing was in his nation s interest and probably in his own political. interest too even though not all his aides agreed 5 Yet without the summit. accord he probably would not or could not have changed policies so easily. In that sense the Bonn deal successfully meshed domestic and international. Neither a purely domestic nor a purely international analysis could account. for this episode Interpretations cast in terms either of domestic causes and. international effects Second ImageH6 or of international causes and do. mestic effects Second Image R e e r s e d would, represent merely partial.
equilibrium analyses and would miss an important part of the story namely. how the domestic politics of several countries became entangled via an. international negotiation The events of 1978 illustrate that we must aim. instead for general equilibrium theories that account simultaneously for. the interaction of domestic and international factors This article suggests a. conceptual framework for understanding how diplomacy and domestic. politics interact, Domestic international entanglements the state of the art. Much of the existing literature on relations between domestic and interna. tional affairs consists either of ad hoc lists of countless domestic influences. on foreign policy or of generic observations that national and international. affairs are somehow linked s James Rosenau was one of the first scholars. to call attention to this area but his elaborate taxonomy of linkage politics. generated little cumulative research except for a flurry of work correlating. domestic and international conflict b e h a i o r, A second stream of relevant theorizing began with the work by Karl. 5 It is not clear whether Jimmy Carter fully understood the domestic implications of his. Bonn pledge at the time See Putnam and Henning The Bonn Summit and Ikenberry. Market Solutions for State Problems, 6 Kenneth N Waltz Man the State and War A Theoretical Analysis New York Columbia. University Press 1959, 7 Peter Gourevitch The Second Image Reversed The International Sources of Domestic. Politics International Organization 32 Autumn 1978 pp 881 911. 8 I am indebted to Stephan Haggard for enlightening discussions about domestic influences. on international relations, 9 James Rosenau Toward the Study of National International Linkages in his Linkage.
Politics Essays on the Convergence of National and International Systems New d r k Free. Press 1969 as well as his Theorizing Across Systems Linkage Politics Revisited in Jon. athan Wilkenfeld ed Conflict Behavior and Linkage Politics New York David McKay 1973. especially p 49, Diplomacy and domestic politics 431. Deutsch and Ernst Haas on regional integration 1 Haas in particular em. phasized the impact of parties and interest groups on the process of European. integration and his notion of spillover recognized the feedback between. domestic and international developments However the central dependent. variable in this work was the hypothesized evolution of new supranational. institutions rather than specific policy developments and when European. integration stalled so did this literature The intellectual heirs of this tra. dition such as Joseph Nye and Robert Keohane emphasized interdepend. ence and transnationalism but the role of domestic factors slipped more and. more out of focus particularly as the concept of international regimes came. to dominate the subfield, The bureaucratic politics school of foreign policy analysis initiated. another promising attack on the problem of domestic international inter. action As Graham Allison noted Applied to relations between nations. the bureaucratic politics model directs attention to intra national games the. overlap of which constitutes international relations 12 Nevertheless the. nature of this overlap remained unclarified and the theoretical contri. bution of this literature did not evolve much beyond the principle that bu. reaucratic interests matter in foreign policymaking. More recently the most sophisticated work on the domestic determinants. of foreign policy has focused on structural factors particularly state. strength The landmark works of Peter Katzenstein and Stephen Krasner. for example showed the importance of domestic factors in foreign economic. Diplomacy and Domestic Politics The Logic of Two Level Games Robert D Putnam International Organization Vol 42 No 3 Summer 1988 pp 427 460

Related Books

Houston Graduate School of Theology Wabash Center

Houston Graduate School of Theology Wabash Center

Houston Graduate School of Theology CH 510 The History of Christianity 1 Fall 2013 Thursdays 5 30 9 00 p m Daniel K Dunlap PhD Adjunct Professor of Worship and Historical Theology Email ddunlap hgst edu The mission of Houston Graduate School of Theology is empowering spiritual leadership through the intellectual spiritual and vocational development of men and women in order to

ColemanChronicle Amazon Web Services

ColemanChronicle Amazon Web Services

ColemanChronicle The Official E Newsletter of Coleman Middle School 1724 Manhattan Avenue Tampa FL 33629 813 872 533 Home of the Cobras ISSUE 120 September 23 2016 PRINCIPAL S MESSAGE Parents and Students Parental involvement is one of the keys to middle school success You and your student can connect with Coleman by attending one of our upcoming events Dads are invited to Dine and

NAME CHANGES A DIY FOR TRANSGENDER Guide for ADULTS IN NEW

NAME CHANGES A DIY FOR TRANSGENDER Guide for ADULTS IN NEW

Medicare or Medicaid Card and or documents Harris County Gold Card indigent insurance Court Order with full name and judge s signature School records certified copy Baptismal Certificate certified copy Early childhood immunization records Marriage and or divorce records Selective Service Card ii New York State While the New

NEWS AND FEATURES ON THE ICAO TRAVELLER IDENTIFICATION

NEWS AND FEATURES ON THE ICAO TRAVELLER IDENTIFICATION

NEWS AND FEATURES ON THE ICAO TRAVELLER IDENTIFICATION PROGRAMME VOL 12 NO 1 ICAOTRIP ALSO IN THIS ISSUE NEXT GENERATION IDENTITY MANAGEMENT HOW BRAZIL CHANGED CUSTOMS CONTROL KOREA S NEW i PRECHECKING SYSTEM INTERPOL S RESPONSE TO TRAVEL DOCUMENT FRAUD DIRECTING ASSISTANCE WHERE IT IS NEEDED 16 26 20 30 34 42 44 38 ICAO TRIP MA gAzIne VOluMe 12 nuMbeR 1 2017 editorial TRIP

SUBSCRIBE www rvconsumer

SUBSCRIBE www rvconsumer

www rvconsumer com 2 Table of Contents August 2016 Volume 6 Issue 8 www rvconsumer com 15 Minute RV Generator Service engine oil and 23 6 Best Kept Secret in the RV Industry Discover another side of RVing in this informative feature article about park model living and destination camping 16 RV Destination Camping The story of how we became interested in destination camping and what we

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC TRAVEL MEDIA INFORMATION KIT 2019

NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC TRAVEL MEDIA INFORMATION KIT 2019

Best List providing a hot list of the top places or experiences in a popular travel category TRAVEL Don t think of us as just a magazine Think of us as a powerhouse multimedia

Dragon Magazine 39 A N N A R C H I V E

Dragon Magazine 39 A N N A R C H I V E

this magazine in hand in time to read it before it gets dark and the fireworks start And while we here at Dragon Publishing are celebrating the Fourth we re also cele brating the start of our fifth publishing vol ume We hope you ve enjoyed the last four years of THE DRAGON and we promise to continue to bring you the best magazine of

magazine for women Amazon S3

magazine for women Amazon S3

This issue is jam packed with inspiration information and ideas to help you succeed in business and life Be sure to read all these articles as well as our regular features By the way if you are so inclined I d love to hear your thoughts Feel free to drop me a line heidi wemagazineforwomen com and let my team and I know how we are doing and more importantly how we can make WE Magazine

THE MAGAZINE rli uk com

THE MAGAZINE rli uk com

THE MAGAZINE Retail amp Leisure International is the only global magazine to cover both retail and leisure sectors Dedicated to the retail and leisure markets the magazine incorporates global news interviews with CEOs of leading retailers and global hotel operators specialist features profiles and regular industry insights all combined to offer the reader insight and analysis into the

MAXIMIZING YOUR INVESTMENT IN PRIVATE AIR TRANSPORT

MAXIMIZING YOUR INVESTMENT IN PRIVATE AIR TRANSPORT

readers investment in private air transport The magazine features illuminating interviews with business aviation users like Sir Richard Branson Buzz Aldrin John Travolta and Mark Cuban as well as reviews of new and used aircraft tax and legal reports luxury auto reviews vacation travel reports and much more Frequency 4x year Subscribers 32 800 subscribers in 163 countries About

Buch ZOK Landtechnik 2013 414587 indb Minetti

 Buch ZOK Landtechnik 2013 414587 indb Minetti

4 ARNTZ OPTIBELT GROUP GERMANY www optibelt com Contents AGCO 12 L 517 31 L 521 31 L 524 32 L 624 32 L 626 32 M 1600 32 M 1620 32 M 1630 32 MEGA 204 II 32 MEGA