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Systems Research Center, The charter of SRC is to advance both the state of knowledge and the state. of the art in computer systems From our establishment in 1984 we have. performed basic and applied research to support Digital s business objec. tives Our current work includes exploring distributed personal computing. on multiple platforms networking programming technology system mod. elling and management techniques and selected applications. Our strategy is to test the technical and practical value of our ideas by. building hardware and software prototypes and using them as daily tools. Interesting systems are too complex to be evaluated solely in the abstract. extended use allows us to investigate their properties in depth This ex. perience is useful in the short term in refining our designs and invaluable. in the long term in advancing our knowledge Most of the major advances. in information systems have come through this strategy including personal. computing distributed systems and the Internet, We also perform complementary work of a more mathematical flavor Some. of it is in established fields of theoretical computer science such as the. analysis of algorithms computational geometry and logics of programming. Other work explores new ground motivated by problems that arise in our. systems research, We have a strong commitment to communicating our results exposing and. testing our ideas in the research and development communities leads to im. proved understanding Our research report series supplements publication. in professional journals and conferences We seek users for our prototype. systems among those with whom we have common interests and we encour. age collaboration with university researchers,Robert W Taylor Director. In Memoriam,J C R Licklider,IRE now IEEE 1960, Man Computer Symbiosis is reprinted with permission from IRE Trans.
actions on Human Factors in Electronics volume HFE 1 pages 4 11 March. Science and Technology 1968, The Computer as a Communication Device is reprinted from Science and. Technology April 1968,Digital Equipment Corporation 1990. This work may not be copied or reproduced in whole or in part for any com. mercial purpose Permission to copy in whole or in part without payment. of fee is granted for nonprofit educational and research purposes provided. that all such whole or partial copies include the following a notice that. such copying is by permission of the Systems Research Center of Digital. Equipment Corporation in Palo Alto California an acknowledgment of the. authors and individual contributors to the work and all applicable portions. of the copyright notice Copying reproducing or republishing for any other. purpose shall require a license with payment of fee to the Systems Research. Center All rights reserved, This report honors J C R Licklider for his contributions to computer sci. ence research and education in this country We reprint here two of his. papers originally published in the 1960s which exemplify his ideas about. how computers could enhance human problem solving, If you were ever fortunate enough to meet him and you said something. like It s nice to meet you Dr Licklider he would ask right away that. you please call him Lick He was Lick to friends colleagues and casual. acquaintances alike, Lick had a vision of a better way of computing Once upon a time to.
get a computer to do your bidding you had to punch holes in paper cards. or tapes give the paper to someone who fed it to the machine and then go. away for hours or days Lick believed we could do better and more than. any other single individual saw to it that we did, In the paper entitled Man Computer Symbiosis published thirty years. ago Lick provided a guide for decades of computer research to follow The. paper was based on work performed by a small research group organized. and headed by him at Bolt Beranek and Newman In the late 1950s the. group purchased the first PDP 1 from Digital On this machine Lick s group. designed and built one of the earliest time sharing systems. In 1962 Lick was asked by the Director of the Advanced Research. Projects Agency ARPA to join the agency to create and manage a program. for funding research Although its annual budget was greater than the total. amount of money allocated to computer research by all other government. supported agencies it was one of the smaller programs within ARPA This. program led the way to commercial time sharing in the late 60s and to. networking in the mid 70s, The computer establishment criticized Lick s ARPA program Most. computer manufacturers and directors of computer centers argued that time. sharing was an inefficient use of machine resources and should not be pur. sued But Lick had the courage to persevere, His ARPA responsibilities included selecting and funding researchers to. build and lead research groups In this connection Lick was the architect of. Project MAC at MIT and a number of other projects that shaped the field. The leaders he chose twenty five years ago now read like a Who s Who of. computing research, The least known of Lick s accomplishments is perhaps his most signif. icant Prior to his work at ARPA no U S university granted a Ph D in. computer science A university graduate program requires a research base. and that in turn requires a long term commitment of dollars Lick s ARPA. program set the precedent for providing the research base at four of the. first universities to establish graduate programs in computer science U C. Berkeley CMU MIT and Stanford These programs started in 1965 have. remained the country s strongest and have served as role models for other. departments that followed Their success would have been impossible with. out the foundation put in place by Lick in 1962 64. For all his considerable influence on computing Lick retained his mod. esty He was the most unlikely great man you could ever encounter His. favorite kind of joke was one at his own expense He was gentle curious. and outgoing, Lick s vision provided an extremely fruitful long term direction for com.
puting research He guided the initial research funding that was necessary. to fulfil the early promises of the vision And he laid the foundation for. graduate education in the newly created field of computer science All users. of interactive computing and every company that employs computer people. owe him a great debt,Robert W Taylor,Man Computer Symbiosis 1. J C R Licklider,The Computer as a Communication Device 21. J C R Licklider and Robert W Taylor,Man Computer Symbiosis. Man computer symbiosis is an expected development in cooperative inter. action between men and electronic computers It will involve very close. coupling between the human and the electronic members of the partner. ship The main aims are 1 to let computers facilitate formulative thinking. as they now facilitate the solution of formulated problems and 2 to enable. men and computers to cooperate in making decisions and controlling com. plex situations without inflexible dependence on predetermined programs. In the anticipated symbiotic partnership men will set the goals formulate. the hypotheses determine the criteria and perform the evaluations Com. puting machines will do the routinizable work that must be done to prepare. the way for insights and decisions in technical and scientific thinking Pre. liminary analyses indicate that the symbiotic partnership will perform intel. lectual operations much more effectively than man alone can perform them. Prerequisites for the achievement of the effective cooperative association. include developments in computer time sharing in memory components in. memory organization in programming languages and in input and output. 1 Introduction,1 1 Symbiosis, The fig tree is pollinated only by the insect Blastophaga grossorun The. larva of the insect lives in the ovary of the fig tree and there it gets its. food The tree and the insect are thus heavily interdependent the tree. cannot reproduce wit bout the insect the insect cannot eat wit bout the tree. together they constitute not only a viable but a productive and thriving. partnership This cooperative living together in intimate association or. even close union of two dissimilar organisms is called symbiosis 27. Man computer symbiosis is a subclass of man machine systems There. are many man machine systems At present however there are no man. computer symbioses The purposes of this paper are to present the concept. and hopefully to foster the development of man computer symbiosis by an. alyzing some problems of interaction between men and computing machines. calling attention to applicable principles of man machine engineering and. pointing out a few questions to which research answers are needed The. hope is that in not too many years human brains and computing machines. will be coupled together very tightly and that the resulting partnership will. think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not. approached by the information handling machines we know today. 1 2 Between Mechanically Extended Man and Artificial. Intelligence, As a concept man computer symbiosis is different in an important way.
from what North 21 has called mechanically extended man In the man. machine systems of the past the human operator supplied the initiative the. direction the integration and the criterion The mechanical parts of the. systems were mere extensions first of the human arm then of the human. eye These systems certainly did not consist of dissimilar organisms living. together There was only one kind of organism man and the rest was. there only to help him, In one sense of course any man made system is intended to help man to. help a man or men outside the system If we focus upon the human operator. within the system however we see that in some areas of technology a. fantastic change has taken place during the last few years Mechanical. extension has given way to replacement of men to automation and the men. who remain are there more to help than to be helped In some instances. particularly in large computer centered information and control systems. the human operators are responsible mainly for functions that it proved. infeasible to automate Such systems humanly extended machines North. might call them are not symbiotic systems They are semi automatic. systems systems that started out to be fully automatic but fell short of the. Man computer symbiosis is probably not the ultimate paradigm for com. plex technological systems It seems entirely possible that in due course. electronic or chemical machines will outdo the human brain in most of the. functions we now consider exclusively within its province Even now Gel. ernter s IBM 704 program for proving theorems in plane geometry proceeds. at about the same pace as Brooklyn high school students and makes simi. lar errors 12 There are in fact several theorem proving problem solving. chess playing and pattern recognizing programs too many for complete ref. erence 1 2 5 8 11 13 17 18 19 22 23 25 capable of rivaling human. intellectual performance in restricted areas and Newell Simon and Shaw s. 20 general problem solver may remove some of the restrictions In short. it seems worthwhile to avoid argument with other enthusiasts for artifi. cial intelligence by conceding dominance in the distant future of cerebration. to machines alone There will nevertheless be a fairly long interim during. which the main intellectual advances will be made by men and computers. working together in intimate association A multidisciplinary study group. examining future research and development problems of the Air Force es. timated that it would be 1980 before developments in artificial intelligence. make it possible for machines alone to do much thinking or problem solving. of military significance That would leave say five years to develop man. computer symbiosis and 15 years to use it The 15 may be 10 or 500 but. those years should be intellectually the most creative and exciting in the. history of mankind,2 Aims of Man Computer Symbiosis. Present day computers are designed primarily to solve preformulated prob. lems or to process data according to predetermined procedures The course. of the computation may be conditional upon results obtained during the. computation but all the alternatives must be foreseen in advance If an. unforeseen alternative arises the whole process comes to a halt and awaits. the necessary extension of the program The requirement for preformula. tion or predetermination is sometimes no great disadvantage It is often. said that programming for a computing machine forces one to think clearly. that it disciplines the thought process If the user can think his problem. through in advance symbiotic association with a computing machine is not. However many problems that can be thought through in advance are. very difficult to think through in advance They would be easier to solve. and they could be solved faster through an intuitively guided trial and. error procedure in which the computer cooperated turning up flaws in the. reasoning or revealing unexpected turns in the solution Other problems. simply cannot be formulated without computing machine aid Poincar an. ticipated the frustration of an important group of would be computer users. Once upon a time to get a computer to do your bidding you had to punch holes in paper cards or tapes give the paper to someone who fed it to the machine and then go

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