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Dietary Management of Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis
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158 Food Allergy M Fern ndez Rivas Section Editor, should facilitate the spread of dietary interventions making this type of therapy. more available for extended use,Introduction, Eosinophilic esophagitis EoE represents an emerging diet demonstrating unequivocally for the first time. gastrointestinal disorder characterized by symptoms of that food allergy plays a causal role in chronic esoph. esophageal dysfunction including dysphagia and food agitis while simultaneously establishing a gold stan. impaction along with marked esophageal eosinophil dard for comparing subsequent therapies. ia in mucosal biopsies both of which persist after However despite the great number of studies car. treatment for acid gastroesophageal reflux 1 First de ried out on the disease over the past 20 years manage. fined 20 years ago as a distinctive clinico pathological ment of EoE remains controversial Current treatments. syndrome 2 EoE currently represents an emerging include the use of swallowed steroids with a topical ef. chronic disease that usually persists from childhood fect various dietary modifications and endoscopic di. into adulthood 3 4 with an estimated prevalence lation Even more recently several monoclonal. of 43 56 cases 100 000 inhabitants in both America antibodies have been assayed 14 With all this a. and Europe affecting both children and adults 5 8 commonly accepted algorithm for treating patients is. EoE has been related to allergies since its first de still lacking mostly due to limited information regard. scriptions In fact pediatric and adult patients common ing the long term effects of different therapies in mod. ly present a family or personal allergic background ifying the natural history of the disease and its. including asthma rhinitis conjunctivitis or eczema with associated subepithelial fibrosis 14 15 16 As a re. variable frequency 1 Moreover peripheral eosinophil sult there is a wide variability in both the standard of. ia is present in 50 of patients with three out of four care for EoE patients and the adherence to proposed. exhibiting elevated serum IgE levels 9 Food and international guidelines in clinical practice 6 17. aeroallergen sensitization are also common as deter An increasing body of knowledge has recently. mined by means of positive skin prick tests SPTs in pa renewed interest in the dietary management of EoE. tients of all ages 10 12 However the definitive as a drug free alternative to topical steroids which still. definition of EoE as a characteristic manifestation of constitute the most widely utilized medical treatment. food allergy only came after disease remission was for EoE in patients of all ages This article aims to review. achieved by feeding a series of pediatric patients ex all available dietary approaches for the management of. clusively with an amino acid based elemental formu EoE along with the advantages and limitations of each. la 13 In this groundbreaking study the disease in order to provide practical advice for the successful. recurred in all cases once patients resumed a normal management of EoE through diet. The natural history of EoE is starting to become more clearly defined. mainly through longitudinal studies focused on determining the. evolution of the untreated disease We know that in the absence of. treatment EoE tends to persist over time with chronic symptoms. and inflammation significantly affecting health related quality of life. QoL 3 but usually with no impact on the nutritional state of the. patient 18 Characteristic endoscopic features in children include. Dietary Management of Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis Lucendo and Arias 159. acute inflammation especially mucosal edema along with whitish. exudates and linear furrows 19 adult patients additionally present. with fibrotic changes such as rings and strictures 20 However no. malignant potential has been associated with EoE until now 18. Moreover retrospective studies have demonstrated that the duration of. untreated disease directly correlates with the prevalence of esophageal. strictures in a time dependent manner 21 Likewise an association. has been demonstrated in the natural history of Crohn s disease. The classical treatment goals of EoE namely 1 the resolution of clin. ical symptoms and 2 achieving and maintaining disease remission. have been expanded to include 3 the prevention of fibrotic compli. cations such as strictures 4 avoidance of the iatrogenic effects of. medication 5 maintenance of an adequate QoL and 6 the pre. vention of nutritional deficiencies due to dietary treatment. Summary of available alternatives to dietary therapy for EoE. Pharmacological treatment for EoE patients has mainly comprised. the use of several anti inflammatory drugs used in other allergic. disorders The first reported cases of EoE were effectively managed. with systemic steroids which were later replaced by topical steroids. after these were shown to have a similar effectiveness with a lower. rate of side effects First used in pediatric patients 22 topically. administered swallowed fluticasone propionate FP has been shown. to be highly effective in children 23 significantly superior to a. placebo 24 and comparable to oral prednisone 25 1b grade A. Similar results have been documented in adults 26 Viscous. budesonide has also emerged as an alternative treatment for both chil. dren 27 and adults with EoE 28 having been proven safe and effective. 1b grade A Ciclesonide has also recently been added to the pharma. cological armory for treating EoE 29 However given the chronic nature. of EoE sustained treatment with steroids or repeated courses must be. considered even after achieving disease remission Finally azathioprine. 6 mercaptopurine was found to be effective in causing the remission of. symptoms and eosinophilic infiltration for periods of 3 8 years in adults. with steroid dependent EoE and eosinophilic gastroenteritis with. esophageal involvement 30, Other anti allergy drugs such as anti H1 blockers or the mast cell. stabilizer disodium cromoglycate have shown no therapeutic benefit. in patients with EoE 31 Montelukast is likewise not recommended. for the management of EoE 1 as it is unable to maintain remission. achieved with topical steroids 32 4 grade C, Several biological therapies based on monoclonal antibodies have. been assessed in EoE with limited results Thus the anti TNF. infliximab failed to demonstrate any beneficial effects in adult EoE. patients 33 nor did the anti IgE omalizumab lead to clinical im. provement in children 34 However when the anti IL 5 monoclo. 160 Food Allergy M Fern ndez Rivas Section Editor, nal antibodies mepolizumab and reslizumab were analyzed in ran.
domized controlled trials in both adult 35 and pediatric 36 37. patients tissue eosinophils were significantly reduced Unfortunate. ly clinical improvement was minimal 1b grade A, Despite the fact that EoE is defined as the persistence of eosinophilic. inflammation after acid suppression proton pump inhibitors PPIs. have been used successfully as a sole therapy for EoE patients 38 39. The anti inflammatory properties of PPIs were recently demonstrated in. vitro after they were able to reduce the gene expression of eotaxin 3 a. key chemo attractant involved in the pathophysiology of the disease in. esophageal cell cultures from EoE patients 40 Until a clearer eluci. dation of the real significance of PPI responsive EoE is developed. consensus guidelines currently consider this disease to be a specific. manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease 1. Endoscopic dilation a mechanical procedure with no effect on the. underlying inflammatory process seems to result in at least a short. term improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients ac. cording to a recent meta analysis 41 It has mostly been used in. adult EoE patients who often present esophageal stenosis with a. reduction of esophageal caliber When performed by an experienced. specialist esophageal dilation is a safe procedure 41 However. various risk factors for complications have been identified including. a long evolution of dysphagia high eosinophil density young pa. tient age repeated procedures and luminal narrowing in the upper. and middle esophageal thirds 42 43,Dietary approaches for EoE. Elemental diet in EoE, Since 1995 after an initial report showed that feeding 10 children. exclusively with an amino acid based elemental formula led to. symptom relief and histological normalization of EoE 13 several. studies have reproduced these findings in pediatric series 44 45. 46 In fact results show that more than 90 of patients rapidly. reach peak eosinophil counts G15 hpf with symptomatic improve. ment in 996 of cases 4 grade C Moreover subsequent con. trolled re introduction of solid foods results in recurrence of. gastrointestinal symptoms specific to individual trigger foods. The first report regarding the use of elemental diet to treat adult EoE has. been published only very recently 47 A series of 29 patients were. prospectively recruited and told to avoid any kind of food except an. elemental formula for a four week period Three patients abandoned. the study protocol on the first day and eight more consumed forbidden. solid foods during the first 2 weeks of the study period A pathological. infiltration of 915 eos hpf persisted in only one out of the 18 adults who. completed the study 4 grade C giving a per protocol efficacy of 94 4. which went down to 58 8 when analyzed for intention to treat. Dietary Management of Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis Lucendo and Arias 161. A rapid recurrence of eosinophilic inflammation after resuming a. normal diet is the norm in both children and adults therefore ad. ditional dietary strategies should be implemented after elemental. diet induced remission of the disease, Although the efficacy of an elemental diet has proven superior to that. of any other type of dietary intervention in managing EoE several. drawbacks restrict its use in clinical practice including its unpleasant. taste which forces up to 80 of pediatric patients to be fed through. a nasogastric tube 31 its high non adherence rates 48 the many. limitations it places on social activities due to the complete avoid. ance of any kind of table food and its high cost This latter limitation. leads to the additional disadvantage that some insurance plans do. not cover this type of therapy, The only realistic utility of elemental diet in clinical practice is to feed.
infants and toddlers among whom the restriction of having no ad. ditional food may be better tolerated and only during the length of. time required for food reintroduction with the goal of identifying. specific dietary triggers,Elimination diets directed by allergy testing. The growing body of evidence showing that exposure to food aller. gens leads to EoE has prompted researchers to attempt to identify. specific food triggers for the disease sometimes using clinical histo. ries which is complicated as patients do not usually associate the. consumption of certain foods with the appearance of symptoms. but most often using skin prick tests SPTs and or atopy patch tests. In 2002 Spergel et al used SPTs and APTs on pediatric EoE patients. for the first time to determine a suitable elimination diet 49 The. avoidance of foods that gave positive skin test results led to histo. logical and clinical resolution in 49 of patients 50 with this. strategy an average of five foods were excluded from each child s diet. 4 grade C The authors adverted on the variable sensitivity and. specificity of these allergy tests with G10 of positive results in both. tests along with their low sensitivity to cow s milk which as noted. below is the most common food trigger for EoE The same authors. have recently evaluated a new strategy consisting of the elimination. from the diet of foods identified through SPT APT in addition to an. empirical elimination diet Combining the two strategies led to in. creases in histological remission rates of up to 77 50. Unfortunately the aforementioned results regarding the histological. remission of EoE have not been reproduced by other research groups. Allergy tests failed to identify food triggers in most patients in several. pediatric 51 52 53 and adult series 47 54 55 56 57. Moreover food specific IgE serum measurements and SPTs were. 162 Food Allergy M Fern ndez Rivas Section Editor, neither sensitive nor specific methods for predicting EoE triggers in. adult patients 57 58, A growing body of evidence points to the involvement of a cell. mediated delayed reaction against foods rather than an IgE me. diated reaction in the pathophysiology of EoE As a result EoE. usually coexists together with other IgE mediated atopic mani. festations in a single patient each of which responds to different. underlying mechanisms thus limiting the clinical utility of IgE. testing for directing dietary interventions in patients with EoE. Indeed because positive results from SPTs serum IgE and ATPs. cannot be used alone to identify food triggers in EoE food re. strictions should not be recommended exclusively based on a. positive result Currently food triggers can only be identified by. documenting disease remission after specific food antigen. avoidance followed by EoE recrudescence upon reintroduction of. the food in question 1 This is the strategy used in the empir. ical elimination diets and food reintroduction protocols discussed. Empirical elimination diets in EoE, In an attempt to overcome the disadvantages of elemental and allergy. testing directed diets in children with EoE Kagalwalla et al explored the. alternative of eliminating the six foods containing those intact food pro. teins most commonly associated with food allergy in children 45 The. original 6 food elimination diet SFED which specifically excluded milk. protein soy egg wheat peanut tree nuts and seafood from the subjects. diets led to significant improvement of both esophageal inflammation. G10 eos hpf and symptoms in 74 of the 35 children treated during a 6. week period, Comparable response rates to those reported in children 46 have.
also been documented for SFED in two prospective American and. European series of adult EoE patients 57 58 4 grade C It. should be noted that the original list of foods restricted by. Kagalwalla was broadened to include foods that gave a positive SPT. result 46 59 taking into account geographical food sensiti. zation patterns 58, Most importantly using sequential single food reintroduction re. searchers were able to clearly identify individual food triggers in chil. dren 59 and adults 57 58 by documenting disease recurrence. through repeated endoscopies with biopsies Cow s milk wheat and. eggs in that order have been identified as the major food triggers in all. available studies to date The frequency and involvement of the re. maining triggers varies from one region to another giving rise to the. question of whether empirical exclusion diets should be tailored to each. specific region and based on the staple diets and food sensitization. Dietary Management of Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis Lucendo and Arias 163. profiles of where the patient is being treated 58, The sustained efficacy of food trigger avoidance has only been. assessed in two studies 58 60 For a period of up to 3 years every. patient who followed the diet remained asymptomatic with no. pathological eosinophilic inflammation seen in annual endoscopic. examinations Moreover no drug treatment was necessary for pa. tients with sustained remission of EoE 58, Finally allergy tests based on demonstrating an IgE driven hyper. sensitivity showed limited usefulness in identifying EoE triggers in. SFED based studies exhibiting extremely low concordance with the. results of food reintroduction challenges 57 58 59. Empirical elimination of cow s milk, Cow s milk protein has been demonstrated to be the food antigen. most frequently linked to EoE in both pediatric 46 50 59. and adult patients 57 58 identified as an EoE trigger in ap. proximately three out of four subjects, There are an increasing number of reports of patients developing EoE.
after milk 61 and egg 62 oral immunotherapy Data on long term. food tolerance induction are still scarce 63 the possibility of a. change in the pattern of the immune response from Th2 to Th1 type. should be taken into account, As a result a recent retrospective study 64 focusing solely on cow s. milk showed significant histological remission of EoE G15 eos hpf. in 65 of children and symptom improvement in all patients after. the elimination of milk from the diet The unexpectedly high efficacy. of this strategy may have been influenced in this study by the in. clusion of patients with a particular allergic background i e a pre. vious IgE mediated cow s milk allergy undergoing desensitization. In conclusion EoE patients with a previous history of Th2 mediated. food allergy and who are undergoing oral desensitization should be. considered for specific single food removal followed by endoscopic. and bioptic monitoring for EoE remission The advantages and. drawbacks of re exposing the patient to allergic reaction including. anaphylaxis in the case of accidental consumption should be care. fully weighed, Food reintroduction and identification of food triggers. Food reintroduction is essential in the dietary management of EoE. and should always be considered after patients on elemental or. elimination diets present normal esophageal biopsies Food rein. troduction has the double aim of selectively identifying foods that. trigger EoE as well as improving patient acceptance of and adherence. to a less restrictive diet,164 Food Allergy M Fern ndez Rivas Section Editor. It is worth noting that one or more independent foods can be re. sponsible for EoE thus while three out of four Northwestern. American pediatric and adult patients exhibited a single food. trigger 57 59 this was documented in only one out of three. adult Spanish patients 58 Although very limited information is. available on this topic following a more varied diet the Mediter. ranean diet as compared to the Northwestern American diet or an. adult s diet compared to a child s may increase the probability of. developing a food allergy manifested as EoE, There are two possible strategies for planning the reintroduction se. quence The first is to begin with foods unlikely to cause EoE e g. vegetables and fruits chicken and beef in order to normalize the. patient s diet as soon as possible 65 The alternative strategy. assessed in SFED based trials consists of first reintroducing wheat. and milk because although they are the most common EoE triggers. if the result is negative their impact in returning patients to a normal. diet is higher 58, After demonstrating EoE triggered by cow s milk the immediate re.
introduction of soy may provide patents with an effective milk sub. stitute Due to the common cross reactivity with cow s milk proteins. sheep s and goat s milk derived products mainly cheeses should. also be excluded, How can we succeed in the dietary management of EoE patients. The lack of multicenter randomized comparative studies on the. effectiveness advantages and drawbacks of empirical elimination. diets vs skin allergy testing prevent us from undoubtedly. recommending one dietary option over another However available. evidences show that SFED seems to be the best current dietary ap. proach for treating EoE patients having provided the greater and. more consistent results in different studies and it should be con. sidered for both children and motivated adults Until better and. more accurate food allergy testing capable of identifying specific food. triggers is available or until genetic profiling can accurately predict. individual responses to diet the unreliability of skin allergy testing. limits the use of this method to experienced centers where it has been. proven to be efficient, Food triggers of EoE have repeatedly been demonstrated to be foods. commonly consumed in the standard Western diet including milk. wheat and eggs This begs the question of whether these trigger. foods are the same for other geographical regions for example Asia. where rice and soy are common in the staple diet Consequently. when planning a dietary intervention to manage EoE it should be. taken into account that allergy sensitization patterns depend on an. tigen exposure which varies from one place to another 66 68. Dietary Management of Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis Lucendo and Arias 165. As a result it seems reasonable to design food interventions based on. skin allergy testing or empirical elimination according to the staple. diet adapting each strategy to regional consumption habits and al. lergy sensitization patterns, To date there is no definitive data on the specific predictors of. clinical response to dietary intervention in adult EoE indeed neither. symptoms nor endoscopic histopathological background have dif. fered significantly among responders and non responders 58. Moreover extended experience in managing adult EoE with an SFED. was associated with increased response rates pG0 05 57 In the. case of exclusive elimination of cow s milk younger patients and. those with a lower peak eosinophil count exhibited a significantly. increased remission rate 64, The risk of nutritional deficiencies derived from extensive food re. strictions must be adverted especially in pediatric EoE patients The. collaboration of a dietician is strongly recommended for patient and. parent dietary counseling as a specialist can provide useful instruc. tions and guidelines to ensure correct dietary management of the. disease The possibly harmful effects of food restrictions on adult. patients seem to be minimal In any case extended food restrictions. like those imposed in empirical SFEDs should only be used to induce. disease remission over the course of several weeks After that food. reintroduction constitutes an essential part of the dietary manage. ment of EoE patients and should be always considered after normal. esophageal biopsies have been achieved, Long term difficulties in adhering to an elimination diet mostly de.
pend on the type and number of food triggers involved in EoE Key. factors for improving adherence include finding appropriate substi. tutes for the eliminated foods and simplifying the food elimination. study protocols Cow s milk based extensively hydrolyzed formulas. have been demonstrated to be well tolerated by most adult patients. with milk triggered EoE 69 Ongoing research on 4 food elimi. nation diets may simplify study protocols and reduce the number of. endoscopies needed, Since repeated endoscopies and biopsies are essential for identifying. EoE food triggers sedation should be guaranteed for these patients. especially since it increases their willingness to undergo repeated. procedures In order to reduce the number of endoscopic exams. needed some authors have performed them after the reintroduction. of two foods but this strategy may lead to potential confusion since. symptoms do not universally reappear quickly in every patient. Unsolved aspects suggestions for further research, It is interesting to note that the various dietary interventions avail. able for EoE patients show relatively similar results with regard to. 166 Food Allergy M Fern ndez Rivas Section Editor, efficacy ranging from 96 to 70 13 32 44 45 46 50 57. 58 We can thus safely assert that in most of patients with EoE the. disease is triggered and maintained exclusively by food with a very. small remainder attributable to airborne allergens. Differences in the efficacy of exclusive feeding with an elemental diet. compared with empirical elimination diets can be explained by al. lergy to those foods that are not restricted from the diet mostly fruits. and vegetables In fact most adult EoE patients exhibit sensitization. to cross reactive panallergen components including profilins 70. and lipid transfer proteins LPT which are mostly found in food of. vegetal origin, Because EoE is a chronic malady foods identified as triggers for. the disease should be avoided indefinitely 1 after that and. even when a sustained drug free response is achievable for most. patients with EoE it is tempting to speculate on the possibility of. inducing food tolerance by progressive EoE trigger reintroduction. Unfortunately the only available study on this topic provided. disappointing results 59 with EoE universally reappearing. after food reintroduction in every child who had been in remis. sion for a period of up to 4 years, The search for noninvasive markers of active esophageal inflam.
mation must go on in order to facilitate the use of dietary. therapies for EoE Unfortunately subrogate biochemical markers. including serum levels of eosinophil derived granular proteins. have shown little usefulness in monitoring disease activity 71. However a novel minimally invasive string test was recently. found to accurately reflect mucosal eosinophilic inflammation by. measuring eosinophil derived proteins in luminal secretions 72. Further research is needed to demonstrate the usefulness of this. test in clinical practice, Finally in order to better define novel and targeted dietary based. therapies the many unresolved aspects concerning the immuno. logical and physiopathological mechanisms of EoE must be elu. Compliance with Ethics Guidelines,Conflict of Interest. Alfredo J Lucendo and ngel Arias declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent, This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors. Dietary Management of Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis Lucendo and Arias 167. References and Recommended Reading, Papers of particular interest published recently have been. highlighted as,Of importance,Of major importance, 1 Liacouras CA Furuta GT Hirano I et al Eosinophilic esophagitis Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol.
esophagitis updated consensus recommendations 2008 6 531 5. for children and adults J Allergy Clin Immunol 12 Castro JA Gomez TE Garcia RR et al Demographic. 2011 128 3 20 clinical and allergological characteristics of Eosino. 2 Attwood SE Smyrk TC Demeester TR et al philic Esophagitis in a Spanish central region. Esophageal eosinophilia with dysphagia A distinct Allergol Immunopathol Madr doi 10 1016. clinicopathologic syndrome Dig Dis Sci j aller 2013 04 004. 1993 38 109 16 13 Kelly KJ Lazenby AJ Rowe PC et al Eosinophilic. 3 DeBrosse CW Franciosi JP King EC et al Long term esophagitis attributed to gastroesophageal reflux. outcomes in pediatric onset esophageal eosinophilia improvement with an amino acid based formula. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011 128 132 8 Gastroenterology 1995 109 1503 12. After retrospectively identifying EoE patients by reviewing 14 Gonzalez Castillo S Arias A Lucendo AJ Treat. pediatric esophageal biopsy specimens from up to 1999 ment of eosinophilic esophagitis how should we. they were contacted 15 years later and answered question manage the disease J Clin Gastroenterol. naire based study quality of life was significantly decreased 2010 44 663 71. among patients compared with control subjects while EoE 15 Lieberman JA Morotti RA Konstantinou GN et al. symptoms persisted along the time Dietary therapy can reverse esophageal subepithelial. 4 Lucendo AJ S nchez Cazalilla M Adult versus pedi fibrosis in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis a. atric eosinophilic esophagitis important differences historical cohort Allergy 2012 67 1299 307. and similarities for the clinician to understand Ex A retrospective analysis of a biopsy database showed that. pert Rev Clin Immunol 2012 8 733 45 dietary restriction alone similar to topical steroids can re. 5 Noel RJ Putnam PE Rothenberg ME Eosinophilic verse subepithelial fibrosis in children with EoE. esophagitis N Engl J Med 2004 351 940 1 16 Lucendo AJ Arias A De Rezende LC et al. 6 Dellon ES Jensen ET Martin CF et al The prevalence Subepithelial collagen deposition profibrogenic cy. of eosinophilic esophagitis in the United States Clin tokine gene expression and changes after prolonged. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013 doi 10 1016 fluticasone propionate treatment in adult eosino. j cgh 2013 09 008 philic esophagitis a prospective study J Allergy Clin. 7 Hruz P Straumann A Bussmann C et al Escalating Immunol 2011 128 1037 46. incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis a 20 year pro The first assessment of fibrous remodeling in adult patients. spective population based study in Olten County with EoE demonstrated a dense subepithelial collagen de. Switzerland J Allergy Clin Immunol position prolonged treatment with fluticasone propionate. 2011 128 1349 50 did not significantly reduced this deposit in spite of reduc. 8 Arias A Lucendo AJ Prevalence of eosinophilic ing gene expression of pro fibrogenic cytokines. oesophagitis in adult patients in a central region of 17 Lucendo AJ Arias A Molina Infante J et al Diag. 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Immunophenotypic characterization and quantifica fluticasone for eosinophilic esophagitis Dig Dis Sci. tion of the epithelial inflammatory infiltrate in eo 2010 55 1313 9. sinophilic esophagitis through stereology an analysis 39 Molina Infante J Ferrando Lamana L Ripoll C et al. of the cellular mechanisms of the disease and the Esophageal eosinophilic infiltration responds to. immunologic capacity of the esophagus Am J Surg proton pump inhibition in most adults Clin. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011 9 110 7,Pathol 2007 31 598 606.
40 Cheng E Zhang X Huo X et al Omeprazole blocks,27 Aceves SS Bastian JF Newbury RO et al Oral vis. eotaxin 3 expression by oesophageal squamous cells. cous budesonide a potential new therapy for eosin,from patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis and. ophilic esophagitis in children Am J Gastroenterol. GORD Gut 2013 62 824 32,2007 102 2271 9,41 Moawad FJ Cheatham JG Dezee KJ Meta analysis. 28 Straumann A Conus S Degen L et al Budesonide is. the safety and efficacy of dilation in eosinophilic. effective in adolescent and adult patients with active oesophagitis Aliment Pharmacol Ther. eosinophilic esophagitis Gastroenterology 2013 38 713 20. 2010 139 1526 37 42 Cohen MS Kaufman AB Palazzo JP et al An audit. 29 Schroeder S Fleischer DM Masterson JC et al Suc of endoscopic complications in adult eosinophilic. cessful treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis with esophagitis Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. ciclesonide J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007 5 1149 53, 2012 129 1419 21 43 Dellon ES Gibbs WB Rubinas TC et al Esophageal. 30 Netzer P Gschossmann JM Straumann A et al dilation in eosinophilic esophagitis safety and pre. Corticosteroid dependent eosinophilic oesophagitis dictors of clinical response and complications. azathioprine and 6 mercaptopurine can induce and Gastrointest Endosc 2010 71 706 12. Dietary Management of Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis Lucendo and Arias 169. 44 Markowitz JE Spergel JM Ruchelli E et al Elemental 53 Assa ad AH Putnam PE Collins MH et al Pediatric. diet is an effective treatment for eosinophilic esoph patients with eosinophilic esophagitis an 8 year. agitis in children and adolescents Am J follow up J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007 119 731 8. Gastroenterol 2003 98 777 82, 54 Molina Infante J Martin Noguerol E Varado Arenas.
45 Kagalwalla AF Sentongo TA Ritz S et al Effect of six M et al Selective elimination diet based on skin. food elimination diet on clinical and histologic testing has suboptimal efficacy for adult eosinophilic. outcomes in eosinophilic esophagitis Clin esophagitis J Allergy Clin Immunol. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006 4 1097 102 2012 130 1200 2. The first demonstration that the empiric exclusion of the The best documented study on the utility of skin allergy test. most common food allergens led to remission of EoE in directed food removal in adult EoE patients the exclusion of. pediatric patients foods with SPT prick prick tests and APT results was only. 46 Henderson CJ Abonia JP King EC et al Compara shown effective in 18 of patients but after usually ex. tive dietary therapy effectiveness in remission of pe cluding many different foods. diatric eosinophilic esophagitis J Allergy Clin 55 Simon D Straumann A Wenk A et al Eosinophilic. Immunol 2012 129 1570 8 esophagitis in adults no clinical relevance of wheat. The efficacy of the three major dietary based therapies was and rye sensitizations Allergy 2006 61 1480 3. compared in this retrospective pediatric cohort analysis el. emental diet was superior in inducing histologic remission 56 Gonzalez Cervera J Angueira T Rodriguez. compared with six food elimination and skin tests directed Dominguez B et al Successful food elimination. diets these two last alternatives being equally effective therapy in adult eosinophilic esophagitis not all. 47 Peterson KA Byrne KR Vinson LA et al Elemental patients are the same J Clin Gastroenterol. diet induces histologic response in adult eosinophilic 2012 46 855 8. This case series report detailed analysis of three EoE patients. esophagitis Am J Gastroenterol 2013 108 759 66, who successfully resolved their disease after following dif. This is the only study that assesses the efficacy of exclusive. ferent dietary strategies suggesting that individual differ. feeding with an elemental diet in adult patients Disease re. ences may justify distinct management strategies, mitted in 95 of the patients who completed the protocol. but the adherence to the diet constituted a relevant problem 57 Gonsalves N Yang GY Doerfler B et al Elimination. 48 Hommel KA Franciosi JP Gray WN et al Behavioral diet effectively treats eosinophilic esophagitis in. functioning and treatment adherence in pediatric adults food reintroduction identifies causative fac. eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders Pediatr Aller tors Gastroenterology 2012 142 1451 9. gy Immunol 2012 23 494 9 The first demonstration of the effectiveness of a six food elimi. nation diet in American adult patients with EoE an equivalent. 49 Spergel JM Beausoleil JL Mascarenhas M et al The response rate and similar food triggers to those described in chil. use of skin prick tests and patch tests to identify dren were reported. causative foods in eosinophilic esophagitis J Allergy. Clin Immunol 2002 109 363 8 58 Lucendo AJ Arias A Gonzalez Cervera J et al Em. piric 6 food elimination diet induced and main, 50 Spergel JM Brown Whitehorn TF Cianferoni A et al. tained prolonged remission in patients with adult, Identification of causative foods in children with. eosinophilic esophagitis a prospective study on the. eosinophilic esophagitis treated with an elimination. food cause of the disease J Allergy Clin Immunol,diet J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012 130 461 7.
A large retrospective analysis of 941 children with EoE 2013 131 797 804. attended in a single center during an 11 year period Both The first six food elimination diet based study carried out in. empirical elimination diets and skin allergy based food ex a large series of European patients documented equivalent. clusion resulted equally effective if cow s milk was also re effectiveness to that reported from American research but. moved in addition foods with a positive SPT APT result different distribution of frequencies of food triggers The. strategy of adapting food restrictions to the regional staple. 51 Paquet B Begin P Paradis L et al Variable yield of diet and sensitization patterns was suggested for authors. allergy patch testing in children with eosinophilic Patients who continuously avoided food triggers maintained. esophagitis J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013 131 613 prolonged disease remission for up to 3 years. The authors reported their disappointing experience with 59 Kagalwalla AF Shah A Li BU et al Identification of. APT which were not sensible methods in pediatric EoE specific foods responsible for inflammation in chil. questioning the utility of this test in studying EoE food dren with eosinophilic esophagitis successfully. triggers which reinforce the superiority of empiric six food treated with empiric elimination diet J Pediatr. elimination diets,Gastroenterol Nutr 2011 53 145 9. 52 Rizo Pascual JM De La Hoz CB Redondo VC et al The first demonstration that sequential food reintroduction. Allergy assessment in children with eosinophilic monitored with repeated endoscopies and biopsies identifies. esophagitis J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol specific food triggers for EoE came from this retrospective research. 2011 21 59 65 on pediatric population,170 Food Allergy M Fern ndez Rivas Section Editor. 60 Gonsalves N Doerfler B Hirano I Long term main 67 Roodenburg AJ Schlatmann A D tsch Klerk M et al. tenance therapy with dietary restriction in adults with Potential effects of nutrient profiles on nutrient in. eosinophilic esophagitis abstract Gastroenterology takes in the Netherlands Greece Spain USA Israel. 2011 140 5 Suppl 1 S 180 1 China and South Africa PLoS One 2011 23 e14721. 61 Sanchez Garcia S Del Rodriguez RP Escudero C et 68 Vereda A van Hage M Ahlstedt S Iba ez MD. al Possible eosinophilic esophagitis induced by milk Cuesta Herranz J van Odijk J et al Peanut allergy. oral immunotherapy J Allergy Clin Immunol clinical and immunologic differences among patients. 2012 129 1155 7 from 3 different geographic regions J Allergy Clin. 62 Ridolo E De Angelis GL Dall aglio P Eosinophilic Immunol 2011 127 603 7. esophagitis after specific oral tolerance induction for 69 Lucendo AJ Arias A Gonz lez Cervera J et al Tol. egg protein Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol erance of a cow s milk based hydrolyzed formula in. 2011 106 73 4 patients with eosinophilic esophagitis triggered by. 63 Savilahti EM Savilahti E Development of natural milk Allergy 2013 68 1065 72. tolerance and induced desensitization in cow s milk Most of adult patients with EoE triggered by milk tolerated a. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013 24 114 21 cow s milk based hydrolyzed formula providing them with. 64 Kagalwalla AF Amsden K Shah A et al Cow s Milk a safe alternative to substitute cow s milk in the diet. Elimination A Novel Dietary Approach to Treat Eo 70 Simon D Straumann A Dahinden C et al Frequent. sinophilic Esophagitis J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr sensitization to Candida albicans and profilins in. 2012 55 711 6 adult eosinophilic esophagitis Allergy. A retrospective analysis of pediatric EoE patients docu 2013 68 945 8. mented that the exclusion of the single food related to 71 Rodr guez S nchez J G mez Torrijos E de la Santa. causing EoE resulted in a highly efficient treatment strategy Belda E et al Serological markers of activity in eo. 65 Spergel JM Shuker M Nutritional management of sinophilic esophagitis Is this possible Rev Esp. eosinophilic esophagitis Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Enferm Dig 2013 105 462 8. Am 2008 18 179 94 72 Furuta GT Kagalwalla AF Lee JJ et al The oesoph. 66 Rona RJ Keil T Summers C et al The prevalence of ageal string test a novel minimally invasive method. food allergy a meta analysis J Allergy Clin measures mucosal inflammation in eosinophilic. Immunol 2007 120 638 46 oesophagitis Gut 2013 62 1395 405.


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