Development Of A Remote Physiological Index Monitoring System-Books Pdf

Development of a Remote Physiological Index Monitoring System
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Networks WBSN 4 5 6 7 Based on an analysis performed by Jiagen Sing yiu Chin. Woo and Pravin the key focus in WBSN study is to decrease the size and the power. consumption as well as to improve the accessibility of the system 8. The size of the sensor node is often one of the most important concerns in a WBSN The. monitoring system should not affect users physical activities This ensures data gathered are. valid and represent user s real statues In Ren Meng and Chen s work different implementation. methods of sensor node are summarized Some typical methods are swallowed pill sensors. surface mounting sensors on human body and implantable sensors Swallowed pill sensors. contain small sensors and a wireless transceiver that collects pressure enzymes acidity and other. parameters of the human body Surface mounting sensors on human body usually wirelessly. collect physiological information such as body temperature Implantable sensors are implanted. into the human body and directly measure patients biomedical indexes such as glucose level In. any kind of these sensors the size of the node should be kept to a minimum to reduce any. restriction on the physical activity 2, Power consumption is also a vital parameter in developing WBSN In small sensor nodes. implementation wire connection is challenging and hence large power supply is often not. available Consequently typical sensor nodes are equipped with small batteries or energy. harvesters Common examples are small lithium ion battery and vibrational energy harvester. Such harvesters usually produce power in microwatt range These limited power source leads to. high restrictions on power consumption Therefore power efficient design is extremely critical. when developing WBSN system 3, Aside from the size and power requirements the easiness of data accessing of the system is. another design focus during WBSN development In Lo Thiemjarus King and Yang s work. developing body sensor network they point out the critical role of easiness of monitoring For. example in a hospital it is helpful if every patient s physiological statues can be screen in a. central monitoring room Frequently when supervisors are away from the monitoring room. remote access from mobile devices is also desired These functions need special developed. software to ensure real time monitoring 9, We designed prototyped and tested a WBSN for remote physiological indexes monitoring A. compact sensor node with low power was designed using high resolution biomedical IC sensors. The system collects the temperature humidity and motion states of the environment to provide. Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE North Central Section Conference. Copyright 2013 American Society for Engineering Education. physiological status of an organism 10 Then the real time data are transmitted and shown on a. PC station and as well as stored in a database which is accessible through internet device such as. cellphones The software for the PC station was developed in Eclipse a software environment. using Java language MySQL was used to establish the database Low power Zigbee wireless. transmitters were implemented to assure efficient and qualified data transmission We designed. and tested two prototypes and compared them with the Micaz which is a typical sensor node. available in the market according to a survey conducted by Akyildiz Melodia and Chowdhury. 2 System Design, The WBSN we proposed features high efficiency small size and easy access The system. consists of three components the sensor terminal the monitoring terminal and the wireless. transmitter connecting them Figure 1 shows the overview of the system. Transmitter, Temperature, Humidity Sensor Monitoring.
Terminal Terminal, Acceleration, Figure 1 System overview. The sensor terminal collects data from a temperature sensor a humidity sensor and an. accelerometer It then sends the signal to the wireless transmitter stage Through the wireless. transmitter the data is fed into the monitoring terminal where real time data is to users We. prototyped and tested the first design and then developed a second design based on the testing. results Both designs are shown below, a Design I, The first design started with a developed circuit designed by Stephen Sherbrook 10 This. circuit was implemented as the sensor terminal Then development the entire WBSN began by. adding the wireless terminal and the monitoring terminal. a Sensor terminal, Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE North Central Section Conference. Copyright 2013 American Society for Engineering Education. The sensor terminal is connected to the sensors and collects physiological data from the user. Five analog signals were connected to the system including a temperature sensor a humidity. sensor and an accelerometer x y and z Before the data are fed into the wireless transmitter. they need to be arranged into a single bit digital signal As shown in Figure 2 an 8 to 1 analog. multiplexer was used to combine the data from each sensor into a series analog signal flow At. the same time VDD ground and VDD logic 1 0 and 1 are filled into the remaining three digits. This provides a starter or indicator of one package of data Then an 8 bit ADC analog to. digital converter is used to convert analog signals to digital signals This generates one package. of information stored within eight bytes This package is then fed into the wireless transmitter. To ensure proper timing for the multiplexer and ADC a clock system is also developed which. consists of a crystal osillator and a 3 bit counter. 8x1 Multiplexer, 3 bit Clock, GND Counter, Figure 2 Sensor terminal. b Wireless transmitter, The wireless transmitter receives data packages from the sensor terminal and feeds them into the.
monitoring terminal Considering the balance between the transmission range and the power. consumption an IEEE 802 15 4 wireless transmitter is chosen in the design IEEE 802 15 4. transmitters feature low power and small size with low rate These features make it a good. candidate for sensor network communication In this particular design two Xbee Series 1. modules are used as a transmitter pair in the system One is connected to the sensor terminal as a. signal transmitter and another is connected to the monitoring terminal as a signal receiver. During transmitting it achieves a 30m indoor range consuming 45 mA when powered by a 3 3V. Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE North Central Section Conference. Copyright 2013 American Society for Engineering Education. c Monitoring Terminal, The monitoring terminal receives data packages from the wireless transmitter decodes the. signals with a PC station and delivers the information to the user It provides users an easy access. to the instant data from sensor nodes As shown in Figure 3 firstly the data is fed into an. Arduino Uno microcontroller and then to the PC station through UART serial communication. This design allows users to connect multiple sensor nodes to the monitoring station which is an. important feature for network capabilities When receiving data the PC decodes the digital. signals to physiological data Then it displays and plots the data for users to monitor these. physiological indexes This is achieved by a program we developed on the PC station. Real time Plot, Signal In Microcontroller UART, Arduino Uno. Real time Data, Figure 3 Monitoring terminal, The program we developed on the PC station allows the user to view the real time data on a. graphical user interface GUI The data displayed contains the temperature humidity and. accelerometer x y and z axis in a text format This interface creates real time plots which help. users to understand the trends This program is developed using Java as a programming language. under Eclipse, The program first sets up serial communication with the microcontroller using the RXTX library. A filter is then built to process only valid data This is achieved by only extracting the eight bytes. package only after the first full three bytes starter is received which is embedded in each data. package generated by the sensor terminal This filter plays an important role since it ensures the. program only processes valid data Then the digital data package is converted to physical reading. and transmitted to the GUI As shown in Figure 4 the GUI uses LiveGraph s API assisted. programming interface to help generate real time plots. Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE North Central Section Conference. Copyright 2013 American Society for Engineering Education. Figure 4 PC monitoring program, Following the first design a PCB prototype is built A 38 3mm X 69 4mm PCB board for the.
sensor terminal combined with an Xbee transmitter is developed and packaged in a box The. circuit is powered by three rechargeable AAA batteries Figure 5 shows two pictures of the. prototype Based on the testing result the sensor terminal consumes 49 58mA current when. transmitting signals In an indoor building the system achieves a 45 11m transmitting range. According to the test results the PC station decodes the signal accurately and creates plots. without noticeable delay, Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE North Central Section Conference. Copyright 2013 American Society for Engineering Education. Figure 5 Prototype 1, When reviewing our first design we found that the sensor terminal could be further optimized to. reduce the power consumption as well as the size High performance yet low power components. could be chosen In addition due to the limitation on the 8 bit ADC which provides only 256. counts the resolution of the sensing signal suffers These concerns lead to our second design. b Design II, For most physiological indexes monitoring applications the size and the power consumption of. the system are most important design aspects In design II the system still consists of a sensor. terminal a wireless transmitter and a monitoring terminal however to better meet the power and. size requirements several important changes are implemented on the components level. a Sensor Terminal, The sensor terminal collects physiological data from the user Comparing to the first design a. microcontroller was chosen to replace all the discrete components Taking advantage of the. powerful PIC16LF1823 low power microcontroller this design greatly simplifies the circuit yet. enhances the capability of the system The circuit becomes programmable The flexibility is also. increased so that the circuit gains expansion capability By using the microcontroller highly. precise digital sensors can be easily incorporated into the system through serial communication. The built in 10 bit ADC also provides good resolution when using analog sensors Specifically. the temperature sensor used in this design is ADT7410 and the accelerometer used is ADXL345. both are 16 bit high resolution digital sensors The humidity sensor selected is HIH 5131 a low. voltage analog humidity sensor As shown in Figure 5 the temperature sensor and the. accelerometer send data to the microcontroller through I2C inter integrated circuit. communication The humidity sensor sends an analog signal to the microcontroller which is then. Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE North Central Section Conference. Copyright 2013 American Society for Engineering Education. converted to a 10 bit digital number The microcontroller arranges each signal into a 2 byte. digital number and sends them with a starter to the wireless transmitter. Temperature IC, Sensor Digital, Humidity Voltage Microcontroller Wireless.
Sensor Analog PICLF1823 Transmitter, Accelerometer IC. Figure 5 Sensor Terminal 2, b Wireless transmitter. The wireless transmitter acquires data from the sensor terminal and sends the signal to the. monitoring terminal In the second design a Zigbee wireless transmitter is chosen It follows. IEEE 802 15 4 protocol but features greater efficiency Specifically MRF24J40MA wireless. transmitter module from Microchip is selected Similar to the XBee module a MRF24J40MA. pair is implemented in the system one is connected to the sensor terminal as the transmitter and. the other one is connected to the monitoring terminal as the receiver Serial Peripheral Interface. SPI protocol is used to communicate between the module and the microcontrollers. MRF24J40MA achieves 30m indoor transmitting range with only 23 mA and 3 3V supplied. which is about half of the power consumption of the Xbee module 13. c Monitor terminal, In addition to the monitor terminal in the design 1 a database feature is added to the system A. MySQL server is used to store the data and it is located in the research lab After the data enters. the PC station the data is fed into the MySQL database and then become accessible from any. device through internet Figure 6 shows a screen shot of a remote PC accessing The database. contains a table in which the columns represent the temperature humidity x y and z axes. acceleration respectively, Proceedings of the 2013 ASEE North Central Section Conference. Copyright 2013 American Society for Engineering Education. Figure 6 Database accessing, d Current progress, The second design is finished and under testing The sensor terminal is powered by a 100mAH.
Lithium Coin rechargeable battery VL 3032 After the testing is completed a 40mm X 40mm. PCB prototype will be developed Based on estimation it consumes about 25mA current when. transmitting and still keeps a 30m indoor range This would be a promising result for most. Development of a Remote Physiological Index Monitoring System Boyu Danga Physiology studies the functions of living organisms 1 Physiological indexes have crucial roles in many applications including health care military activity and physical training In such activities monitoring organisms cardiac rhythm body temperature blood pressure and many other indexes are highly helpful

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