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Development and Evaluation of Anti Abrasion Polymer
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Development and Evaluation of Anti Abrasion Polymer. Coatings for Circulation Coins, Ayman Ibrahim, A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Affairs in partial. fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of. Master of Applied Science, In, Mechanical Engineering. Professor Xiao Huang Thesis Supervisor, Professor Rong Liu Thesis Co Supervisor. Professor Metin I Yaras Chair of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. ii, Acknowledgements, I am grateful to God for the good health and well being that were necessary to complete. this research , I wish to express my deepest gratitude to Dr Xiao Huang for sharing her expertise and for.
the sincere and valuable guidance and encouragement extended to me . I also express my sincere thanks to Dr Rong Liu for providing me with all the necessary. facilities and equipment for this research , Last but not least I thank Dr Xianyao Li Dr Iain Brooks and Mr Raine Kampman from. the Royal Canadian Mint for sharing information and providing insights on the work. accomplished , I take this chance to acknowledge all of the Mechanical and Aerospace Department faculty. members for their help and support I also thank my parents for the unceasing engorgement . support and attention I am also grateful to my partner Bingjie Xiao who supported me through. this venture , Finally I place on record my sense of gratitude to those who directly and indirectly. contributed in this journey , iii, Abstract, The Royal Canadian Mint RCM has always been active in finding and supporting new. and advanced coin production technologies Most recently it revealed interest in polymer based. coatings for its circulation coins The motivation behind this development is to provide anti . abrasion anti corrosion and anti bacterial abilities thus increasing the life span of coins in. circulation Polyurethane polytetrafluoroethylene advanced liquid glass standard liquid glass. and silicon R 2180 are selected and applied onto brass plated blank coins loonies and their. wear resistance is investigated Following coating application using a WS 650 spin coater . polyurethane advanced liquid glass and silicon R 2180 showed satisfactory visual appearance. in compliance with standards set by the Royal Canadian Mint Pin on disc wear test is. conducted on coated brass blanks both advanced liquid glass and polyurethane exhibits. superior results when compared to silicon R 2180 An additional abrasion test is carried out. using a tumbling machine Periodic tumbling is carried out in increments of 5 hr for 25 hr to. assess the wear resistance of the three candidate materials Over all advanced liquid glass. maintains 40 of the coating after 25 hr of tumbling compared to only 20 and 5 for. polyurethane and silicon R 2180 respectively , iv.
Table of Contents, Acknowledgements iii, Abstract iv. Table of Contents v, List of Tables ix, List of Figures x. Acroynms xiv, 1 Chapter Introduction 1, 1 1 Research Background 1. 1 2 Research Objectives 1, 1 3 Methodology 2, 1 4 Thesis Structure 3. 2 Chapter Literature Review 5, 2 1 History of Metal Coins 5.
2 2 Modern Coin Manufacturing Methods 7, 2 2 1 United States Mint 7. 2 2 2 Europe Mints 11, 2 2 3 Canadian Mint 13, 2 2 4 Problems Associated with Circulation Coins 17. 2 3 Polymer Coatings on Metals 18, 2 3 1 Thermal Degradation of Polymer Coatings 19. 2 3 2 Mechanical Degradation of Polymer Coatings 20. 2 3 3 Chemical Degradation of Polymer Coatings 24. 2 3 4 Biological Degradation of Polymer Coatings 24. 2 3 5 Hydrolytic Degradation of Polymer Coatings 25. v, 2 3 6 Polymer Coatings Degradations Apposite to Coin s Deterioration 25. 2 4 Coating Fabrication Techniques 26, 2 4 1 Dip Coating 26.
2 4 2 Brush Coating 28, 2 4 3 Spray Coating 28, 2 4 3 1 Conventional Spray Coating 28. 2 4 3 2 Airless Spray Coating 29, 2 4 3 3 Hot Spray Coating 43. 2 4 3 4 Cold Spray Coating 43, 2 4 3 5 Plasma Spray Coating 43. 2 4 4 Electrodeposition 33, 2 4 5 Spin Coating 34. 3 Chapter Materials and Coating Fabrication 36, 3 1 Material selection and specifications 36.
3 1 1 Polyurethane 37, 3 1 2 Polytetrafluoroethylene 38. 3 1 3 Liquid Glass 39, 3 1 4 Silicon R 2180 40, 3 2 Experimental Preparation 41. 3 2 1 Specimen Preparation 41, 3 2 2 Alternative Surface Treatments 42. 3 2 2 1 Acid Etching Treatment 42, 3 2 2 2 Grit Blasting Treatment 42. 3 2 2 3 Polishing Treatment 43, vi, 3 2 3 Coatings Application 43.
3 3 Coating Fabrication 44, 3 3 1 Spin Coating Process 44. 3 3 2 Coating Process Parameters 45, 3 3 3 Curing Process 45. 3 4 Coating Fabrication Impediments 46, 4 Chapter Coating Characterization 47. 4 1 Microstructure of As Received Circulation Coin 47. 4 2 Coating Evaluation 49, 4 2 1 Visual Examination 49. 4 2 2 Coating Thickness Analysis 52, 4 3 Microstructural Analysis of the Coatings 53.
5 Chapter Wear Tests 58, 5 1 Pin on disc Tribometer Test 58. 5 1 1 Test Apparatus 59, 5 1 2 Wear Test Parameters 60. 5 1 3 Wear Test of Polyurethane Coating 61, 5 1 4 Wear Test Results of Advanced Liquid Glass Coating 63. 5 1 5 Wear Test of Silicon R 2180 Coating 66, 5 1 6 Pin on disc Wear Test Summary 68. 5 2 Tumbling Test 69, 5 2 1 Test Apparatus 70, 5 2 2 Tumbling Test Analysis 70.
5 2 3 Periodic Tumbling 72, 5 2 4 Tumbling Wear Test Summary 74. vii, 6 Chapter Discussion 81, 6 1 Coating Materials and Coating Application 81. 6 2 Coating Thickness Analysis 82, 6 3 Coating Microstructure Analysis 82. 6 4 Wear Tests 83, 7 Chapter Conclusions and Future Work 87. References 89, viii, List of Tables, Table 3 1 Characteristics of the five chosen candidate materials 36.
Table 4 1 EDX results for the cross section of bare coin 48. Table 4 2 Comparison of EDX results between heat treated and non heat treated coins 50. Table 5 1 Pin on disc parameters utilized in wear testing of the coins 60. Table 5 2 PUR coated coins used in pin on disc test 63. Table 5 3 ALG coated coins used in pin on disc test 63. Table 5 4 Silicon R 2180 coated coins used in Pin on disc test 66. Table 5 5 Mechanical properties and maximum shear strengths and pressures evaluated. using Hertz contact theory 69, Table 5 6 Coating loss by weight due to tumbling 71. ix, List of Figures, Figure 2 1 Electrum found in nature 6 5. Figure 2 2 Lydian electrum trite the world s first minted coin by king Alyattes 6 5. Figure 2 3 Early coin striking method 8 6, Figure 2 4 Screw press used as a coin striking technique 8 7. Figure 2 5 Toggle press introduced in the early 19th century 8 7. Figure 2 6 Reeded coins left and smooth coins right 9 8. Figure 2 7 A clay model sculpted 10 9, Figure 2 8 Plaster being created to display the design fine details 10 9. Figure 2 9 Upsetting mill 9 10, Figure 2 10 Stamping presses 9 10.
Figure 2 11 An interior view of the stamping press 9 10. Figure 2 12 Waffler for scrapped coins 9 11, Figure 2 13 Bagging and weighting a coin bag 9 11. Figure 2 14 Pantograph machine used to engrave a design onto a master die or matrix 13 12. Figure 2 15 Matrix left and master die right generated by the pantograph 15 13. Figure 2 16 Multi ply plating process adopted by the RCM 18 15. Figure 2 17 Cross sectional views of depositing of molecular layer of copper a at low. currents b and c at high currents 19 16, Figure 2 18 Classification of polymeric materials and important thermoplastic and. thermosetting plastics 20 19, Figure 2 19 Demonstration of two and three body abrasive wear 25 20. x, Figure 2 20 Pin on disc Hertz contact 25 27, Figure 2 21 Stress distributions above and below the surface caused by left uniform. pressure distribution and right Hertz pressure distribution 23. Figure 2 22 Fundamental stages of sol gel dip coating 29 27. Figure 2 23 Material wasted as a result of using conventional air spray technique 35 29. Figure 2 24 Conventional airless spray system 35 30. Figure 2 25 Hot spray system 35 31, Figure 2 26 Operating principles of low pressure cold spray 38 31.
Figure 2 27 Operating principles of high pressure cold spray 38 32. Figure 2 28 A schematic of plasma spray coating process 40 33. Figure 2 29 Key processes of spin coating 44 34, Figure 3 1 Polyurethane 39. Figure 3 2 Polytetrafluoroethylene 39, Figure 3 3 Liquid glass materials a standard liquid glass and b advanced liquid glass 40. Figure 3 4 Silicon R 2180 chemical structure 49 40. Figure 3 5 Silicon R 2180 41, Figure 3 6 Sandblasting a sandblasting chamber b cleaned bare coin and c . sandblasted coin 43, Figure 3 7 600 grit polishing treatment a polishing machine b cleaned bare coin and c . 600 grit polished coin 43, Figure 3 8 Coating application equipment a WS 650 spin coater b high pressure gas.
valve and c balls eye water level 44, Figure 4 1 SEM image of bare coin cross section 48. xi, Figure 4 2 Bare and qualified coated coins a bare coin b PUR coated coin c Silicon . coated coin and d ALG coated coin 49, Figure 4 3 Comparison in color change between a heat treated coin at 250 C for 1 hr and. b non heat treated coin 50, Figure 4 4 Comparison between a bare coin and b SLG coated coin 50. Figure 4 5 PTFE coating peeled off by nail 51, Figure 4 6 PTFE coated coins under different treatments 51.
Figure 4 7 Variations of coating thickness as a function of the spinning speed RPM The. standard deviation of 4 m is based on weighing each coin four times before and after. coating application 53, Figure 4 8 SEM images 80X of the microstructure of the coated materials at the centre of. the coins a PUR b ALG and c silicon R 2180 54, Figure 4 9 SEM images 1kX of the microstructure of the coatings at the center of the. coins a PUR b ALG and c silicon R 2180 55, Figure 4 10 SEM images 80X of the microstructure of the coatings at the edge of the. coins a PUR b ALG and c silicon R 2180 56, Figure 4 11 SEM images 1KX of the microstructure of the coatings at the edge of the. coins a PUR b ALG and c silicon R 2180 57, Figure 5 1 A mounted coin on a premade buck 60.
Figure 5 2 The 5 mm wear radius track utilized in the pin on disc test 61. Figure 5 3 Five PUR coated coins subjected to pin on disc wear tes 63. Figure 5 4 SEM images of coins 1 5 after wear test a coin 1 b coin 2 c coin 3 d . coin 4 tested for 3 min and d coin 5 tested for 2 min 65. xii, Figure 5 5 Brass coins coated with ALG after pin on disc wear test sample 1 to 5 from left. to right 66, Figure 5 6 SEM images of coins 1 2 3 4 and 5 after pin on disc test arrows indicating wear. tracks 65, Figure 5 7 Five silicon R 2180 coated coins subjected to pin on disc wear test samples 1 5. from left to right 66, Figure 5 8 SEM images coins with wear tracks generated bright circles are an indication of. the wear tracks a coin 1 tested for 6 min b coin 2 tested for 4 min and c coin 3 tested. for 4 min d coin 4 tested for 3 min and e coin 5 tested for 2 min 67. Figure 5 9 Coated coins tested for 24 hr under tumbling a ALG b PUR and c silicon. R 2180 71, Figure 5 10 SEM images of the coated coin surfaces after 24 hr tumbling test a ALG b .
PUR and c silicon R 2180 71, Figure 5 11 Wear losses due to tumbling for ALG PUR and silicon R 2180 coated coins 73. Figure 5 12 SEM images of the ALG coated coins after periodic tumbling a 5 hr test b . 10 hr test c ALG 15 hr test d 20 hr test and e 24 hr test 74. Figure 5 13 SEM images after 5 hr tumbling a PUR b ALG and c silicon R 2180 76. Figure 5 14 SEM images after 10 hr tumbling a PUR b ALG and c silicon R 2180 77. Figure 5 15 SEM images after 15 hr tumbling a PUR b ALG and c silicon R 2180 78. Figure5 16 SEM images after 20 hr tumbling a PUR b ALG and c silicon R 2180 79. Figure 5 17 SEM images after 25 hr tumbling a PUR b ALG and c silicon R 2180 80. xiii, Acronyms, ALG Advanced Liquid Glass, CS Cold Spraying. EDX Energy Dispersive X ray, EMS Electro Magnetic Signature. PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene, PS Plasma Sprayin, PUR Polyurethane. RCM Royal Canadian Mint, RPM Revolution Per Minute.
SEM Scanning Electron Micrscope, SLG Standard Liquid Glass. xiv, 1 Chapter Introduction, 1 1 Research Background. The Royal Canadian Mint RCM is a commercial crown corporation producing circulation. coins numismatics and bullions for domestic and international markets Additionally the. RCM operates full service gold and silver refineries storage facilities and precious metal. exchange traded receipts As a world class provider the RCM is constantly improving and. developing their products to meet both customer requirements and social environmental. regulations , In general circulation coins lose some elements of their surface features after being in. circulation for a certain period of time This change in surface appearance is attributed to wear. resulting from coins interacting with one another and with other objects This leads to the. deterioration of the coins in circulation earlier than expected . The subject of coinage wear has a long history and a number of studies published concerning. wear rates and laboratory tests simulating the behaviour of coinage materials in service 1 . Due to the vast existence of different denominations of circulation coins around the world and. ii Development and Evaluation of Anti Abrasion Polymer Coatings for Circulation Coins Ayman Ibrahim A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate and Postdoctoral Affairs in partial

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