Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. Figure 1 Schematic Diagram of Crude Distillation Unit. perspective of bits of learning got from crush,In recent years the exploration of rough refining. examination Another methodology for advancing,procedure was centred around the subject of. existing refinery refining sectionson pinch analysis. methodology control and optimization on,principles based and thorough model based. proposing adjustments to the refining section and,simulation was given by Bagajewicz 12 An. the heat exchanger system with a specific end goal. integrated approach regarding designing of the,to lessen the consumption of energy. crude oil distillation system was developed, Sittig 6 recommended that with a specific end goal. Suphanit 13 In this study the shortcut distillation. to enhance the proficiency of the refining,model was used based on pinch analysis and a. framework new internals with higher efficiency,streamlining system to create vitality productive. should be installed and recommended the use of,grassroots section plan During the past two. intermediate reboilers Bannon and Marple 7,decades there has been a growing awareness. proposed other column modifications such as the,among the educated community and mechanical. installation of pump arounds Adding pre flash, specialists with respect to the control of unrefined. drums and pre fractionator column can save energy,petroleum refining segment After thorough. Harbert 8 as can adding pump arounds and,investigation of above researchers it could be. reducing operating pressure Fraser and,drawn that various approaches used by various. sloley 9 Pinch analysis principles guided many,scientist were not considering the existing. researchers Linnloff et al Dhole and Buckingham, 10 distillation column with details with its huge plant. to identify modifications to distillation columns,size which must use a capital investment without. for reducing energy consumption and improving,efficient material use. the performance of the system Liebmann 11, proposed a two step approach for improving the The extent of this study is to enhance the expense. execution of refinery refining segments in adequacy and to rearrange the refining procedure. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 986. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. with new CDU A new design of CDU implies the ii Heat effects are negligible and iii For every. new process of producing various petroleum mole of vapour condensed another mole of liquid. products at reduced production cost A part from is vaporized The liquid and vapour leaving the tray. that the scope of this proposed study also include is in equilibrium with the vapour and liquid. the study on the process and descriptions with this entering the tray If an equilibrium curve 16 is not. new CDU design which contains a single column given draw a Y X diagram Y representing the. that works for both atmospheric and vacuum vapour phase and X the liquid The equilibrium. distillation Thus another conservative model of curve can be obtained by relating the relative. CDU will be produced taking into account the volatility to the composition of the liquid. consistent states CDU model This newly designed,Y A X 1 X A 1. model of CDU may reduce the plant size and, though reduces maintenance cost and which saves This shows the bubble point and dew point of a. time and money on production binary mixture at constant pressure An equilibrium. line describes the compositions of the liquid and, 2 Methodology vapour in equilibrium at a fixed pressure Figure 2. Actually this design includes a compact model,of distillation unit which contains both. atmospheric and vacuum distillation process in a,single column So we need a newly designed. distillation column which works for both,alternatively And though to design a column. following parameters we need to calculate i The,composition of distillates and feed rate ii The. Reflux ratio iii Number of Trays iv Column,Height and Diameter. Determining these according to Douglas method, the column height needs the actual number of trays. and which is determined through the McCabe graph,by known reflux ratio and the feed rate are. summarized below,2 1 Determination of the Composition of. Distillates by Assuming Feed Rate Figure 2 McCabe Equilibrium Curve. Let us assume the feed rate with known The description of the figure 2 is as follows. composition purity of distillate and bottoms and, The equilibrium line crossing the forty five degree. the quality of the feed Performing overall material. line is an indication of an azeotropic mixture,and component balances to determine the. compositions of the distillate and bottoms 14 Forty Five Degree Line Drawing the diagonal line. connecting the points 0 0 0 0 to 1 0 1 0 This is,your forty five degree line. F ZF XD D XB B,Feed Line q Line The feed line can be. F D B constructed by locating the point on the forty five. degree line that corresponds to the feed,Where F Feed rate of input stream ZF. composition This point can be extended with a,Composition of light component in feed XD. slope of q q 1 where q is the feed quality The,Mole Fraction of light in distillate XB Mole. feed line can be directly plotted through the,Fraction of light in Bottom D Total distillate. following equation,amount B Total bottom amount This number of. composition signifies the number of light and Y q q 1 X ZF q 1. heavy distillates to be obtained from the feed and. Upper Operating Line Draw the operating line for,as when the composition is known and then the. the enriching section First find the desired top,reflux ratio can easily be calculated. product composition on the x axis and locate the, 2 2 Determination of the Minimum Reflux corresponding point on the forty five degree line. Ratio Connect this point to the point where the, equilibrium cure and the feed line intersect This is. The following assumptions are implied when the upper operating line The y intercept of this line. using the method 15 i Constant molar overflow, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 987. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. is equal to XD R 1 The following equation can This line demonstrates the first tray From the. be used to determine the minimum reflux previous intersection drop vertically until the upper. operating line is obtained Follow step two to,R min XD y intercept 1. determine next tray Continue stepping until the, Lower Operating Line Let draw an operating line liquid composition ends equals the desired bottom. for the stripping section First find the desired composition The total number of steps is equal to. bottom product composition on the x axis and the theoretical number of trays Then the actual. locate the corresponding point on the forty five number of trays is determined by taking the. degree line And drawing a line from the point to quotient of the number of theoretical trays to the. the intersection of the equilibrium curve and the tray efficiency Typical values for tray efficiency. feed line This is our lower operating line range from 0 7 to 0 9 4 These values depend on the. type of trays being used as well as the internal, The slope of this line Vbmin 1 Vbmin liquid and vapour flow rates. Where Vb is the boil up ratio,N actual N theory e, 2 3 Determination of the Actual Reflux 2 5 Determination of Principal Dimensions. Ratio of the Column Diameter Height, The actual reflux ratio can be determined by The tower height can be related to the number. the Douglas method As the reflux ratio increases of trays in the column The following formula. the number of trays and thus the capital cost of the. assumes that a spacing of two feet between trays, column decreases However as a trade off an will be sufficient including additional five to ten. increase in reflux ratio will also increase the vapour feet at both ends of the tower This includes a 15. rate within the tower thus increasing expenses such. excess allowance of space 4,as condensers and reboilers Most columns are. designed to operate between 1 2 and 1 5 times the H tower 2 3 N actual ft. minimum reflux ratio as determined above,Before we can determine the tower diameter we. because this is approximately the region of,need to determine the vapour velocity The vapour. minimum operating cost Therefore based on first, velocity can be derived from the flooding velocity. estimates the operating reflux ratio is equated so. To limit our column from flooding we choose a,velocity 50 80 of flooding velocity as stated by. R actual R min 1 2 Douglas, R L D The diameter of a tower is relatively insensitive to. changes in operating temperature or pressure The, 2 4 Determination of the Number of Trays main determinant of the diameter is the vapour. The number of trays can be determined by velocity The desired vapour velocity is dependent. using the upper and lower operating line and the on the limitations of undesired column flooding. actual reflux ratio This equation allows for a twelve surplus in area. Douglas 1998,Plotting the point XD R 1 and drawing a line to. the XD The equation of the upper operating line is DT 0164 V MG m 0 25. Y R R 1 X XD R 1 Where V Vapour Velocity MG molar mass m. Molar density, The equation for the lower operating line can be 2 6 Description of detailed process involved. drawn by connecting the XB to the intersection of,the feed line and the upper operating line The. in newly designed distillation Unit, equation of the lower operating line is The newly designed distillation unit requires a. column furnace reservoir pump stripper and heat, Y VB 1 VB X XB VB exchanger and also a change in refining process. because of a single distillation column,Starting from composition of the distillate a. horizontal line is drawn to the equilibrium curve, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 988. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. Figure 3 Schematic Diagram of Newly designed Distillation unit. The figure 4 shows about an internal design of the. whole CDU column and which contains a major,side of sieves trays. Figure 5 The Design of Sieves Tray,The figure 6 is showing detailed process for. distillation through newly designed column,Figure 4 The Column Internal Design and Trays. The sieve trays design is shown in figure 5 The,sieve trays are simply metal plates with holes in. them Vapor passes straight upward through the,liquid on the plate The arrangement number and. size of the holes are design parameters Because of. their efficiency wide operating range ease of,maintenance and cost factors sieve 18 and valve. trays have replaced the once highly thought of,bubble cap trays in many applications. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 989. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. and then the pump automatically sends the residue,to the column through an alternating valve. This technique alternating valve cancels the flow,of pure feed crude and allows flowing residue to. the column at vacuum pressure 684 mm of Hg i e,lower than the atmospheric pressure This process. is necessary to avoid cracking and produce,distillates as depicted in table 2. Table 2 The boiling point and carbon number ranges. of vacuum distillates,Distillates Numbers of Boiling. Carbon Range c,LVGO light,vacuum gas oil,20 34 370 c. HVGO heavy,vacuum gas oil,34 54 370 565 c,54 503 671 c. Then the residues VR are sending to the Coker for,formation of petroleum coke through thermal. Figure 6 Process Flow Chart 2 7 Simulation of the newly Designed. Distillation Chamber, After de saltation process the feed is allowed to be. heated in the heat exchanger H E with the Simulation is done by Free licenced Chemsep. overhead distillates Then feed is send to the software v6 98 14 ChemsepTM Modelling. furnace for further heating up to 360 C And all Separation Processes version 6 software was made. the light distillates are moved to the overhead and by Harry Kooijiman and Ross Taylor for making it. the heavy distillates are allowed to move to the easy to simulate a newly designed distillation. lower end of the distillation column chamber For simulation of the distillation chamber. On heating with steam at atmospheric pressure following parameters should be taken i feed. 760mm of Hg all the major distillates are Components Operation ii Properties of Column. obtained according to their boiling ranges as given thermodynamic physical property and reaction. in table 1 iii Feeds Feed rate and Quantity iv Column. Specifications, Table 1 The boiling point and carbon number ranges. of atmospheric distillates After these all parameters are known the Chemsep. software give its result in form of a flow profile. Distillates Numbers of Boiling table Mc Cabe graph Liquid and vapour. Carbon Range C component graph and the FUG Fenske,Gases 1 4 30 Underwood Gilliland Analysis. Gasoline 5 12 30 210 3 Results and Discussions,This graphical data are used to plot a McCabe. Naphtha 8 12 100 200 equilibrium graph with X coordinates taken as. Kerosene 11 13 150 250 mole fraction of most volatile component in liquid. phase and Y coordinates taken as mole fraction of, Diesel fuel oil 13 17 160 380 most volatile component in vapour phase 17. Atmospheric 20 380,Then the atmospheric residues are forced to the. residue reservoir and after filling up the reservoir. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 990. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. Table 3 The graphical data to plot a McCabe graph obtained from Chemsep soft. STAGE KL KH RV dy dx xL xH E DV DL,O Connel 2,m sec m2 sec. 1 719985 0 219832 7 824080 0 128386 0 997429 0 002571 0 444537 0 0000029640 0 0000000041. 2 227788 0 260619 8 548054 0 119642 0 987357 0 012643 0 436385 0 0000031088 0 0000000045. 2 629494 0 293832 8 948969 0 121875 0 952198 0 047802 0 432982 0 0000032026 0 0000000047. 2 858425 0 312317 9 152332 0 140557 0 867158 0 132842 0 431254 0 0000032495 0 0000000049. 2 981950 0 323530 9 216932 0 194066 0 717005 0 282995 0 430339 0 0000032775 0 0000000049. 3 091819 0 336885 9 177665 0 332536 0 520133 0 479867 0 429574 0 0000033116 0 0000000050. 3 315464 0 365706 9 065916 0 664439 0 333979 0 666021 0 427714 0 0000033834 0 0000000053. 4 116836 0 456785 9 012643 1 271882 0 207418 0 792582 0 420173 0 0000036078 0 0000000059. 5 434897 0 656308 8 281022 1 513446 0 183924 0 816076 0 423607 0 0000038711 0 0000000068. 5 434962 0 656494 8 278765 1 515076 0 183764 0 816236 0 423638 0 0000038713 0 0000000068. 5 435075 0 656826 8 274759 1 517971 0 183481 0 816519 0 423694 0 0000038716 0 0000000068. 5 435274 0 657415 8 267647 1 523120 0 182979 0 817021 0 423793 0 0000038721 0 0000000068. 5 435624 0 658465 8 254987 1 532296 0 182090 0 817910 0 423971 0 0000038730 0 0000000068. 5 436239 0 660352 8 232336 1 548725 0 180516 0 819484 0 424287 0 0000038746 0 0000000068. 5 437346 0 663789 8 191379 1 578392 0 177725 0 822275 0 424861 0 0000038774 0 0000000068. 5 439477 0 670223 8 115919 1 632790 0 172779 0 827221 0 425918 0 0000038825 0 0000000068. 5 444309 0 682827 7 973193 1 735212 0 163997 0 836003 0 427927 0 0000038919 0 0000000069. 5 458328 0 709014 7 698473 1 935908 0 148416 0 851584 0 431861 0 0000039108 0 0000000069. 5 507844 0 766125 7 189222 2 346023 0 121267 0 878733 0 439543 0 0000039537 0 0000000071. 5 667728 0 892009 6 353891 3 165080 0 077862 0 922138 0 453815 0 0000040730 0 0000000075. The above graphical data are plotted and which is Degree Line Feed Line q Line Upper Operating. shown in figure 7 and it signifies the Forty Five Line and Lower Operating Line 16. Figure 7 Plotted McCabe Equilibrium Graph by Chemsep Software. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 991. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. the higher molecular weight hydrocarbon refluxes, well with the light distillates And so it decreases. the cost shown in figure 7,3 2 The Actual Number of Trays. The most important thing for designing a,distillation column is to determine the number of. trays Number of trays should always be in such a, way that the distillates should break into smaller. molecules after passing from each tray And, secondly the slots made in the trays should be such. that the distillate flow be in order to the overhead. The actual number of trays can be determined by, dividing the theoretical value with the efficiency e. Therefore the actual number of trays,Nactual 22 trays. Comparing the result of actual number of trays to, the number of feed trays shows that feed is actually. given from the middle of the fractionating column, Figure 8 Calibration of McCabe Equilibrium Graph And also the height and diameter are now. determined after calculating the actual number of, Now from the above plotted line all the parameters. are determined, Table 4 The physical parameters of the column 3 3 Height of the Tower and the Internal. Diameter of the Column, Data As discussed in chapter 3 that the height of the. Parameters column should not exceed 175 feet s and the. determined,diameter should be less than 20 to 30 Taking in. Mole fraction X 0 14 account all these limitations the height of the tower. is calculated by 2 3 times of the actual number of. Mole fraction Y 0 2422 trays and the internal diameter is in ratio of 5. Relative volatility 1 59 Table 5 The geometrical dimensions of the column. Thermal state q 0 87 Parameters Data, Mole fraction of distillates Xd 0 85 Height of Tower H 50 feet. Mole fraction in Feed Zf 0 46 Internal Diameter Di 10 feet. Number of feed plate Nf 10 Wall Thickness t 0 3125. Overall efficiency e 0 86 Pressure P 160psi g,Number of theoretical plates Ntheory 19. The above all tables shows all the graphical, Mole fraction in bottoms Xb 0 17 geometrical and physical parameters for designing a. column that works for both atmospheric and, Minimum Reflux Ratio Rmin 2 5092 vacuum pressure alternatively. The 22 trays should be sieves type shown in figure 5. 3 1 The Actual Reflux Ratio because it increases the efficiency e and flow rate. The Reflux ratio is the ratio of reflux flow L, to distillate flow D which is also 1 2 times the 3 4 Sieve Tray Geometry. theoretical reflux ratio, Also denoted by R L D Following were the dimensions of various. Now the Actual Reflux ratio R 3 08 parts of sieve tray. The result determines the amount of reflux flow i Hole diameter 0 005 0 025 m. necessary in ratio with the distillates flow So that. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 992. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. ii Fractional free area 0 06 0 16 m2,iii Fractional down comer area 0 05 0 3 m2. iv Pitch Hole diameter ratio 2 5 4 0,v Tray spacing 0 305 0 915 m. vi Weir height 0 025 0 075 m, After designing a whole distillation unit as shown in. Figure 2 it was seen that not only it s a compact,process but it is also cost effective Because the. most important parameters increasing the cost of oil. refining are the production and maintenance cost,and these two factors were considered to minimise. by lowering the steam cost furnace oil cost and the Figure 9 Energy Vs Number of Trays Stages. metallurgical cost to set up this process plant,The figure 9 shows that on increase of number of. stages there is a decrease of vapour velocity,Energy versus number of stages N. Trade off between number of stages and energy,Actual V approaches Vmin for N approximately 2. x Nmin or larger typically,2Nmin 25 Vmin,3Nmin 3 Vmin. 4Nmin 0 3 Vmin, Table 6 The Flow profiles of the column simulation. Stage Temperature Pressure Flow rates kmol s,Feed Product State. K N m Liquid Vapour,1 280 639 101325 65 3643 RR 3 08 21 2222 Vapour. 2 287 552 101325 62 3845 86 5865,3 294 577 101325 61 1772 83 6066. 4 299 053 101325 60 9298 82 3993,5 301 267 101325 60 7264 82 152. 6 302 582 101325 60 1584 81 9486,7 304 177 101325 58 7062 81 3806. 8 307 513 101325 54 4912 79 9284,9 317 743 101325 45 5196 75 7133. 10 329 394 101325 89 586 12 7417 100 0000,11 329 401 101325 89 5891 10 8082. 12 329 413 101325 89 5946 10 8113,13 329 435 101325 89 6043 10 8168. 14 329 474 101325 89 6215 10 8265,15 329 543 101325 89 652 10 8437. 16 329 666 101325 89 7056 10 8741,17 329 888 101325 89 7996 10 9278. 18 330 299 101325 89 9625 11 0218,19 331 117 101325 90 236 11 1847. 20 332 975 101325 90 6495 11 4582,21 338 096 101325 92 1701 11 8716. 22 338 096 101325 BR 0 17 13 3922 78 7778 Liquid, The simulation is checked by Chemsep v6 98 were assumed as 100 n butane n pentane n. software which also works for McCabe graph Feed hexane n heptane and n octane on the 10 trays. And the result is 95 0 profile recovery of n butane. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 993. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. and n hexane at 101 35 KN m2 which defines as the fractionation Shown in table 6 and figure 10. crude distillation column works fine for, Figure 10 Physical Parameter Determined from Chemsep v6 98. Figure 11 Liquid Phase Composition Profile by Chemsep Software. Figure 12 Vapour Phase Composition Profile by Chemsep Software. From the figures 11 and 12 it is determined that n product and n hexane is obtained at liquid phase at a. butane is obtained at vapour phase in the overhead bottom distillate product with 95 recovery. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 994. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. always the execution of any plant is broke down, on the benefits made by the plant so here the target. capacity considered is amplification of benefits,made every day Inferences drawn from above. works i The column designed for the distillation,process can be used for both atmospheric and. vacuum pressure distillation process and which,gives 95 0 flow profile ii Material and metals. used to setup a plant is less than the current setup in. refineries of 13 25 ratio iii Maintenance cost is,also reduced as the plant size reduced by 47 of. the current refinery plant iv A single distillation. column is used for both atmospheric and vacuum,pressure so furnace oil cost and numbers of heat. exchangers are also reduced So in total it is clear. that the overall production cost per day will be, Figure 13 Materials Used to Setup a Plant with Newly reduced per day as the new refining process is. Designed CDU in Comparison with the Design used simple and compact. The above graph shows that the difference in use of 5 Acknowledgement. material to setup this distillation unit in comparison I am very thankful to Mr Sudhir Kumar Senior. with the unit used now From this graph we can Production Engineer Indian Oil Corporation. estimate the cost difference to setup a plant with this Limited Barauni Refinery Barauni Bihar India for. newly designed distillation process helping me in some practical idea about CDU setup. in Barauni plant And I would like to thank Prof,Prashant Shrivastava Department of chemical. Engineering for his helpful suggestions and,corrections on this project. 6 Nomenclature,F Feed rate of input stream,ZF Composition of light component in feed. XD Mole Fraction of light in distillate,XB Mole Fraction of light in Bottom. D Total distillate amount,B Total bottom amount, Figure 14 Cost Effectiveness to setup a plant with this. new design R actual Actual Reflux Ratio,R theory Theoretical Reflux Ratio. From the above graph the difference defines that the. production cost per day is also reduced due to the N actual Actual Number of Trays. reduction of material cost by 13 25 Ntheory Theoretical Number of Trays. 4 Conclusion e Efficiency, This work speaks to the consequences of Htower Height of the Column. recently outlined refining unit prepare that will DT Diameter of the Tower. really lessen the maintenance cost plant setup cost. and the production cost This in turn can help in V Vapour Velocity. refinery planning and scheduling This work has MG Molar mass. considered a grass root design of crude distillation. column consisting of a furnace heat exchanger a m Molar density. single column works for both vacuum distillation Vb Boilup ratio. and atmospheric distillation with minimal number, of stages plates pump and column stripper As X Mole Fraction Liquid. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 995. Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR. Vol 2 Issue 9 2016,ISSN 2454 1362 http www onlinejournal in. Y Mole Fraction Vapour 8 Harbert W D Preflash saves energy in crude. unit Hydrocarbon Proc 57 7 1978 pp 23,Relative Volatility 125. 9 Linhoff B Dunford H Smith R Heat,Q Thermal State. integration of distillation columns into overall, DI Internal Diameter processes Chem Eng Sci 38 8 1983 pp. T Wall thickness 10 Linhoff B Dhole V Distillation Column. Targets Computer Chem Eng 17 5 6,P Pressure 1993 pp 549 560. 11 Liebmann K Integrated Crude Oil,Distillation Design Ph D Thesis UMIST. 7 References Manchester U K 1996,12 Bagajewiz M Energy Savings Horizons. for Crude Fractionation Computer Chem,1 Bawazeer K H Zilouchian A Application. Eng 23 1 1997 pp 1 9,of Neural Networks in Oil Refineries Proc of. 13 Suphanit B Design of Complex,1996 IEEE Int Conf on Neural Networks. Distillation System Ph D Thesis UMIST,New Orleans 1999. Manchester U K 1999,2 Tonnang Z E H Distillation Column Control. 14 McCabe Thiele VAXA Software PTTD,Using Artificial Neural Networks M Sc. Version 1 8 0 www vaxasoftware com,Thesis Microprocessors and Control. 15 Douglas J Conceptual Design of Chemical,Engineering Department of Electrical and. Processes McGraw Hill Inc Section A 3,Electronics Engineering Faculty of. Technology University of Ibadan Ibadan,16 McCabe Warren Unit Operations of. Nigeria 2010,Chemical Engineering Fifth Edition,3 Chemsep v6 98 Windows GUI and CAPE. McGraw Hill Inc Chapters 18 and 19 1993,OPEN Compliancy 2014 www chemsep org. 17 Dave D J Dabhiya M Z Satyadev S V K,4 Motlaghi S Jalali F Nili Ahmadabadi M. Ganguly S Saraf D N Online tuning of a,An Expert System Design for a Crude Oil. steady state crude distillation unit model for,Distillation Column with the Neural Networks. real time applications J Process Control,Model and the Process Optimization using. 13 3 2003 pp 267 282,Genetic Algorithm Framework Expert. 18 Skogestad S Dynamics and control,Systems with Applications 35 2008 pp 1540. of distillation columns Distillation Course,Berlin Summer Part 1 2008. 5 Distillation Column Design Copyright 1997,19 Fair J R How to Predict Sieve Tray. http lorien ncl ac uk ming distil distil0 htm,Entrainment and Flooding Petro chem Eng. 6 Sittig M Petroleum Refining Industry,33 10 1961 pp 45 62. Energy Saving and Environmental Control,20 Kister H Distillation Design McGraw. Noyes Data Corporation New Jersey 1978,Hill New York Chap 6 1992. 7 Bannon R P Marpel S Heat Recovery in,hydrocarbon distillation Chem Eng Prog. 74 7 1978 pp 41 45, Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research IJIR Page 996.
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