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DESCRIPTION,AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS,THE AIRPLANE, The Seneca is a twin engine all metal retractable landing gear airplane It has seating for up to. seven occupants and two separate luggage compartments. Except for the steel used in the engine mount and landing gear and the fiberglass used in. such portions as the nose and wing tips the structural components of the airframe are made of. aircraft aluminum alloy which has been heat treated and protected from corrosion The airframe. has been designed and tested to a limit positive load factor of 3 8 The Seneca is not designed. for aerobatic flight and consequently aerobatics are prohibited. The fuselage is a conventional semi monocoque structure which has a front door on the. right side and a rear door on the left An additional large size rear door which facilitates the. loading of large pieces of cargo is available, The wing is of conventional metal design using one main spar located at approximately. 40o of the chord aft of the leading edge to take bending loads and a rear spar for mounting. the flaps and ailerons and to assist in taking torque and drag loads Slotted wing flaps which are. mechanically operated by a four position handle located between the two front seats are. provided to reduce landing speed and to give the pilot a high degree of glide path control Two. interconnected fuel tanks form an integral part of each wi n g Both tanks on one side are filled. through a single filler neck located well outboard of the engine nacelle. AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS,REVISED JUNE 14 1983 2 1, The wings are attached to each side of the fuselage by the butt ends of the main spars. which are bolted into a spar box carry through an integral part of the fuselage structure. There are also fore and aft attachments at the rear spar and at an auxiliary front spar. The empennage of the Seneca consists of a vertical stabilizer a rudder and a horizontal. stabilator The rudder has a trim tab capable of relieving the pilot of excessive pedal force. during single engine operation The stabilator incorporates an anti servo tab which improves. longitudinal stability and provides longitudinal trim This tab moves in the direction the. stabilator moves but with increased travel, The 400 total horsepower of the Seneca engines makes possible a high cruise speed and. excellent climb performance The aircraft is powered by two four cylinder Lycoming fuel. injected engines each rated at 200 horsepower at 2700 RPM Asymmetric thrust is. eliminated during take off and climb by counter rotation of the engines the left engine rotating. in a clockwise direction when viewed from the cockpit and the right engine rotating. counterclockwise, The engine compartments are easily accessible for inspection through top hinged side.
panels on either side of the engine cowlings The cowlings are cantilever structures attached at. the firewalls Engine mounts are constructed of steel tubing and dynafocal mounts are provided. to reduce vibration, The exhaust system is a crossover type with exhaust gases directed outboard of the. nacelles into muffler heaters to minimize exhaust noise and provide heated air for the cabin and. The cowl flaps are located on the bottom of the e ngine nacelle and are manually. operated by control levers below the throttle quadrant The control levers have three. positions open intermediate and closed A lock incorporated into each control lever locks the. cowl flap in the selected position To operate depress the lock and move the control to the. desired position Release the lock after initial movement of the control the flap will then stop. automatically in the next intermediate open or closed position The lock must be depressed for. each selection of cowl flap, An oil cooler for each engine is mounted on the forward side of the firewall Air is picked. up by air scoops on the side of the cowl passed through the oil cooler and ducted overboard in. the lower cowling, The fuel injection system reduces the possibility of induction system ice and provides. better fuel distribution than does a carburetor system Each engine is equipped with a Bendix. RSA 5 fuel injection system which operates on the principle of measuring engine air. consumption and using the air flow to control fuel flow to the engine Fuel pressure regulation. by means of a servo valve causes a minimal drop in fuel pressure throughout the metering. system Metering pressure is maintained above vapor forming conditions yet fuel inlet pressure. is low enough to allow the use of a diaphragm fuel pump Thus vapor lock and associated. problems of difficult starting are minimized,AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS. 2 2 REVISED MARCH 23 1979, Mounted on top of the engine is the ported fuel flow divider with four nozzle lines routed.
to the cylinders The divider contains a spring loaded positive shut off valve Within each. cylinder are continuous flow air bleed nozzles with provisions to eliminate the adverse effects of. low manifold pressure when idling Since fuel metering is provided by the servo regulator rather. than the nozzles more uniform cylinder head temperatures result and longer engine life is. Induction air for the engine enters an air scoop located on the outboard side of the lower. cowl The air is directed through a filter and thence to the servo regulator To prevent engine. malfunction if the air filter becomes blocked the induction system incorporates a method of. providing heated alternate air which does not pass through the filter Located in the air box. between the filter and servo regulator is a valve which is manually operated by the alternate air. control located below the power quadrant Since the alternate air is heated by the crossover. exhaust tube it gives extra protection against icing in the system caused by snow or freezing. rain Alternate air should not be used during ground operation because the unfiltered air may. contain dust and other contamination The primary induction source should always be used for. All throttle operations should be made with a smooth not too rapid movement to prevent. unnecessary engine wear or damage to dynamic counterweights on the engines. The pilot should read and follow the procedures recommended in the Lycoming Operator s. Manual for this engine in order to obtain maximum engine efficiency and time between engine. l PULL CLOSE,Cowl Flap Control,AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS. ISSUED March 10 1972 2 3,PROPELLERS, Counter rotation of the propellers provides balanced thrust during take off and climb and. eliminates the critical engine factor in single engine flight. The propellers are constant speed controllable pitch full feathering Hartzell propellers. operated by oil and nitrogen pressure Compressed air may be used instead of nitrogen provided. it contains no moisture Oil pressure sends the propeller toward the high RPM or unfeather. position while nitrogen pressure sends the propeller toward the low RPM or feather position. and keeps the propeller from overspeeding The recommended nitrogen pressure to be used. when charging the unit is listed on placards on the propeller dome and inside the spinner This. pressure varies with ambient temperature at the time of charging A governor mounted on each. engine supplies oil through the propeller shaft at various pressures to maintain constant RPM. Each propeller is controlled by use of the propeller control lever located in the center of. the power control quadrant Feathering of a propeller is accomplished by moving the control. fully aft through the low RPM detent into the feather position Feathering takes place in. approximately six seconds Unfeathering is accomplished by moving the propeller control ahead. and engaging the starter until the propeller is windrnilling. A feathering lock operated by centrifugal force prevents feathering during engine shut. down by making it impossible to feather any time the engine speed is less than 800 RPM For. this reason if an engine is being feathered to save it the pilot must be sure to move the control. to feather position before the engine speed drops below 800 RPM. LANDING GEAR SYSTEM, To increase cruise speed climb and other performance the Seneca is equipped with a. retractable tricycle landing gear which is hydraulically operated Rugged gear construction and. a heavy duty braking system permit operation from a wide variety of landing areas. Hydraulic pressure for gear operation is furnished by an electrically power d reversible. pump controlled by a two position selector switch located on the instrument panel to the left of. the control quadrant The gear selector switch which has a wheel shaped knob must be pulled. out before it is moved to the UP or DOWN position When hydraulic pressure is exerted in. one direction the gear is retracted when it is exerted in the other direction the gear is extended. If the landing gear is in transit and the hydraulic pump is running it is inadvisable to move the. gear selector switch to the opposite direction before it has reached its travel limit because this. sudden reversal may be harmful to the electric pump Retraction or extension normally takes. six to seven seconds,AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS,2 4 ISSUED March 10 1972. The gear system incorporates a number of features Gear extension can be accomplished even. in the event of hydraulic failure since the gear is held up by hydraulic pressure If the hydraulic. system develops a leak or if the pressure is relieved for any reason gravity will cause the gear to. extend Aerodynamic loads and springs assist in extending and locking the gear down When the. landing gear is retracted the main wheels fold toward the centerline of the airplane and the nose. gear retracts forward Once the nose gear has started toward the down position the airstream. pushes against it and assists in moving it to the locked position When the three gears are down and. the down lock hooks engage a spring maintains force on each hook in the locked position until it is. released by hydraulic pressure, To get the gear to extend and lock if the hydraulic pump fails it is necessary only to relieve the.
hydraulic pressure An emergency gear extension knob located near the center of the instrument. panel is provided for this purpose Pulling this knob releases the hydraulic pressure which holds the. landing gear in the up position and the gear can then fall free A guard over the knob is provided to. prevent inadvertent extension of the gear Prior to pulling the emergency gear extension knob it is. advisable to place the gear selector in the DOWN position to prevent the pump from trying to raise. lf the emergency gear knob has been pulled out to lower the gear by gravity due to a gear. system malfunction leave the control in its extended position until the airplane has been put on. jack s to check the proper function of the landing gears Hydraulic and Electrical systems See. Aircraft Service Manual for proper landing gear system check out procedures If the airplane is. being used for training purposes or a pilot check out mission and the emergency gear extension has. been pulled out it may be pushed in again when desired if there has not been any apparent. malfunction of the landing gear system, When the gear is fully up or fully down and the selector is in the corresponding position. electrical limit switches stop the flow of current to the motor of the hydraulic pump Three green. lights indicate that the landing gear is down and locked and a convex mirror on the left engine. nacelle enables the pilot to confirm the position of the nose gear When the gear is not in the full up. or the full down position a red warning light is illuminated on the instrument panel. To add to the pilot s night vision comfort the gear lights are automatically dimmed when the. navigation lights are turned on For this reason if the navigation lights are unintentionally turned. on in the daytime it is difficult to see the landing gear lights if the green lights are not observed after. the landing gear switch is put in the DOWN position the first thing to check is the position of the. switch for the navigation lights, If one or two of the three green lights do not illuminate when the gear down position has been. selected this could indicate that for each of the lights that is out any of the following conditions. might exist,a The gear is not locked down,b The bulb is burned out. c There is a malfunction in the indicating system, The square indicating lights can be pulled out and moved around in order to check the bulbs. A micro switch incorporated in the throttle quadrant activates a warning horn under the. following conditions, I Gear up and manifold pressure reduced below 14 inches on either one or both.
2 Gear selector switch in the UP position when the airplane is on the ground. AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS 2 5,REVISED MARCH 23 1979, If the gear selector knob is placed in the UP position when the airplane is on the ground. a safety switch located on the left main gear will prevent the hydraulic pump from actuating if. the master switch should be turned on On take off when the oleo extends in excess of eight. inches the safety switch closes to complete the circuit so that the hydraulic pump can raise the. landing gear when the gear switch is moved to the UP position On take off the gear should be. retracted before an airspeed of 125 MPH is exceeded It may be extended at any speed up to. The nose gear is steerable through a 42 degree arc by use of the rudder pedals As the gear. retracts the steering linkage disengages to reduce rudder pedal loads in flight and the nose wheel. straightens as it enters the wheel well A gear centering spring incorporated in the nose gear. steering system prevents any tendency to shimmy, The hydraulic reservoir for landing gear operation is an integral part of the gear hydraulic. pump Access to the combination pump and reservoir is through a panel in the nose baggage. compartment For filling instructions see the Seneca Service Manual. The three landing gear wheels are the same size 6 00 6 The nose wheel has a 6 ply tire. and the main gear has 8 ply tires Struts for nose and main gear are air oil assemblies. The brake system which incorporates a single disc double puck brake assembly on each. main gear strut is designed to meet all normal braking needs and to assist in the exceptional. short field landing capabilities of the Seneca A brake system hydraulic reservoir independent. of the landing gear hydraulic reservoir is located behind a panel at the rear top of the nose. baggage compartment The fluid should be maintained at the level marked on the reservoir The. brake assemblies are actuated by individual toe brake cylinders mounted on the left optional. on the right set of rudder pedals and a handle operated brake cylinder located below and. behind the left center of the instrument panel, The parking brake is actuated by pulling back on the handle and pushing forward on the. button to the left of the handle The brake can be released by pulling aft on the handle without. touching the button and allowing the handle to swing forward. AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS,2 6 REVISED April 1 1977,AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS. ISSUED March 10 1972 2 7,AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS,2 8 ISSUED March 10 1972.
FLIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS, Dual controls are provided as standard equipment with a cable system used between the. controls and the surfaces The horizontal tail stabilator is of the all movable slab type with an. anti servo tab which also acts as a longitudinal trim tab actuated by a control mounted on the. control tunnel between the two front seats The stabilator provides stability and controllability. with less size drag and weight than the more conventional horizontal stabilizer elevator. combination The ailerons are provided with a differential action and are lightly interconnected. by springs with the rudder This arrangement tends to eliminate adverse yaw in turning. maneuvers and to reduce the amount of coordination required in normal turns. The flaps are manually extended aerodynamically balanced for light operating forces and. spring loaded to return to the retracted position The flap control lever is located between the. front seats on the floor A button on the end of the lever must be depressed before moving the. control A past center lock incorporated in the actuating linkage holds the flap when it is in the. retracted position so that it may be used as a step on the right side Since the flap will not. support a step load except when in the full retracted position it should be completely retracted. when people are entering and leaving the aircraft The flaps have three extended positions 10. 25 and 40 degrees,AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS,ISSUED March 10 1972 2 9. FUEL SYSTEM, The Seneca fuel system offers two 24 5 gallon aluminum tanks in each wing which are. interconnected to eliminate problems of tank selection and fuel management Both tanks in each. wing are filled with a single opening in the outboard tank and fuel from the outboard tank flows. into the inboard tank as the fuel from the inboard tank is consumed The 98 gallon fuel capacity has. only 2 1 2 unusable gallons on each side making a total of 93 usable gallons The fuel must to. 100 130 octane light green, An engine driven fuel pump is the primary means of supplying fuel for each engine An electric. fuel pump located on the aft side of the firewall is provided for each engine as a back up in case of. engine driven fuel pump failure The electric pump should be used during landings and take offs to. ensure sufficient fuel pressure in case of an engine driven fuel pump failure during these portions of. the flight sequence Switches for the electric fuel pumps are conveniently located on the switch. panel to the left of the pilot, In normal operation each engine operates with an independent fuel system drawing fuel from.
the tanks in the wing on the same side as the engine However the two systems are interconnected. by crossfeed lines which will permit an engine to use fuel from the tanks on the opposite side in order. to extend single engine range and to enable the pilot to keep fuel weight balanced When crossfeed. has been used during single engine cruise operation prior to landing the fuel selector should be. positioned so that fuel is used from the same side as the operating engine The fuel selectors located. on the funnel between the pilot and the copilot seats reflect the simplified fuel system Each lever. has three positions OFF ON and CROSSFEED, Do not operate with both fuel selectors on CROSSFEED Do not. take off with a selector on CROSSFEED, To permit the pilot to monitor the system fuel pressure fuel flow and fuel quantity gauges a. single fuel gauge for the two tanks in each wing are mounted on the instrument panel Fuel. quantity sender units one mounted in each fuel tank transmit electrically the total quantity of fuel. in each pair of tanks, A gascolator fuel filter is located between the fuel selector valve and the electric fuel pump on. each side Quick drains are provided for the fuel gascolators 2 for each fuel tank 4 and each. crossfeed line 2 Two fuel tank drains are located under each wing crossfeed drains are located. under the belly of the aircraft opposite the trailing edge of the right wing flap gascolator tor drains. are on the inboard side of the engine nacelles forward and below the leading edge of the wing The. vent system for the fuel tanks consists of a vent in each fuel cap a vent interconnect between the. tanks in each wing and an overflow line from the top of each filler neck. AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS,2 10 REVISED MARCH 23 1979,AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS. ISSUED March 10 1972,ELECTRICAL SYSTEM, The electrical system of the Seneca is capable of supplying current for complete night IFR.
equipment Electrical power is supplied by two 60 ampere alternators one mounted on each. engine A 35 ampere hour 12 volt battery provide s current for starting for use when the engines are. not running and for a source of stored electrical power to back up the alternator output The. battery which is located in the nose section and is accessible through the forward baggage. compartment is normally kept charged by the alternators lf it becomes necessary to charge the. battery it should be removed from the airplane, An external power source plug is available as optional equipment and when installed is. located on the lower left side of the nose While an externall2 14 volt power source is being plugged. in or unplugged the master switch should be in the OFF position to prevent sparking The master. switch should be in the ON position however for engine starting with external power. Two solid state voltage regulators are provided to maintain effective load sharing while. regulating the electrical system bus voltage to 14 0 volts In each alternator circuit an overvoltage. relay is provided to prevent electrical damage to electrical and avionics equipment by taking the. alternator off the line if its output goes above 14 0 volts When this occurs a red light located on the. left side switch panel illuminates to indicate that the overvoltage relay has tripped This is the only. function of this light it does not necessarily come on for other failures of the alternator system. Voltage regulators and overvoltage relays are mounted on the forward side of the bulkhead at. station 49 5, Circuit breakers are provided to protect equipment and the electrical system These are located. on the lower right hand instrument panel and there is room for additional circuit breakers if extra. electrical equipment is installed A circuit breaker may trip automatically in case of equipment. malfunctions or a sudden surge of current The pilot can then reset it by pushing it in preferably. after a few minutes cooling period However he cannot pull out a circuit breaker manually. Most of the electrical switches including the master switch and those for the magnetos fuel. pumps starter alternators lights and pitot heat are conveniently located on the switch panel to the. left of the pilot A press switch near the top of the alternator master switch panel turns on a light. which is wired around the master switch and which permits the pilot to inspect the panel at night. before turning on the master switch, The alternator system has the advantage of being able to produce rated electrical output at low. engine speed The pilot of the Seneca is provided with an easy means of monitoring electrical system. operation with dual ammeters and overvoltage warning lights An ammeter is provided for each. alternator This acts as a load meter showing the amount of current being produced by the. particular alternator A zero reading would indicate that the alternator was not producing current. An indication near 60 would show that the electrical demand was taxing the alternator In this case. the pilot should turn off unnecessary electrical equipment to reduce the current required When. operating on a single engine the pilot should be on guard against demanding too much from the. one operating alternator because an overloaded alternator may burn out or its circuit breaker may. AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS,2 12 REVISED MARCH 23 1979,Switch Panel. AIRPLANE AND SYSTEMS,ISSUED March 10 1972 2 13, Alternator and Starter Schematic Ser Nos 34 7250001 thru 34 7350135.

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