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Depression
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DEPRESSION, ost people feel depressed at times Losing a loved. one getting fired from a job going through a, divorce and other difficult situations can lead a. person to feel sad lonely scared nervous or anxious. Depression is more than just sadness It interferes with daily A major depressive episode may include these symptoms. life and causes pain for you and everyone who cares about. you It s a common illness but a very serious one Persistent sad mood most of the day nearly every day. Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities. The term depression often characterizes feelings of being including sex. sad discouraged hopeless irritable unmotivated as well. as a general lack of interest or pleasure in life When these Feelings of guilt worthlessness helplessness. feelings last for a short period of time it may be called a Decreased energy fatigue feeling slowed down. passing case of the blues But it s likely to be a depressive Difficulty concentrating remembering making. disorder when they last for more than two weeks and decisions. interfere with regular daily activities, Insomnia early morning awakening or excessive. Depressive disorders also known as mood disorders sleeping. include three main types major depression persistent Low appetite and weight loss or overeating and weight. depressive disorder and bipolar disorder Depressive gain. disorders can affect people of any age including children. Thoughts of death or suicide suicide attempts, teenagers adults and older adults. Restlessness or irritability, Types of Depression Persistent depressive disorder or PDD is a form of.
Major depression involves at least five of the symptoms depression that usually continues for at least two years. listed below for a two week period Such an episode is Although it is less severe than major depression it involves. disabling and will interfere with the ability to work study the same symptoms sad mood combined with low energy. eat and sleep Major depressive episodes may occur once poor appetite or overeating and insomnia or oversleeping. or twice in a lifetime or they may recur frequently They It can show up as stress irritability and mild anhedonia. may also take place spontaneously during or after the which is the inability to derive pleasure from most activities. death of a loved one a romantic breakup a medical illness. Bipolar disorder once called manic depression is, or other life event Some people with major depression may. characterized by moods that shift from severe highs mania. feel that life is not worth living and some will attempt to end. or mild highs hypomania to severe lows depression, their lives. The mood episodes associated with the disorder persist. from days to weeks or longer and may be dramatic Severe. changes in behavior go along with mood changes, Major depression. Persistent depressive disorder, Bipolar disorder 3. These periods of highs and lows can be distinct episodes Poor judgment. recurring over time Or they may occur together in a mixed Spending sprees. state symptoms of mania and depression experienced. together Symptoms often include agitation trouble A lasting period of behavior that is different from usual. sleeping significant change in appetite psychosis and Increased sexual drive. suicidal thinking A person may have a very sad hopeless Abuse of drugs particularly cocaine alcohol and. mood even while feeling extremely energized sleeping medications. Mood swings from manic to depressive are often gradual Provocative intrusive or aggressive behavior. although they can also take place abruptly Often people Denial that anything is wrong. with bipolar disorder experience periods of normal mood in. between mood episodes During the depressive phase a person experiences the. symptoms of major depression A depressive episode is. During the manic phase a person may experience diagnosed if five or more primary depressive symptoms last. abnormal or excessive elation irritability a decreased need most of the day nearly every day for a period of two weeks. for sleep grandiose notions increased talkativeness racing or longer. thoughts increased sexual desire markedly increased. energy poor judgment and inappropriate social behavior Signs and symptoms of a depressive episode can include. the following, A manic episode is diagnosed if an elevated mood occurs.
with three or more primary symptoms present most of the Lasting sad or empty mood. day nearly every day for at least one week With an irritable Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism. mood four additional symptoms must be present for a. diagnosis Feelings of guilt worthlessness or helplessness. Loss of interest or pleasure in activities once enjoyed. Signs and symptoms of a manic episode can include the including sex. Decreased energy a feeling of fatigue or of being, Increased energy activity and restlessness slowed down. Excessively high overly good euphoric mood Difficulty concentrating remembering making. Extreme irritability, Restlessness or irritability. Racing thoughts and talking very fast jumping from one. idea to another Sleeping too much or having trouble sleeping. Distractibility inability to concentrate well Change in appetite or unintended weight loss or gain. Little sleep needed Thoughts of death or suicide, Unrealistic beliefs in one s abilities and powers Suicide attempts. manic increased energy depressive, restlessness, thoughts of death. grandiose notions, spending sprees mood swings pessimism.
euphoria 5, Depression and Depression in Children, Anxiety Disorders Adolescents and Teens. epression and anxiety disorders are not the same t may be difficult to tell if a child adolescent or teen. but people with depression often experience is suffering from depression Risk factors include. nervousness irritability and problems sleeping being under stress experiencing loss or having. and concentrating and other symptoms similar to attention learning or conduct disorders In addition. an anxiety disorder It is not uncommon for someone girls are more likely than boys to develop depression. with an anxiety disorder to suffer from depression and and younger children who develop depression are. vice versa Nearly one half of those diagnosed with likely to have a family history of the illness. depression are also diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. Ruling out physical symptoms a pediatrician may suggest. a psychiatric evaluation It is not uncommon for children. The term anxiety disorder includes generalized even very young children to be diagnosed with depression. anxiety disorder GAD panic disorder and panic During adolescence with its many personal and social. attacks agoraphobia social anxiety disorder changes depression can take hold Persistent unhappiness. selective mutism separation anxiety and specific or moodiness is not normal Look for these symptoms. phobias Obsessive compulsive disorder OCD and, posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD are closely Depressed or irritable mood. related to anxiety disorders which some may Inability to feel pleasure. experience at the same time as depression, Loss of interest in usual activities withdrawal from. Each disorder has its own causes and its own emotional Change in grades getting into trouble at school or. and behavioral symptoms Many people who develop refusing to go to school. depression have a history of an anxiety disorder earlier in. Loss of appetite or eating too much, life There is no evidence one disorder causes the other. but there is clear evidence that many people suffer from Weight loss or weight gain. both disorders The good news is that these disorders are Problems falling sleep staying asleep or sleeping too. treatable separately and together much, Feeling angry.
Mood swings, Frequent sadness or, Feeling worthless. and guilty, Treatable generalized anxiety disorder. separation, panic disorder posttraumatic stress disorder anxiety. agoraphobia selective mutism, social anxiety disorder specific phobias. depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, Lack of energy.
Postpartum Depression, Low self esteem, Problems concentrating remembering information or ollowing childbirth about 10 to 15 percent of. making decisions women experience postpartum depression which. is depression associated with the aftermath of, Aches pains headaches cramps or digestive problems pregnancy About 30 to 70 percent experience symptoms. that do not go away for one year or longer Most women with postpartum. Restlessness depression are diagnosed with minor depression but. Feeling hopeless and helpless 4 to 5 percent meet the criteria for major depression. Thoughts of death or suicide or suicide attempts Postpartum depression is associated with severe and. persistent symptoms that are present most of the day nearly. Other disorders such as anxiety disruptive behavior eating every day for at least two weeks It is also associated with. disorders or substance abuse may also occur at the same reduced mother infant bonding and increased marital stress. time Treatment for depression and related disorders is and divorce. essential After one episode of depression a child is at risk. for developing another within five years which may predict Symptoms usually begin within the first four weeks of giving. more severe illness as an adult Depression in children birth although some women report decreasing mood in. adolescents and teens increases risk for suicide the late third trimester of pregnancy Below are common. Depression is most likely due to a combination of genetic. biological environmental and psychological factors Brain Loss of interest or. imaging technologies such as magnetic resonance imaging pleasure in things that. MRI have shown that the parts of the brain involved in you normally enjoy. mood thinking sleep appetite and behavior of people Fatigue or loss of. who have depression function differently than those of energy. people without it, Appetite increase or, Some types of depression tend to run in families Genetics decrease. research indicates that risk for depression results from Sleeping too much or insomnia. several genes acting in concert with environmental and. Feeling restless or as though you are slowed down, other factors Also trauma loss of a loved one a difficult. relationship or any stressful situation may trigger a Feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt. depressive episode Episodes may also occur without an Difficulty concentrating or indecisiveness. obvious trigger And the illness can occur in people without. Thoughts of death or suicide or a suicide plan, any family history.
Anxiety and ruminating thoughts which may occur with. other mood symptoms, Causes biological, envi ronmental psychological 9. CAUSES Once you are feeling better you must continue taking your. A rapid decrease in some hormones after delivery may be a medications for the prescribed time period Changing or. risk factor and others include stressors previous depressive withdrawing from any medication should only be done. episodes depression while pregnant complications under your doctor s supervision Ask your doctor about. during pregnancy or delivery and a family history of mood possible side effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs, Recent studies have shown that among women who Doctors often start by prescribing an SSRI SSRIs relieve. are diagnosed about one third had depression prior to symptoms by blocking the reabsorption or reuptake of. their pregnancy one third have depression that began serotonin by certain nerve cells in the brain This leaves. during pregnancy and one third experienced the onset of more serotonin available which improves mood SSRIs. depression after delivery citalopram escitalopram fluoxetine paroxetine and. sertraline generally produce fewer side effects when. Treatments compared with tricyclic antidepressants However. common side effects include insomnia or sleepiness. any people with a depressive illness never seek sexual dysfunction and weight gain. treatment But most even those with the most Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. severe depression can get better with some SNRIs The serotonin norepinephrine reuptake. form of treatment Those shown to be effective include inhibitor or SNRI class venlafaxine duloxetine and. antidepressant medications and forms of psychotherapy levomilnacipran is notable for a dual mechanism of. as well as newly developed treatments Early diagnosis and action increasing the levels of the neurotransmitters. intervention with appropriate treatment are always critical serotonin and norepinephrine by inhibiting their. steps to feeling better especially for children and teens reabsorption into cells in the brain As with other. medications side effects may occur including stomach. MEDICATIONS upset insomnia headache sexual dysfunction and. Symptoms of depressive disorders respond to different minor increase in blood pressure These medications are. classes of medications Selective serotonin reuptake considered as effective as SSRIs. inhibitor SSRI and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake Norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitors. inhibitor SNRI medications are the treatment of choice NDRIs In this category is bupropion one of the few. SSRIs and SNRIs have fewer side effects than many of the antidepressants not frequently associated with sexual. medications prescribed in the past These medications side effects. DEPRESSION M ost people feel depressed at times Losing a loved one getting fired from a job going through a divorce and other difficult situations can lead a person to feel sad lonely scared nervous or anxious Depression is more than just sadness It interferes with daily life and causes pain for you and everyone who cares about you It s a common illness but a very serious one

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