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Debating Manual Zuriberg
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This manual was originally written for the Zuriberg Toastmasters club in. Zurich Switzerland to enable the club to hold British Parliamentary type. debates as the official Toastmasters manual does not include this style of. This and represents only an insight into, the format agreed and used by Zuriberg Toastmasters. 2 ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL,Proposition 5. Opposition 5,Chairman 6,Ballot Counter 7,Evaluator 7. Points of information 8,Room layout 9,Suggested timing 10. 1st 2nd speech timing 10,The motion 11,ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL 3.
DEBATING BASICS, Debates are a common feature of both parliaments and broadcast news. They enable both sides of a discussion to air their views in a fair. environment Separating a debate from an argument are the rules governing. a debate which ensure this fairness, The aim of a debate is to convince the audience to support a course of. action which is laid out in the motion To establish which side has persuaded. the audience of their argument a vote is taken at the end. From a Toastmasters perspective debating is a combination of prepared. speeches and impromptu speaking combined with inspirational and. persuasive speaking This makes it an ideal format where all aspects of. Toastmasters craft can be utilised together, The debating format discussed in this manual is based on the British. Parliamentary style of debating as practiced in many schools and at the. World Debating Championships, Debates can have more than two speakers per team However for the. purposes of fitting debates into the constraints of a Toastmasters meeting. this manual will assume two speakers per team,4 ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL.
PARTICIPANTS, A debate takes place between two teams the proposition who propose and. are therefore in favour of the motion and the opposition who oppose the. motion and are in favour of the status quo or a different course of action The. debate is moderated by the chairman who ensures that the rules are. Other roles that can be performed either by the chairman or by others are. the timer and the vote counter,PROPOSITION, The two members of the proposition will make the case for the motion They. take the position that the status quo is not acceptable and that something. should change At the end of their speeches they will encourage the house. to support the motion by commending the motion to the house or via. another similar sentence for example I urge the house to support this. The first proposition speaker will define the motion. and lay out the case complete argument for it This speech is akin to a. prepared Toastmasters speech, The second proposition speaker will refute the first. opposition speaker s argument against the motion Whilst having some. prepared notes he will write much of his speech while listening to and in. response to the first opposition s speech, After the questions from the floor audience and the second opposition. speaker s summation speech the first proposition speaker will make the. final short summation speech explaining why the house should vote for the. OPPOSITION, The two members of the opposition will make the case against the motion.
They believe that the status quo or an alternative course of action is better. than the proposition s motion, The first opposition speaker will make a clear case. against the motion The first opposition speech will be prepared but the. speaker may also choose briefly to refute the first proposition speaker. The first opposition speaker may find that the opposition s interpretation. of the motion is slightly different than proposition s understanding of it. This is not a problem it is simply a further topic of debate during the. ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL 5,The second opposition speaker will refute the. arguments for the motion He is the last speaker to speak before the. debate is opened to the floor audience, After the questions from the floor the first opposition speaker will make a. short summation speech explaining why the house should vote against the. When giving their speeches the proposition and opposition should observe. parliamentary language Insulting the other side is not allowed however. questioning their judgement and understanding is Speakers address other. speakers as my honourable friend or the member of the. opposition proposition, The chairman is responsible for keeping the debate running smoothly and. ensuring that the rules are followed He or she will correct speakers if they. stray for example through improper language or overly long points of. information He or she will maintain order both between the speakers and. also on the floor audience, At the beginning of the first debate of the evening the.
chairman will explain the debate format Before each debate. the chairman will introduce the debate teams Then he or she. will state the motion as neutrally as possible to avoid. prejudicing the floor audience in favour of either team s argument. After the first four speeches two from each team the chairman will open. the debate to the floor audience The chairman will moderate the. discussion by acknowledging questioners from the floor addressing the. relevant debaters and ensuring that the floor debate finishes on time The. chairman will then introduce the summary speeches The chairman will close. the debate at the end of the proposition s summation speech and call for a. house vote Once the ballots are collected the chairman will introduce the. evaluator and then retire from service for the evening. The chairman shall always be addressed as Mister Chairman or Madame. Chairman as appropriate,6 ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL. The timer indicates when each speaker should begin and end and when. points of information are permitted The Timer will indicate to the chairman. if the time is exceeded, The timer will use a bell to indicate the following. to indicate that a speaker may begin,to indicate that points of information. may now be delivered,to indicate that points of information may no. longer be delivered,to indicate the end of the allotted speaking time.
The floor audience will have the opportunity to question the speakers after. the first four speeches two from each team are over Like the speakers floor. members must address their questions to the Chairman and respect the. rules of language, After the summation speeches the floor will vote to decide if the motion. passes or not If the motion passes the proposition wins the debate If the. motion fails the opposition wins,BALLOT COUNTER, The vote may be decided either by a show of hands or via ballots The votes. shall be counted by either the chairman or a ballot counter. If time is available an independent evaluation of the debate is very useful to. indicate where the speakers performed well and where there may be room. for improvement, Substance is the key criterion for success The evaluator should pay attention. to the reasoning analysis and organisation of the debaters and their. arguments as well as the evidence offered The evaluator will also observe. the quick thinking of the debaters since speakers must compose rebuttals. and refutations while the debate is in progress, In addition the evaluator should assess how the speakers delivered their. arguments by looking at the use of various performance tools available to. the speakers such as vocal variety pauses etc,ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL 7.
The debate follows an alternating format starting with the proposition This. allows subsequent speakers to pick up on comments and ideas raised by. previous speakers and to integrate counter or complementary arguments. into their speeches,The chairman will introduce the debate and the. Defines the motion and lays out arguments for the, Puts forward the opposition s interpretation of the. motion lays out arguments against it,Refutes the arguments of the opposition. Refutes the arguments of the proposition,moderated by chairman. Summarises the opposition case refutes the,proposition case.
Summarises the proposition case refutes,the opposition case. POINTS OF INFORMATION, During the opposition and proposition speeches prior to the floor debate the. team not speaking can offer the speaker a point of information. Points of information are intended to undermine the opponents arguments. by highlighting faulty logic contradictions lack of evidence etc. Opponents may deliver points of information between during. the period between the two single bells during the first two. speeches from each team, Points of information should be short and to the point to avoid. eating into the speakers allotted time, The speaker being interrupted is under no obligation to accept the point of. information but general practice dictates that speakers will accept 1 2. points per speech Once a speaker has accepted a point of information he or. 8 ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL, she is expected to respond simply ignoring the point is considered bad.
Opponents deliver points of information by standing up at their chairs and. uttering Point of information Mister Madame Chairman Once the speaker. has stopped to accept the point of information the opponent addressed the. point to the chair not to the speaker directly For example Madame. Chairman my honourable friend has not understood or Mister. Chairman it is clearly not true that, The opponent offering the point of information will remain. standing until he has finished stating the point of information or. until the current speaker rejects his point, The chairman may cut off overly long points of information or points in. which the person offering the points is harassing the speaker Equally the. chairman may encourage a speaker who is not taking points to reconsider. and accept one, See also 1st and 2nd speech timing in the format section. ROOM LAYOUT, The proposition and opposition should sit at the front of the room in front of. the audience either side of the speaking area If desired a lectern can be. placed between the two teams for giving the speeches The chairman and. timer should sit at the front in clear line of sight of the speakers. ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL 9,SUGGESTED TIMING.
Below are suggested durations for the Zuriberg format which can be slotted. in a Toastmasters meeting in place of prepared speeches and evaluations or. the mini debate format which is half as long and suitable where the. participants have little time to prepare,ZURIBERG MINI DEBATE. SEGMENT FORMAT FORMAT, 1st proposition speech 5 00 POIs 1 00 4 00 2 30 POIs 0 20 2 10. 1st opposition speech 5 00 POIs 1 00 4 00 2 30 POIs 0 20 2 10. 2nd proposition speech 5 00 POIs 1 00 4 00 2 30 POIs 0 20 2 10. 2nd opposition speech 5 00 POIs 1 00 4 00 2 30 POIs 0 20 2 10. Floor debate 5 00 n a 3 00 n a, Opposition summary speech 2 00 no POIs 1 00 no POIs. Proposition summary speech 2 00 no POIs 1 00 no POIs. 1ST 2ND SPEECH TIMING, As mentioned in the sections on the role of the timer and on points of. information a double bell is used indicate the beginning and end of the. speech whilst a single bell is used to indicate the beginning and end of the. period where points of information can be delivered. ZURIBERG MINI DEBATE,BELL FORMAT FORMAT, Points of information be offered 0 00 1 00 0 00 0 20.
Points of information may be offered 1 00 4 00 0 20 2 10. Points of information be offered 4 00 5 00 2 10 2 30. 10 ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL,PREPARATION. Debates can be either prepared days in advance or with only a few minutes. notice In the case of debates to be prepared with little notice crib sheets are. recommended to enable participants to build up fact based arguments. It is desirable that debaters prepare with their team mates to create a fluid. continual train of thought and coherent argument,THE MOTION. In debating the idea put forward by the proposition is the motion It will. usually be worded as follows,This house believes that. The house is everyone in the room and the result of the vote is the opinion. of the house Thus the debaters wish to convince the house of their. The motion cannot be amended and must be debated as is However the. wording often provides considerable scope for discussion and a debate can. be won or lost depending on how either team interprets the wording even. down to the definition of individual words, During the debate itself it is perfectly acceptable even desirable to use. notes given that debating is about facts,ZURIBERG TOASTMASTERS DEBATING MANUAL 11.
USEFUL RESOURCES,INTERNATIONAL DEBATE EDUCATION,ASSOCIATION IDEA. idebate org, At the heart of IDEA is the debatabase which contains motions support. materials and further reading links for hundreds of different topics. WORLD DEBATING NEWS,worlddebating blogspot com, Whilst the blog from this site has moved to IDEA the content on how to. debate including rules and tips are very useful and not yet available on IDEA.


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