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D O C U M E N T A R Y E D U C A T I O N A L R E S O U R C
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D O C U M E N TA RY E D U C AT I O N A L R E S O U R C E S study guide. sometimes encounter and offers solutions to,those problems Thus at a quite abstract level. the film is itself an exegesis and an argument,Before going to Bradford I speculated on the. possibility of making a film about Indipop a,modem genre of popular music that is a blend. of Asian and Western musical elements think,ing to use this as a metaphor of wider process. es of cultural synthesis but for various reasons,this goal remained unfulfilled I also wanted.
to make this an issue film in contrast to a film,portrait and in this respect I have only been. partly successful for in many ways the final,film is a portrait or rather a double portrait. It was also intended from the outset that the,making of the film should be the occasion for. conducting a legitimate piece of field research,with the hope of capturing the sense of explo. ration and revelation that accompanies field,work In the event the film came to be a study.
is also a much smaller Muslim community,of a key element in any music culture musical. from Gujarat in India most of whose mem,enculturation the processes through which. bers are secondary immigrants who came to,people develop their inherent musical abilities. Britain from various East African countries in,and learn specific musical skills The film does. the late 1960s In many cases they left Africa,this by showing people learning and practis.
under duress feeling threatened by policies of,ing music in a variety of contexts contrasting. Africanization as countries like Kenya Tan,what goes on in the informal setting of the. zania and Uganda became independent from,home with the more formal school situation. Britain For reasons explained below most of,the people I worked with in Bradford were. II RESEARCH IN BRADFORD,from this Gujarati community.
In the mid 1980s the population of the Brad,The former considerable wealth of Bradford. ford Metropolitan Area was about 350 000,was founded on the textile industry Pakistanis. of which perhaps 60 000 were Asian Cities,started coming to Bradford in significant num. in modem Britain vary widely with respect to,bers from the early 1950s and were actively. the relative proortions of the various minor,recruited in Pakistan by agents for the vari.
ity communities In Bradford Muslim Asians,ous textile mills which needed cheap labour. predominate Hindu and Sikh communities are,Thirty years later the community was well set. comparatively small and there are few West,tled though the textile industry had entered a. Indians Within the Muslim community of,state of decline The Gujaratis came later and. Bradford the majority have come from Paki,to some extent remained distanced from their.
stan especially from the Mirpur district of,Pakistani co religionists by language and the. Azad Kashmir 60 70 of the Pakistanis are,region of the sub continent to which they felt. Mirpuris according to Khan 1977 57 There,connected Large areas of the city of Bradford. GUIDE Lessons from Gulam 2, D O C U M E N TA RY E D U C AT I O N A L R E S O U R C E S study guide. were predominantly Asian there were many 1988 102 3 It seems that when significant. mosques Asian shops and restaurants There numbers of people from British India mi. was also considerable recruitment of Asians grated to East Africa then also under British. to the professions as doctors dentists real rule there was a demand for barbers and the. estate agents accountants lawyers architects Hajam of Gujarat geographically close to Af. school teachers civil servants and community rica took advantage of this Once in East Afri. workers One could if one so wished operate ca they may have encouraged their children to. within a social arena largely peopled by Mus turn to higher ranking and economically more. lim Asians In 1985 6 Bradford had its first rewarding occupations but the connection. Asian Mayor Mohammad Ajeeb Khan from with barbering and music remained strong At. Azad Kashmir once a bus driver in the city some point they adopted the name Khalifa for. themselves presumably to escape the pejora, The Mirpuris were regarded by other Asian tive connotations of the term Hajam.
communities in Bradford as relatively unso, phisticated They came from a rural area of The Khalifas in Britain in 1986 comprised a. Pakistan and the original immigrants were un dozen separate communities each with its own. familiar with urban life In Mirpur the status Khalifa Society and all affiliated to the Federa. of musician was extremely low in the social tion of the Gujarati Muslim Khalifa Societies. order and musical performance was the do of U K There were two Khalifa Societies in. main of a musician caste called Mirasi from Bradford and they were also found in Cov. miras inheritance As far as I can tell no entry Leicester Wolverhampton Dewsbury. Mirasis emigrated to Britain from Mirpur As Blackburn Nuneaton Luton and Southall in. a community the Mirpuris had little inter west London The Khalifas had a keen sense. est in music they might enjoy it in the Hindi of their own identity and through their mem. movies they watched on videos but music was bership lists knew who they all were In 1986. certainly not something they wanted to per the total size of their community in Britain. form themselves nor wanted their children to was about 1 800 persons Each Khalifa Society. learn about in or out of school The prejudice had its cricket and football team and competed. against music and musicians associated with during the season in Inter Khalifa Tourna. some orthodox forms of Islam could be seen at ments Unlike the Mirpuris in Bradford the. work here Khalifas were highly involved in music mak. ing Several of the most prominent Asian, The Gujarati Muslim community presented a musicians living in London were Khalifas. completely different profile Most of the Gu Some were accompanists on BBC Asian music. jarati Muslims belonged to the Khalifa com programmes and others belonged to modem. munity part of the Hajam sub caste in Gu Indipop groups In Bradford there was little. jarat whose traditional occupations include scope for full time professional Asian musi. those of barber and musician The term khal cians but I found a high incidence of amateur. ifa is related to caliph and is used in some musicianship amongst the Khalifas I believe. Muslim countries to mean master craftsman further investigation would show that Khalifas. The occupational juxtaposition of barber and thought of themselves as inherently musical. musician was familiar to me from Afghanistan and that this was part of their self identity as a. where the term khalifa is often used to ad community. dress a barber see Sakata 1983 77 84 Baily,3 GUIDE Lessons from Gulam. D O C U M E N TA RY E D U C AT I O N A L R E S O U R C E S study guide. Up to 1986 there was very little provision for been difficulties before over such issues as the. Asian music in Bradford schools Muslim provision of halal meat for school meals and. reservations about the value of music were separate physical education for boys and girls. well known to school teachers The dissertation Another controversy was to be avoided if pos. of Patricia Jones herself a teacher in Bradford sible. Jones 1984 gives much valuable informa, tion She found amongst Pakistani children During my first brief visit to Bradford in Feb. at middle school level 95 of whom spoke a ruary 1986 Champak Kumar Co ordinator. language other than English to their parents of Oriental Arts gave me a list of a dozen. that although some listened to a good deal of Asian music groups in Bradford and it was in. music at home Western as well as Asian very contacting some of them that I first met Gu. few had any involvement in practical music lam Gulam is from the Khalifa community. making Bradford school teachers had noted and a member of a hereditary musician fam. that Asian children experienced problems with ily He was brought up in Kenya and moved to. music classes in school Out of a total of 1 010 Britain in 1968 In Kenya he had worked as a. children receiving peripatetic instrumental storeman and semi professional musician his. lessons in Western music only 25 were from group Aaghaz Party had won the annual qaw. non European families Jones 1984 37 wali competition in Nairobi in 1964 and been. Many teachers wanted to cater to the musical awarded the silver cup In Bradford he worked. interests of Asian children but felt they lacked for British Rail for many years An elder of. adequate knowledge or resources the Khalifa community former secretary of. his local Khalifa Cultural Society and member, A small organization called Oriental Arts spe of the Bradford Council of Mosques he was.
cifically aimed at promoting racial harmony a man of some consequence He ran a band. through the use of music dance and drama in Bradford called Saz aur Awaz Music and. in Bradford It organized concerts and various Song which occasionally played at small par. music courses and from time to time recruited ties and wedding festivities particularly within. groups of musicians to give Asian music work the Khalifa community The personnel of. shops at the request of Bradford schools In Gulam s band varied over time and consisted. 1986 Bradford s Directorate of Educational mainly of his Khalifa relatives usually trained. Services had decided to adopt a more direct by Gularn to be his accompanists The group. role in promoting Asian music in school and was essentially amateur its members played. advertised for a co ordinator to organise a together for their own enjoyment mainly in. teaching program At the same time the Di Sunday afternoon rehearsals at Gulam s. rectorate sponsored a series of school visits house If they played at Khalifa wedding par. by the Oriental Arts team to give demonstra ties it was to fulfill community obligations. tion concerts during the spring and summer On rare occasions when they played at private. school terms The Directorate wanted to move parties members of the band suspected that. cautiously They were afraid of a negative Gularn sometimes received payment but did. reaction from Asian parents who did not par not share the money. ticularly want their children to be taught music, in school and who might view the teaching As a singer and harmonium player Gulam. of Asian music as a move calculated to under specialised in a type of Muslim religious music. mine traditional Muslim values There had called qawwali which is widespread in India. GUIDE Lessons from Gulam 4, D O C U M E N TA RY E D U C AT I O N A L R E S O U R C E S study guide. One of Gulam s roles in the Asian commu,nity was that of music teacher As leader of. his qawwali group he taught his accompanists,mostly also his Khalifa relatives to play their. individual roles in the performance of this,relatively complex music He did not claim.
the status of ustad master musician he,felt his own limitations in musical knowledge. too keenly and certainly did not act like an,ustad but the data indicate that in the context. of Bradford he had that status He sometimes,taught in Hindu and Sikh Temples in Brad. ford and also played religious music for their,festivities He had a repertory of Gujarati. bhajans Hindu religious songs and no doubt,back in Gujarat his ancestors had performed.
and Pakistan where it is particularly associ for Hindu patrons for generations In 1986 the. ated with Sufi shrines Qureshi 1986 He only regular members of Gulam s band who. also performed the genre known as ghazal were not from the Khalifa community were. Gujarati wedding songs and some film songs Shaukat whose connections were with Mirpur. In India qawwali is regarded as a sub genre and Shaukat s son Imran Shaukat had moved. of classical music making use of the me to Bradford from Pakistan when he was eleven. lodic modes rags and metric cycles tals of By profession a motor mechanic some months. the classical tradition But qawwali is also a previously he had given up his garage business. popular music featured in many Hindi films and while unemployed was keen to advance his. Gulam followed a qawwali style that had been musical skills He had become passionately in. popular in the 1960s As a musical genre qaw terested in singing and playing the harmonium. wali is distinguished by its mystical and devo four years earlier at the age of about thirty. tional poetry group singing hand clapping rather late in life and he was also determined. and the alternation of poetic couplets sung that his children should learn Asian music For. in a slow unmetred manner with fast highly several years he had been taking his son Imran. rhythmic singing The same musical style can for tabla lessons with a well known teacher in. be applied to secular poetry Real qawwali Manchester Pandit Manikrao Popathkar and. is an ecstatic music and in its proper perfor he had more recently started taking his older. mance context the sama spiritual concert daughter there for singing lessons Shaukat. in the Sufi shrine is used to induce states of himself had studied with several music teach. trance Gulam attached much importance to ers in Bradford who occasionally gave series. the fact that he played religious music and he of evening classes and had also learned sonic. D O C U M E N T A R Y E D U C A T I O N A L R E S O U R C E S study guide sometimes encounter and offers solutions to those problems Thus at a quite abstract level

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