Cyber Sovereignty And The Governance Of Global Cyberspace-Books Pdf

Cyber Sovereignty and the Governance of Global Cyberspace
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82 Chin Polit Sci Rev 2016 1 81 93, 1 Introduction. In more than 4 years since 2010 issues related with the internet and global. cyberspace rapidly rose in the agenda of governance and gradually moved from the. comparatively edge to the centered position of the international arena in 2010. WikiLeaks official Website revealed the secret cables and war files of the. Department of Defense and the State Department Kessler 2010 Google is trying to. challenge China s jurisdiction of the internet based on sovereignty Gross 2010 In. 2011 the storm named Arab Spring deeply challenged the traditional geopolitical. structure of the middle east Ajami 2012 in the same time the US introduced a. new version of cyberspace international Strategy in which was clearly announced. intention of building a kind of hegemonic order in global cyberspace From 2012 to. 2013 there were a series of news stories about Chinese cyber espionage attack. rendered as the new threat toward US national security Krekel et al 2014 In 2013. there was insider disclosure of PRISM Gate by former CIA contractor Snowden. Greenwald and MacAskill 2013 In 2014 the US Department of Commerce. suddenly announced intent to transition key Internet domain name functions In. August 2015 it announced the extension of the contract with ICANN for 1 year. directly making relations of cyberspace with different actors the focus of public. How to recognize and understand the meaning of the above mentioned series of. events especially from the perspective of international relations to understand the. influence that the above changes bring to national security inter state relations as. well as the governance system of global cyberspace closely related with various. actors including state and non state actors obviously has important theoretical. value and practical significance In this crucial moment of development and. changes it is obviously very important to understand the principle of sovereignty. and the meaning of Cyber Sovereignty mapping in cyberspace and as the starting. point to build the framework to analyze and understand the problem. 2 Sovereignty and Governance of Cyberspace, With the formation of global cyberspace and more people starting to use the Internet. according to the data of International Telecommunication Union ITA internet users. make up around 30 40 of global population some scholars point out. Cyberspace s specific properties which serve as a double sided sword to governance. on one side they have begun to show the characteristics of both defined as promoting. cyberspace tenure governance and providing convenient conditions While on the. other side they also put forward new unprecedented challenges represented by the. eroding of geographic borders of the states And then the question of how to. understand the role function and new characteristic of sovereignty in cyberspace and. how to establish sovereignty in cyberspace is becoming a new field of argument. among different actors worldwide Barcomb et al 2012. Chin Polit Sci Rev 2016 1 81 93 83, Although some scholars have pointed out the real cyberspace is the logical. space which is actually difficult to be accurately perceived and managed. cyberspace is unable to exist without supporting from the physical world One. of the difficulties of cyberspace governance is how to highlight the presence of. administration authority in cyberspace This presence must be perceived and. approved by as many different actors as possible This perception could be about a. provision system it can also be about some kind of presence in cyberspace this. perception is necessarily combined by subjectivity and objectivity and the result is. made by actors based on objective framework and subjective judgments Lyons. Whether sovereignty can adapt to the challenges of cyber security is one of the. key questions during discussing of the issues since 2009 Czosseck and Geers. 2009 And it also becomes one of the most difficult issues in dealing with cyber. conflict Jensen 2012 The main challenge to abiding sovereignty in the broad. issues of governance including cyber security is that rising of non state actors. produced tough conflict with the deploying of traditional international law based on. rule of sovereignty in these new areas Krasner 2001 But it is quite clear that the. sovereignty must have a proper position in handling with cyber security issues when. more and more multi source attacks have appeared in cyberspace Herzog 2011 In. short though at the very beginning the term governance referred to governing. without the government the government or the sovereignty state must be brought. back in Drezner 2004, In practical dimensions taking the Tallinn Manual as an example some. European and American researchers make a systematic summary and review of the. application of important principles in traditional international law representing by. the principle of sovereignty in cyberspace whose main point is the principle of. sovereignty applies to network space the claim expressed as a state within its. sovereign territory can implement control on the information infrastructures and. activities where the definition of sovereignty based on 1928 Island of Palmas. international law ruling stressed that a country s internal affairs is independent. without interference from other countries and on this basis the sovereignty related. with cyberspace is expressed as referent with the information infrastructures in a. state s territory airspace territorial waters and territorial sea including the seabed. and subsoil the direct consequence is that information infrastructures regardless of. their specific owners or users are under the sovereignty of a country s judicial and. administrative jurisdiction which is protected by sovereignty Schmitt 2013 In. June 2015 for the development of information and telecommunications from the. perspective of international security a group of governmental experts submitted a. consensus report to the UN General Assembly this report clearly pointed out the. importance of the United Nations Charter and the principle of sovereignty. which is the basis to strengthen the use of ICT security stating While recognizing. the need for further study the Group noted the inherent right of States to take. measures consistent with international law and as recognized in the Charter. Assembly UN General 2010, To accurately know the use of the sovereignty principle in the governance of.
global cyberspace first you need to deeply understand the basic characteristics of. 84 Chin Polit Sci Rev 2016 1 81 93, cyberspace because this feature determines the specific mechanisms of the principle. of sovereignty in cyberspace governance, 3 Asymmetry in Global Cyberspace. Since the 1990s global cyberspace has achieved rapid development which. however causes asymmetry of resources and capabilities in global cyberspace. instead of achieving leaping forward due to progress of network technology. developing countries in the real world are further marginalized in cyberspace and. such marginalization may further weaken the countries status in the real world on. the contrary developed countries in real space especially those with remarkable. advantages in industries and technologies are also at the core of cyberspace and as. a result of their superiorities in technology R D and innovation the gap between. developed and developing countries in the real world is further widened. Specifically the asymmetry of resources and capabilities is reflected in the. following aspects, The first aspect is the geographical distribution of Internet users Though the total. amount of Internet user groups rises dramatically relative proportions of user. groups within countries and the distribution among different classifications of. countries differ significantly Overall user structure in global cyberspace has an. expansion process from developed countries to developing countries According to. statistics of relative research institutes including International Telecommunication. Union ITU the total amount of global Internet users is more than 2 5 billion. which is nearly 40 of global populations Since 2006 the amount of Internet. users from developing countries has gradually approached that in developed. countries and the former one finally accounts for more than 50 of global Internet. users The advantage on user number however does not mean that the reality of. low Internet penetration in developing countries can be ignored while total amount. of users increases a huge disparity among different regions still exists Statistics of. ITU show that compared with America and Europe where Internet penetration has. reached 60 African Internet users account for less than 10 of total population. Secondly the gap in key data related facilities between developed and. developing countries is obvious For instance submarine cable system is a key. infrastructure that supports global cyberspace The world s first transoceanic. submarine cable TAT 8 went into commercial service in December 1988 Since. then until 2008 companies from America and Europe monopolized the global. optical fiber cable market America and Europe served as starting points or central. bridging points for all submarine cables that companies had constructed Even. though from 2008 some companies shifted their investment focus to districts with. poor infrastructure like Africa the reality of American and European companies. monopoly in the field of submarine cable has not been changed Statistics show that. in the 5 years between 2008 and 2012 new submarine cable systems valuing 10. billion as a whole had went into service with 2 billion or 53000 km per year and. 70 of the systems were arranged in Sub Saharan Africa Regarding sources of. investors proportion of investments from large sized operators and consortiums in. Chin Polit Sci Rev 2016 1 81 93 85, America and Europe was further raised reaching 80 of the whole investments. By contrast private investments from non telecommunication organizations. accounted for 14 and the proportion was only 5 for investments from. governments and development banks Transnational companies of developed. countries have an overwhelming advantage in the market of high end servers. Statistics show that five companies from the US and Japan including HP IBM. Dale Oracle and Fuji occupied 84 7 of market shares in 2012 reflecting their. overwhelming superiority in the market, Thirdly the overwhelming advantage of developed countries can also be.
reflected in distribution and management mechanism of physical facilities of key. infrastructures that ensure operation of global cyberspace Domain name resolution. system is an example 13 top level root name servers are governed by 3 companies. 3 government related organizations 3 universities and 1 non profit private. institution in the United States 1 company and 1 private institution in Europe. and 1 Japanese organization respectively and the hidden distribution server that. sends root zone files to the 13 root name servers is owned and managed by VeriSign. Inc from the United States SSAC ICANN 2014 Such distribution of key. information infrastructure often have been taken as evidence to prove the existence. of so called hegemonic orders in global cyberspace Sonbuchner 2008. In short in today s global cyberspace developing countries mainly serve as users. while developed countries mainly provide infrastructures and key applications Such. a new center periphery structure has already emerged and it is a structure with. significant asymmetry thus exacerbating the disparity of capabilities that has. already existed between developed and developing countries as well as among. developed countries All the countries in the world whether developed countries or. developing countries have gained corresponding awareness and comparatively. systematic practices consciously or unconsciously on how to apply the principle of. sovereignty in cyberspace Through systematic practice on cyber security strategy. the United States shows how hegemony can extend sovereignty of a single country. in global cyberspace in the name of weakening and eliminating sovereignty. Correspondingly through internationalization and reinterpreting multi stake. holder model countries with power at a disadvantage try their best to weaken and. hedge the expansion under the principle of sovereignty equality. 4 The American Cyber Security Strategy Highlights the Expanding. of a Single Sovereignty into Global Cyberspace, Since June 2013 practices of expansion of US sovereignty in global cyberspace are. mainly reflected in the following areas, Firstly proof on legality of network monitoring action on grounds of national. security needs under the framework of sovereignty which is greatly supported by. the PRISM program The disclosure of PRISM originated from information. provided by former Central Intelligence Agency CIA employee Edward Snowden. to European and American media On June 6 2013 The Washington Post published. an article entitled US British intelligence mining data from nine US Internet. 86 Chin Polit Sci Rev 2016 1 81 93, companies in broad secret program revealing that the National Security Agency. NSA has started to implement a signals intelligence collection activity called. PRISM The SIGINT Activity Designator abbreviated to SIGAD is US 984XN. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Cyber Sovereignty and the Governance of Global Cyberspace Yi Shen1 Received 11 September 2015 Accepted 25 December 2015 Published online 1 March 2016

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