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Texas Child Care fall 2010 15, believed that the first relationships as early as infan. cy have a direct effect on later behaviors As he stud. ied the mother child relationship he formulated ideas. that are now called attachment theory,When an infant is forming these early relation. ships crying plays an important role in establishing. the bond between the caregiver and baby Owings,and Zeifman 2004 have stated that the unique. potency of human infant crying to mobilize a,response by most adults even compared to other. alarming sounds is striking Infants will cry to, begin interaction with the caregiver when the care.
Crying is the way giver responds properly the crying will encourage. that infants,attachment behaviors Fannin and Hamblett 2006. communicate Reading a baby s cries,Crying is the way that infants communicate their. their needs to the needs to the caregiver Soltis 2004 Therefore learn. caregiver ing to read a baby s cries is an important skill for. caregivers to develop The cries may indicate that,the baby is hungry uncomfortable lonely in pain. overstimulated or tired A baby s cries always carry. a message so the caregiver must evaluate every cry. for the meaning behind it If the baby has recently. been fed and has had proper rest but draws up her, legs as the intensity of the cry grows the caregiver. might decide that the baby is in pain,Cries particularly those of the youngest infants.
should be viewed as cries of distress Schon and,Silven 2007 Young infants do not have enough. experience to soothe themselves when they are,upset If a baby wakes up in a darkened room and. his stomach is hurting because he is hungry his cry. is a cry of panic and should be attended to quickly. Brain development and,ignored cries, Ideally a caregiver would evaluate the infant s cries. choose a method of care to ease the infant s distress. and respond quickly This process if consistent,should instill security and trust in the infant. Unfortunately this does not always occur When a, baby s cries are ignored the baby will increase the.
intensity of the cry to get the caregiver s attention. Chuong Kim 2005 This seems to be a survival, adaptation that serves the infant well However this. survival method an increase in the intensity of the. cry also creates activity in the brain that over time. can affect normal brain development Bergen and,Coscia 2001. 16 Texas Child Care fall 2010, Infants between the age of birth and 3 months are Erikson theorized about the first stage of psychoso. in a transition period in which they are moving from cial development trust vs mistrust He theorized. reflexes as a means of survival to a more organized that when the caregiver fails to meet an infant s pri. way of processing information Berne 2006 A mary needs the child will develop basic mistrust. baby s reflexes and early movements are controlled which could result in depression withdrawal and. by the brain stem Gogtay et al 2004 which is locat maybe even paranoia later in life Boeree 2006. ed at the base of the brain where the spinal cord con This growing body of research both in attachment. nects to the brain theory and brain development justify a caregiver s. During periods of intense crying the brain stem quick response to an infant s cries However many. can be damaged Bruce Perry s research 1997 factors still affect the response time to these cries. explains how this damage occurs and the effect it These factors involve the caregiver s cultural beliefs. can have on a person in later years The brain stem attitudes about spoiling a baby and incorrect infor. controls the release of adrenaline a hormone that mation about responding to a baby s cries. moves the body into quick action when danger or, excitement is present He found that continual stress Cultural beliefs about spoiling. such as when a baby is continually left to cry alone In some cases a caregiver s cultural beliefs dictate. overstimulates the release of adrenaline and in time how quickly or how slowly the caregiver responds. can cause an overactive adrenaline system A child to these cries of distress In most non Western cul. with an overactive adrenaline system will display tures the caregiver usually the mother has her. increased aggression impulsivity and violence later baby near her at all times in the first year of life. in life because the brain stem floods the body with allowing her to respond to her baby s cries immedi. adrenaline and other stress hormones at inappropri ately Hewlett 1996 In non Western pre industri. ate and frequent times Perry 1997 alized countries concerns about infant survival may. As the other parts of the brain begin rapid devel be the explanation for the attention that mothers. opment stress often seen in the form of ignored show their infants These mothers tend to feed their. cries and unmet needs causes damage to the devel babies on demand sleep with the babies nearby. oping areas of the brain that make up the limbic sys and immediately respond to their cries to increase. tem The limbic system sits on the divide between the chances of survival in places where living condi. the cerebral cortex and the brain stem The purpose tions may raise the infant mortality rate Owings. of the limbic system is to manage emotions It is and Zeifman 2004. made up of several parts that are growing and Another possible explanation for the quick. maturing particularly in the first five years of life response in non Western cultures are the crowded. Eliot 1999 living conditions in many areas around the world. One part of the limbic system are the amygdalae In these places the mother or other caregiver usual. two almond shaped structures that sit one in each ly a relative is almost always near the baby. hemisphere of the brain that have the job of process Hewlett 1996 In many cultures the very young. ing emotional information During intense periods are regarded as totally helpless and completely. of stress the amygdalae are engulfed in cortisol a dependent on their caregivers This belief influences. stress related hormone Charney 2004 Allan Schore the response time in meeting the baby s needs A. 1996 of the UCLA School of Medicine found that caregiver s attitude even in a Western culture. during periods of intense crying the brain of an could be influenced by these practices if they were. infant produces too much cortisol This rise in corti raised in this type of environment. sol levels can stunt or even destroy brain connec In Western cultures babies are often separated. tions in critical areas of the brain from their mothers and are carried in a baby carrier. At Yale University researchers have found that laid in a cradle or placed in their own bedrooms. intense stress early in life can alter the brain s neu Since the baby is not near the caregiver the response. rotransmitter message sending systems and can time to the baby s cries is increased over non West. cause changes in the brain that are similar to those ern cultures Attitudes about indulging or spoiling. seen in adults with depression Kaufman and babies vary from culture to culture In cultures that. Charney 2001 This finding confirms what Erik value independence caregivers feel that responding. Texas Child Care fall 2010 17, rapidly to a baby s cries will cause the child to be Dr Benjamin Spock 1966 stated that if a mother.
clingy or dependant on the caregiver Commons and continually gives in to the cries of her infant the. Miller 1998 Hewlett 1996 infant will realize after a while that he has his poor. Commons and Miller 1998 found that American tired mother under his thumb and he will become. mothers are relatively tolerant of infant crying and increasingly disagreeable and tyrannical in demand. are as a result slower to respond to their babies ing this service In this example Dr Spock was. than mothers in non Western cultures Since self reli referring to a 3 month old baby Dr Spock revised. ance and independence of their children is a goal his advice on many issues related to infant care but. valued by most American parents their babies will if a caregiver was influenced by previous informa. often receive less touching and holding than non tion given by Dr Spock even a revised edition of his. Western babies child care book might not undo the information. Hewlett 1996 found that American children often learned previously. have lower self confidence than non Western chil Child care books that are based upon current. dren This may be a result of less secure attachments research will almost always advise caregivers to. in infancy Commons and Miller 1998 feel that attend promptly to the needs of infants especially if. American parents are on the wrong track when they the infant is younger than 12 weeks of age However. resist being attentive to their infants for fear that if a caregiver is influenced by outdated and incorrect. they will become overly dependent on the parent attitudes from 40 or 50 years ago then a slow. They feel that their research supports that strong response or no response to a baby s cries will be the. attachments in infancy will make children more action taken and negative consequences could follow. secure and ultimately better able to form healthy In considering the possibility of spoiling a baby. relationships in adulthood the caregiver needs to understand that until babies. reach the point where they have even a basic under. Can you really spoil a baby standing of cause and effect usually around the age. Another reason for a slow response to a baby s cries of 8 to 10 months Brazelton 1992 Oakes 1994. is incorrect information about spoiling a baby The babies will not associate their crying with the care. research over the last two decades as it relates to giver s response as something within their control. attachment crying and brain development cannot Babies understand only on a primitive level that. undo in some cases bad information that was com when they cry someone takes care of them or they. municated by experts over the last 50 years will receive the message when their cries are. ignored that no one takes care of them,But ignoring the cries seems. to stop the crying, A caregiver with this attitude about spoiling a baby. might feel that her technique works because in many. cases when babies are left to cry it out they will. indeed stop crying However a disturbing cycle, actually takes place when a baby s crying is repeat. edly ignored and then the crying stops A series of. studies conducted by Bowlby and his colleagues, found that when infants are left to cry it out their. cries go through a predictable sequence of behaviors. The first phase called protest is characterized by. loud cries and extreme restlessness The second,phase despair consists of a monotonous cry accom.
panied by inactivity and gradual withdrawal The,third phase detachment is marked by a renewed. interest in the baby s surroundings albeit a remote. withdrawn distant kind of interest As seen by these. 18 Texas Child Care fall 2010, three phases a baby left to cry it out will eventually. stop crying But it won t be because distress has been. eliminated but rather the baby learns that there is no. longer any hope that the caregiver will provide com. fort Bretherton 1992 Chuong Kim 2005,Long term benefits of. responding to cries,When a caregiver responds quickly to an infant s. cries and a secure attachment is formed the benefits. extend far beyond the first year of life Infants and. toddlers who develop secure attachments with their. caregivers are observed to be more mature and pos,the baby learns.
that there is, itive in their interactions with adults and peers than. are children who lack a secure attachment National. Research Council and Institute of Medicine 2000, Even beyond social benefits securely attached no longer any. young children tend to have a more balanced self hope that the. concept better language skills and better problem, solving skills and they show a greater conscience caregiver will. development than insecurely attached children,Sroufe 1988 Securely attached infants have a far. provide comfort, greater chance of becoming successful children and.
teenagers As shown in the longitudinal research of. Waters et al 2000 the majority of infants that,showed early attachment security went on to have. attachment stability in adulthood,Attachment to non parent child. care providers, Since babies may spend a majority of their day with. a non parent caregiver it is important that attach. ment forms in this relationship Children can and,do form attachments with a variety of adults over. the first few years of life As long as these relation. ships provide security and healthy interaction they. will have a positive impact Eliot 1999,In the absence of the mother the caregiver must.
accept the responsibility of bonding with the infant. in her care If the caregiver is detached inconsistent. or rejecting undue stress will be placed on the infant. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Howes 1999 proposes three criteria to identify, attachment figures other than the mother The attach. ment figure 1 provides physical and emotional care. 2 shows continuity or consistency in the child s life. and 3 has an emotional investment in the child, The non parent child care provider needs to accept. 16 Texas Child Care fall 2010 believed that the first relationships as early as infan cy have a direct effect on later behaviors As he stud

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