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Crossroads, T H E P S Y C H O L O G Y O F I M M I G R AT I O N I N T H E N E W C E N T U RY. Report of the APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration. Public Interest Directorate, American Psychological Association. 750 First Street NE, Washington DC 20002, Copyright 2012 by the American Psychological Association This material may be reproduced in whole or in part without fees or. permission provided that acknowledgment is given to the American Psychological Association This material may not be reprinted. translated or distributed electronically without prior permission in writing from the publisher For permission contact APA Rights. and Permissions 750 First Street NE Washington DC 20002 4242. Crossroads, T H E P S Y C H O L O G Y O F I M M I G R AT I O N I N T H E N E W C E N T U RY. APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration APA Children Youth and Families Office. Carola Su rez Orozco PhD Chair Mary Campbell Director. New York University, Alex Agiliga, Dina Birman PhD.
University of Illinois at Chicago Efua Andoh, J Manuel Casas PhD Amani Chatman. University of California Santa Barbara Felicia Swafford. Nadine Nakamura PhD Kaitlin Varner, University of La Verne. Pratyusha Tummala Narra PhD, Boston College, Michael Z rate PhD. University of Texas El Paso, Melba Vasquez PhD ex officio. 2011 APA President, Vasquez Associates Mental Health Services.
ne of the benefits of serving as president of in the research on and study of the immigrant popula. the American Psychological Association is tion Other nominees were invited to serve on an advisory. the opportunity to select projects or initia committee and I am grateful that many provided reviews. tives that are personally meaningful The of drafts of this report I appreciate tremendously the ded. topic of immigration surfaced as a priority for me and is ication and expertise of the task force members advisors. a topic of concern for many Over the past few decades and APA staff members who devoted a significant part of. psychology and APA in particular has periodically their working lives to contribute to this important project. applied its science and knowledge to issues of societal. interest and social justice that may be the subject of media Their report describes in broad strokes the diverse. attention pending legislation and or court proceed population of immigrants and then addresses the psycho. ings At times the societal context and political focus on logical experience of immigration focusing on factors. social problems have influenced APA s topics of study that impede and facilitate adjustment Specifically the. Immigration fell into that category in my view In addi report reviews the recent theoretical and empirical litera. tion although I am fourth generation Mexican American ture on immigration with the goals of raising awareness. my parents were both born in the United States and my about this growing but poorly understood group deriving. mother s family lived in the Texas area when it was still evidence informed recommendations for the provision of. part of Mexico I identify personally with the community psychological services for the immigrant origin popula. of immigrants tion and providing recommendations for the advance. ment of training research and policy efforts for immi. Immigrants significantly contribute to the ever grant children adults older adults and families. expanding diversity of the population of the United. States Further many challenges have resulted from inad This report represents the current state of psychologi. equate federal immigration policy as well as anti immigra cal scientific and professional knowledge with regard to. tion legislation in several states My Presidential Task Force immigration In particular I hope that widespread nega. on Immigration chaired by Carola Su rez Orozco PhD tive views of immigrants and their children will be in. was charged with developing an evidence based report formed and challenged by the increasing data available in. on the psychological factors related to the immigration the literature rather than by ideological impulses and that. experience Our hope is that increased understanding of this data will reduce the disconnect between research. the psychological factors related to various aspects of the and policy. immigrant experience will improve decision making with. regard to immigration The effective integration of im. migrants in educational work and community settings is. essential to the well being of this country and its future. A call for potential task force members was sent out. Melba J T Vasquez PhD ABPP, and we were very pleased to have 99 experts respond who. President American Psychological Association 2011, were interested in serving on the work group Unfortu. nately we could only choose six members The six task. force members selected represent a high level of expertise. 1 Report of the APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration J EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Executive Summary, he United States today has approximately 39 9 specifically to describe this diverse population and address. million immigrants the largest number in its the psychological experience of immigration considering. history Passel Cohn 2012 U S Census Bureau factors that impede and facilitate adjustment The report. 2011b As a nation of immigrants the United which includes the recent theoretical and empirical litera. States has successfully negotiated larger proportions of ture on immigrants a raises awareness about this growing. newcomers in its past 14 7 in 1910 vs 12 9 today and but poorly understood population b derives evidence. is far from alone among postindustrial countries in experi informed recommendations for the provision of psycho. encing a growth in immigration in recent decades Notably logical services for the immigrant origin population and. nearly three quarters of the foreign born are naturalized c makes recommendations for the advancement of train. citizens or authorized noncitizens Congressional Budget ing research and policy efforts for immigrant children. Office CBO 2011 One in five persons currently resid adults older adults and families. ing in the United States is a first or second generation. immigrant and nearly a quarter of children under the age. Guiding Frameworks, of 18 have an immigrant parent Mather 2009 As such. immigrants and the second generation have become a sig There are three guiding principles throughout this report. nificant part of our national tapestry First immigrants are resilient and resourceful Second. immigrants like all human beings are influenced by their. Just as this demographic transformation is rapidly un. social contexts the report thus takes an ecological perspec. folding the United States is facing international domestic. tive in framing their experience Third as it is essential. and economic crises Massey 2010 Like other historical. to use the lens of culture with the increasingly diverse. economic downturns Simon 1985 the current reces, immigrant origin population the report follows the APA.
sion has served as a catalyst to make immigration a divisive. Guidelines on Multicultural Education Training Research Prac. social and political issue Massey S nchez 2010 Across. tice and Organizational Change for Psychologists APA 2002. the nation immigrants have become the subject of nega. tive media coverage Massey 2010 M Su rez Orozco, Immigrant Resilience. Louie Suro 2011 hate crimes Leadership Conference, on Civil Rights Education Fund 2009 and exclusion Within political and media discourse immigration is gen. ary political legislation Carter Lawrence Morse 2011 erally framed as a social problem in need of solving M. Given the demographic growth however we now face an Su rez Orozco et al 2011 Yet a careful reading of the. integration imperative Alba Sloan Sperling 2011 research from a variety of disciplines suggests that immi. not only for the well being of this new population but also grants demonstrate a remarkable pattern of strengths APA. for that of the nation s social and economic future 2007 Chiswick 2011 Hernandez Charney 1998 This. body of data examining the well being of immigrant. Psychologists are and increasingly will be serving im origin populations across generations reveals a counterin. migrant adults and their children in a variety of settings tuitive pattern that contradicts conventional expectations. including schools community centers clinics and hospitals First generation immigrant populations demonstrate the. and thus should be aware of this complex demographic best performance on a variety of physical health L S. transformation and consider its implications as citizens Morales Lara Kington Valdez Escarce 2002 behavioral. practitioners researchers and faculty This report aims health Pumariega Rothe Pumariega 2005 Takeuchi. 3 Report of the APA Presidential Task Force on Immigration J EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Hong Gile Alegr a 2007 and some educational gies including population definition concept development. Fuligni Witkow 2004 Garc a Coll Marks 2011 C measurement tools and methodology and analysis choices. Su rez Orozco Su rez Orozco 1995 outcomes fol demonstrate cultural limitations Hughes Seidman. lowed by a decline in subsequent generations Williams 1993 Solano Flores 2008 C Su rez Orozco. Carhill 2008 To effectively and ethically conduct research. Although many recently arrived immigrants face a and provide mental health services to immigrant children. wide range of stressors and risks e g poverty discrimina adults older adults and families the lens of culture must be. tion taxing occupations fewer years of schooling and so used The APA Guidelines on Multicultural Education Training. cial isolation they do better than their counterparts who Research Practice and Organizational Change for Psychologists. remain in the country of origin as well as second genera APA 2002 can serve as a tool in promoting cultural com. tion immigrants on a wide range of outcomes Alegr a et petence in the many roles and contexts in which psycholo. al 2007 Corral Landrine 2008 Garc a Coll Marks gists work. 2011 Despite these strengths and evident resilience im. migrants also face a series of challenges in their new land. Thus while recognizing resilience this report also consid Contents and Organization. ers a number of the challenges immigrants and subsequent of THIS Report. generations face across a variety of developmental phases. This report begins by providing an overview of the new. focusing on the educational and clinical contexts where. wave of immigration briefly considering the principal. psychologists are likely to encounter and serve them. motivations that propel migration as well as demographic. profiles of the U S immigrant population based on mul. Social Ecological Framework, tidisciplinary research from demography sociology and. The social contexts and resources of immigrants vary economics Recognizing the significance of the receiving. widely and they settle in an array of settings some more social context to psychological functioning the report next. welcoming than others This report uses a broadly defined considers the role of social attitudes toward immigrants. social ecological theoretical framework adapted from Bron discrimination and neighborhood contexts in immigrant. fenbrenner Bronfenbrenner Morris 2006 and others adaptation. Serdarevic Chronister 2005 An ecological framework. proposes that the human experience is a result of reciprocal The next section examines acculturation and identity. interactions between individuals and their environments formation as they relate to immigration research in the. varying as a function of the individual his or her contexts field of psychology and then considers challenges relevant. and culture and over time In describing the immigrant to several vulnerable populations and specific develop. experience this report focuses on the influence of con mental challenges across the life span Issues of assessment. text in particular contextual risks and protective factors and testing with immigrants and second language learners. that detract from or enhance healthy adaptation central to the field of psychology are addressed in educa. tional clinical forensic and legal contexts The educational. APA Multicultural Guidelines setting a context critical for the well being and future. success of the children of immigrants is then examined. Research suggests that culture in the form of cognitive. followed by a discussion of the critical mental health chal. schemas value systems and social practices powerfully. lenges of immigrants in clinical settings addressing classic. shapes human experience APA 2002 including cognition. presenting problems as well as issues pertinent to diagnosis. D Andrade 1981 Rogoff 2003 emotion White 2010, assessment treatment and intervention. and identities Shweder Sullivan 1993 Immigrants, who have arrived in the United States over the last The concluding discussion chapter reviews the de.
4 decades represent a wide range of cultures ethnici mographic imperative of attending to issues related to. ties and races This diversity of cultural values beliefs and immigrant origin individuals and their families considers. practices provides a challenge to the practice and science the current implications of the evidence and draws con. of psychology Psychologists carry their own sets of cultural clusions about where psychology should be going as a field. tion legislation in several states My Presidential Task Force on Immigration chaired by Carola Su rez Orozco PhD was charged with developing an evidence based report on the psychological factors related to the immigration experience Our hope is that increased understanding of the psychological factors related to various aspects of the

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