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CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS
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CONSTRUCTION OF LOW vOLUME,SEALED ROADS,GOOD PRACTICE GUIDE TO. LAbOUR bASED METhODS,INTERNATIONAL,ORGANIZATION,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS. Copyright International Labour Organization 2013,First published 2013. Publications of the International Labour Office enjoy copyright under Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention Nevertheless. short excerpts from them may be reproduced without authorization on condition that the source is indicated For rights of reproduction or. translation application should be made to ILO Publications Rights and Permissions International Labour Office CH 1211 Geneva 22. Switzerland or by email pubdroit ilo org The International Labour Office welcomes such applications. Libraries institutions and other users registered with reproduction rights organizations may make copies in accordance with the licences. issued to them for this purpose Visit www ifrro org to find the reproduction rights organization in your country. Construction of Low Volume Sealed Roads Good Practice Guide to Labour Based Methods. This document is not for sale,ISBN 978 92 2 127464 3 print. ISBN 978 92 2 127465 0 web pdf,ILO Cataloguing in Publication Data.
The designations employed in ILO publications which are in conformity with United Nations practice and the presentation of material. therein do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the International Labour Office concerning the legal status of. any country area or territory or of its authorities or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers. The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles studies and other contributions rests solely with their authors and publication. does not constitute an endorsement by the International Labour Office of the opinions expressed in them. Reference to names of firms and commercial products and processes does not imply their endorsement by the International Labour Office. and any failure to mention a particular firm commercial product or process is not a sign of disapproval. ILO publications and electronic products can be obtained through major booksellers or ILO local offices in many countries or direct from. ILO Publications International Labour Office CH 1211 Geneva 22 Switzerland Catalogues or lists of new publications are available free. of charge from the above address or by email pubvente ilo org. Visit our web site www ilo org publns,Photographs, Most photographs used in the document are from the authors own collection while a few are from publications acknowledged herein. Printed in South Africa,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS. The Guideline is primarily targeted at Small Scale Contractors and their Supervisors. who are involved in low volume road works using Labour Based Methods LBM. Established Contractors Professional Engineers Technologists and Technicians. Programme Managers and Planners may also use this book as a reference for. some of their design work and Construction Supervision services. Illustrations included herein give real life examples and work methodologies. based on universal experience which will assist the reader to develop effective. construction techniques, Relevant International Labour Organization ILO publications and others on road. works should also be referenced for these works,Prepared by Augustus Osei Asare. Contributors Asfaw Kidanu,Dingilizwe Tshabalala,Reviewers Bjorn Johannessen.
Kwaku Osei Bonsu,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT, This Guideline was largely developed from materials of a pilot project and. research works carried out since 2001 in South Africa by the ILO in collaboration. with the South Africa s Council for Scientific and Industrial Research CSIR. and is complementary to a set of five manuals on Implementing Employment. Intensive Road Works published on Construction Industry Development Board. CIDB website Also extracts from ILO ASIST and other publications were used. and adapted to the Southern African context, The ILO Country Office for South Africa Botswana Lesotho Namibia and. Swaziland is grateful to authors for undertaking the assignment under challenging. circumstances The guideline was made possible with the assistance of many. people who have been acknowledged in the preface and other contributors whose. publications are referenced The support of the Government of South Africa and. in particular the National Department of Public Works NDPW and the Limpopo. Department of Public Works LDPW is greatly acknowledged in facilitating the. production of this Guideline,Vic van Vuuren,ILO Decent Work Team for Eastern and. Southern Africa and ILO Country Office for, South Africa Botswana Lesotho Namibia and Swaziland.
CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS,Table of Contents. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ii,LIST OF FIGURES viii,LIST OF CHARTS ix. LIST OF TABLES ix,LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS x. SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1,1 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1 1. 1 1 1 Poverty and unemployment 1 1,1 1 2 Deteriorated road networks 1 1.
1 2 UN SURFACED ROADS THE GRAVITY OF THE SITUATION 1 2. 1 3 TARGET USERS 1 4,1 4 SCOPE OF THE GUIDELINE 1 4. 1 5 TERMS AND TERMINOLOGY 1 5,1 6 STRUCTURE OF THE GUIDELINE 1 5. SECTION 2 LABOUR BASED CONSTRUCTION 2 1,2 1 USE OF LABOUR BASED METHODS 2 1. 2 2 DEFINITION OF LABOUR BASED METHODS 2 1,2 2 1 Advantages of labour based construction 2 1. 2 3 PROJECT SELECTION AND DESIGN PRINCIPLES 2 2,2 3 1 Socio economic conditions 2 2.
2 3 2 Availability of local labour 2 2, 2 3 3 Site conditions and complexity of project 2 2. 2 3 4 Use of locally available resources 2 2,2 3 5 Work organization 2 3. 2 3 6 Appropriate low volume sealing design options 2 3. 2 3 7 Work organization 2 4,2 3 8 Labour laws 2 4,2 3 9 Prompt payments 2 4. 2 3 10 Use of good quality hand tools 2 5, 2 3 11 Appropriate low volume sealing design options 2 5. 2 3 12 Low volume roads employment potential 2 5,SECTION 3 SETTING OUT 3 1.
3 1 BASIC SETTING OUT EQUIPMENT 3 1,3 1 1 Reference Pegs 3 1. 3 1 2 Tape measures 3 2, 3 1 3 Ranging rods profile boards and boning rods 3 2. 3 1 4 Line level 3 3,3 2 SETTING OUT A STRAIGHT LINE 3 3. 3 2 1 Interpolation 3 4,3 2 2 Extrapolation 3 4,3 2 3 Transferring levels 3 4. CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS,3 2 4 Setting out angles 3 5.
3 2 5 Setting out gradients 3 7,3 3 SETTING OUT A DESIGN GRADIENT 3 7. 3 4 CHECKING THE UNIFORMITY OF A GRADIENT 3 8,3 5 SIMPLE HORIZONTAL CURVES 3 9. 3 5 1 Properties of a horizontal circular curve 3 10. 3 5 2 Techniques for setting out of horizontal curves 3 10. 3 5 3 Methods for setting out horizontal curves 3 14. 3 5 4 Problems in setting out curves 3 22,3 6 VERTICAL CURVES 3 32. 3 6 1 Elements of vertical curves 3 33,3 6 2 Setting out of vertical curves 3 34. SECTION 4 SITE CLEARING AND EARTHWORKS 4 1,4 1 EARTHWORKS 4 2.
4 2 HAULING BY LABOUR 4 3,4 3 DITCHING AND SLOPING 4 3. 4 4 EXCAVATION REQUIREMENTS 4 4,4 4 1 Excavating trenches 4 4. 4 4 2 Converting task rates to linear metres 4 5,4 4 3 Measuring earthwork quantities 4 6. 4 5 EARTHWORK IN HILLY TERRAIN 4 8,4 5 1 Curvature correction 4 15. 4 5 2 Bulking and shrinkage 4 16,4 6 QUARRY BORROW PIT OPERATIONS 4 17.
4 6 1 Borrow pit identification 4 17,4 6 2 Borrow pit layout and access road 4 17. 4 6 3 Excavation of overburden 4 18, 4 6 4 Excavating stockpiling and loading from borrow material 4 19. 4 6 5 Rocky quarries 4 20,4 6 6 Re instating borrow pits 4 20. 4 6 7 Quarry productivities 4 20,SECTION 5 PAVEMENT LAYERS 5 1. 5 1 PAVEMENT TYPES 5 1,5 2 PAVEMENT MATERIAL SELECTION 5 1.
5 2 1 Minimum specifications 5 1,5 2 2 In situ material 5 1. 5 2 3 Imported material 5 4,5 3 CENTRE LINE SURVEY 5 3. 5 4 CONSTRUCTION OF BASE LAYER USING IN SITU MATERIALS 5 4. 5 4 1 Subgrade formation to camber 5 4, 5 4 2 Steps in in situ base layer construction 5 5. 5 4 3 Constructing a 150mm base course layer 5 6,5 4 4 Constructing 120 mm base course layers 5 7. 5 5 COMPACTION OF LAYERS 5 7,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS.
5 5 1 Moisture density relationships 5 7, 5 6 IMPROVING IN SITU MATERIALS FOR BASE COURSES 5 8. 5 6 1 Mechanics of soil stabilization 5 8,5 6 2 Mechanical stabilization 5 8. 5 6 3 Chemical stabilization 5 8, 5 6 4 Bitumen stabilization of in situ materials 5 12. 5 6 5 Emulsion Treated Base ETB 5 13,5 6 6 Construction of ETB 5 15. 5 6 7 Alternative base treatments 5 22, 5 6 8 Summary of base layer treatments and productivities 5 22.
SECTION 6 DRAINAGE 6 1,6 1 MITRE DRAINS 6 1, 6 1 1 Determining the length of a mitre and outer drain 6 2. 6 2 CATCHWATER DRAINS 6 3,6 3 SCOUR CHECKS 6 4,6 4 CULVERTS 6 5. 6 5 DRIFTS 6 7,6 5 1 Features 6 7,6 5 2 Running surface 6 7. 6 5 3 Approaches 6 7,6 5 4 Cutoff walls 6 7,6 5 5 Apron 6 7. 6 5 6 Other erosion protection 6 8,6 5 7 Siting 6 9.
6 5 8 Construction 6 9,6 5 9 Gabion works 6 9,6 6 SUB SURFACE DRAINAGE 6 11. SECTION 7 CONCRETE WORKS 7 1,7 1 CONCRETE PREAMBLE 7 1. 7 2 TYPES OF CONCRETE 7 1,7 3 CONCRETE COMPOSITION 7 1. 7 3 1 Water 7 1,7 3 2 Cement 7 2,7 3 3 Stone Aggregate 7 2. 7 3 4 Sand 7 2,7 4 MIXING CONCRETE 7 3,7 4 1 Type of mixes 7 3.
7 5 PROPERTIES OF CONCRETE 7 4,7 5 1 Strength 7 4,7 5 2 Durability 7 4. 7 5 3 Water cement ratio 7 4,7 6 BATCHING FOR CONCRETE MIXING 7 4. 7 7 HAND MIXING 7 5,7 8 MACHINE MIXING 7 6,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS. 7 9 TRANSPORTING CONCRETE 7 6,7 10 PLACING AND COMPACTION OF CONCRETE 7 7. 7 11 CURING CONCRETE 7 7,7 12 CONCRETE REINFORCEMENT 7 8.
7 12 1 Steel reinforcement 7 8,7 13 HAZARDS IN HANDLING CONCRETE 7 8. 7 14 CONCRETE WORK PRODUCTIVITIES 7 9, SECTION 8 SEALING OPTIONS USING EMPLOYMENT INTENSIVE METHODS 8 1. 8 1 GENERAL 8 1,8 2 FUNCTION OF A SEAL 8 1,8 3 TYPES OF SEALS 8 1. 8 4 CHOICE OF SURFACE TYPE 8 2, 8 5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SEALING OPERATIONS 8 2. 8 5 1 Lead times 8 2,8 5 2 Base preparation 8 2,8 5 3 Quality control measures 8 3.
8 5 4 Weather constraints 8 4,8 5 5 Traffic control 8 4. 8 5 6 Occupational Health and Safety 8 4,8 6 HOT BITUMEN SEALS 8 4. 8 6 1 Construction of Otta seal 8 4,8 6 2 Advantages of Otta seals 8 6. 8 6 3 Challenges 8 6,8 6 4 Specifications 8 6,8 6 5 Otta seal construction procedures 8 9. 8 7 GRAV SEAL 8 13,8 8 CHALLENGES IN HOT BITUMEN SEALING 8 13.
8 9 EMULSION BASED SEALS 8 14,8 9 1 Types of emulsion binders 8 15. 8 10 PROCEDURE FOR APPLYING BINDER 8 17,8 10 1 Operation 8 17. 8 10 2 Spray procedure 8 18, 8 10 3 Determining the delivery rate of the sprayer 8 19. 8 11 APPLICATION OF BINDER 8 22,8 11 1 Checks 8 22. 8 11 2 Control of application using a trial control section 8 23. 8 12 CONSTRUCTION OF A SINGLE SAND SEAL 8 25,8 12 1 Specifications 8 25.
8 12 2 Materials 8 25,8 12 3 Grading 8 25,8 12 4 Construction plant and equipment 8 25. 8 12 5 Bitumen 8 26,8 12 6 Application of binder 8 26. 8 12 7 Application of sand 8 26,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS. 8 12 8 Rolling and aftercare 8 27,8 13 CONSTRUCTION OF A PENETRATION SEAL 8 28. 8 13 1 General description 8 28,8 13 2 Materials 8 28.
8 13 3 Tools and Equipment 8 28,8 13 4 Construction 8 29. 8 13 5 Application of penetration spray 8 31,8 13 6 Application of binder for the seal 8 33. 8 13 7 Challenges with Bituminous Seals 8 35,8 13 8 Cold Mix Asphalt Surfacing 8 35. 8 13 9 Mode of Mixing 8 37,8 14 CONCRETE SEGMENTED PAVING BLOCK 8 45. 8 14 1 Purpose 8 45,8 14 2 Advantages of segmented block paving 8 45.
8 14 3 Disadvantages of segmented block paving 8 45. 8 14 4 Design considerations 8 46,8 14 5 Ride quality 8 46. 8 14 6 Construction 8 46,8 14 7 Construction on steep slopes 8 47. 8 14 8 Maintenance rehabilitation 8 49,8 15 STONE PAVEMENT 8 49. 8 15 1 Cobblestone pavement 8 50,8 15 2 Dressed stone pavement 8 50. 8 15 3 Establishment of quarry sites 8 50,8 15 4 Chiselling 8 51.
8 15 5 Tools requirement 8 52,8 15 6 Dressed stones dimensions 8 54. 8 15 7 Paving 8 54, 8 15 8 Productivity norms for dressed stone paving 8 56. 8 16 ULTRA THIN REINFORCED CONCRETE PAVEMENTS UTRCP 8 57. REFERENCES 9 1,APPENDICES 9 3,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS. List of Figures,Figure 3 1 Ranging rod and profile boards 3 2. Figure 3 2 Boning rods 3 2,Figure 3 3 Line level 3 3.
Figure 3 4 Setting out a straight line with ranging rods 3 3. Figure 3 5 Fixing intermediary ranging rods in setting out straight lines 3 4. Figure 3 6 Transferring levels 3 4,Figure 3 7 Transferring heights 3 5. Figure 3 8 Setting out of a 90 angle 3 5,Figure 3 9 Setting out of a 45 angle 3 6. Figure 3 10 Setting out of 30 and 60 angles 3 6, Figure 3 11 Setting out a right angle to centreline in a curve 3 6. Figure 3 12 Confirming gradients 3 7,Figure 3 13 Setting out gradients 3 8. Figure 3 14 Horizontal curves connecting straight centrelines 3 9. Figure 3 15 Circular curve 3 9,Figure 3 16 Compound curve 3 9.
Figure 3 17 Reverse curve 3 9,Figure 3 18 Transition curve 3 9. Figure 3 19 Properties of a horizontal circular curve 3 10. Figure 3 20 Setting out using the deflection method 3 14. Figure 3 21 Setting out using the quarter method 3 17. Figure 3 22 Perpendicular tangent offset method 3 19. Figure 3 23 Perpendicular offset method 3 19,Figure 3 24 The string line method 3 21. Figure 3 25 The offset method 3 22, Figure 3 26 Point of intersection not accessible 3 22. Figure 3 27 Point of curve t1 not accessible 3 23,Figure 3 28 Point of curve t2 not accessible 3 24. Figure 3 29 Three straights to be joined by a curve 3 24. Figure 3 30 Curve must pass through a fixed point 3 25. Figure 3 31 Compound curves 3 25, Figure 3 32 Reverse curve with non parallel straights 3 26.
Figure 3 33 Superelevated curve 3 28, Figure 3 34 Development of superelevation on curves curve 3 28. Figure 3 35 Transition curve 3 28,Figure 3 36 Cubic spiral curve 3 30. Figure 3 37 Crest curves 3 32,Figure 3 38 Sag curves 3 32. Figure 3 39 Elements of vertical curves 3 33,Figure 3 40 Setting out of vertical curve 3 34. Figure 4 1 Using feathers and wedges 4 1,Figure 4 2 Boulder removal using crowbars 4 1.
Figure 4 3 Burying boulders 4 1,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS. Figure 4 4 Vertical alignment design 4 2,Figure 4 5 Steps in ditching and sloping 4 3. Figure 4 6 Trapezoidal sections of a fill and cut 4 6. Figure 4 7 Mid sectional Area method 4 7,Figure 4 8 Mean sectional area method 4 7. Figure 4 9 Prismoidal method 4 8, Figure 4 10 Cross section in part cut part fill 4 9. Figure 4 11 Cut and fill cross section 4 10,Figure 4 12 Full embankment or cut area 4 10.
Figure 4 13 Longitudinal profile showing work example cut and fill quantities 4 12. Figure 4 14 Area non uniform cross slope 4 12,Figure 4 15 Curvature correction 4 16. Figure 4 16 Quarry by the road side 4 17,Figure 4 17 Quarry with Access Road 4 18. Figure 4 18 Quarry drainage 4 18,Figure 4 19 Test pit showing soil profile 4 18. Figure 4 20 Hill side quarry excavation 4 19,Figure 4 21 Construction of loading bays 4 19. Figure 5 1 Structure of a flexible pavement 5 1,Figure 5 2 Unpaved road camber formation 5 4.
Figure 5 3 Paved road camber formation 5 4, Figure 5 4 Steps for compacting a 150mm base layer 5 7. Figure 5 5 Steel Shutter formwork 5 16,Figure 5 6 Placing of mixer work site 5 17. Figure 5 7 Placing the ETB wheelbarrow loads 5 20, Figure 5 8 Construction adjacent to compacted layer 5 21. Figure 5 9 Shutter arrangement for ETB 5 21,Figure 6 1 Road drainage system 6 1. Figure 6 2 Mitre drain layout 6 2, Figure 6 3 Checking the length of a mitre drain 6 2.
Figure 6 4 Catchwater Drain 6 3, Figure 6 5 Longitudinal profile of scour checks 6 4. Figure 6 6 Dimensions of scour checks for standard drain 6 4. Figure 6 7 Scour Check Installation Procedure 6 5, Figure 6 8 Alignment of relief and stream culverts 6 6. Figure 6 9 Procedures for setting out 600mm culvert 6 6. Figure 6 10 Drift features 6 8,Figure 6 11 Drift approaches 6 8. Figure 6 12 Siting of drifts and other Structures 6 9. Figure 6 13 Cross section of gabion layout 6 9,Figure 6 14 Gabion construction steps 6 10. Figure 6 15 Cross section of typical subsoil drains 6 11. Figure 6 16 Satisfactory subsurface drain arrangement 6 11. Figure 7 1 Concrete gauge box 7 5,Figure 7 2 Hand mixing of Concrete 7 6.
Figure 7 3 Reinforced concrete beams in tension and compression 7 8. CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS, Figure 8 1 Schematic layout of a motorized handsprayer 8 15. Figure 8 2 Rack for spray lance 8 16, Figure 8 3 Spraying height and sequence of spraying 8 18. Figure 8 4 Maintaining correct height for spraying 8 18. Figure 8 5 Valves set at slight angle from centre line of lance 8 19. Figure 8 6 Direction of Movement of Lance 8 19,Figure 8 7 Protective Spray Screen 8 19. Figure 8 8 Spotting of aggregate 8 27,Figure 8 9 Pan and cylinder 8 29. Figure 8 10 Drawing of steel tray 8 36,Figure 8 11 Spreading strip 8 38.
Figure 8 12 Spreading asphalt 8 39, Figure 8 13 Details showing how to accommodate wet and dry asphalt thicknesses 8 40. Figure 8 14 Block Paving Layers 8 42, Figure 8 15 Typical Shapes of Concrete Paver Units 8 42. Figure 8 16 Typical section through anchor beam showing dimensions 8 45. Figure 8 17 Spacing of anchor beams 8 45,Figure 8 18 Sub base drainage methods 8 45. Figure 8 19 Laying patterns for surface drainage 8 46. Figure A 1 Cross section terms 9 3,Figure A 2 Drainage elements 9 4. Figure A 3 Culvert 9 5,Figure A 4 Box culvert 9 5,Figure A 5 Drift splash drain 9 6.
Figure A 6 Vented ford 9 7, Figure A 7 Average least dimension of aggregate ald 9 9. List of Charts, Chart 3 1 Deflection angle as a function of distance 3 12. Chart 3 2 Tangent length as a function of deflection angle and curve radius 3 13. Chart 3 3 Tangent length T as a function of defl ection angle and tangent T 3 15. Chart 3 4 Offset a from point of intersection as a function of the tangent 3 16. Chart 3 5 The quarter method 3 18, Chart 5 1 Flowchart for pavement materials selection and design 5 2. Chart 5 2 Correlation between DCP and CBR 5 3,Chart 5 3 Moisture content dry density 5 7. Chart 5 4 CBR curves for Emulsion Treated Base 5 15. Chart 8 1 General grading envelope for otta seal 8 6. Chart 8 2 Grading limits envelope 8 31,Chart 8 3 Rate of binder application 8 34.
Chart 8 4 Grading limits envelope 8 35,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS. List of Tables,Table 1 1 Target users 1 4, Table 1 2 Synopsis of the chapters of the Guideline 1 5. Table 2 1 Typical Low volume road employment potential 2 5. Table 2 2 Comparison of Labour Employment Generated to Road Surfacing Type 2 6. Table 3 1 Basic setting out equipment 3 1,Table 3 2 Types of horizontal curves 3 9. Table 3 3 Data for perpendicular offset tangent method 3 20. Table 3 4 Data for setting out by offset method 3 21. Table 3 5 Rates of radial acceleration 3 29, Table 3 6 Desirable Minimum Radius for Transition Curve 3 29. Table 3 7 Data to set out transition curve 3 32,Table 3 8 Vertical Curve Symmetry Parameters 3 33.
Table 3 9 Reduced levels solution to Example 3 3 3 36. Table 4 1 Productivities for clearing and grubbing 4 2. Table 4 2 Wheelbarrow haulage norms ILO 4 3,Table 4 3 Classification of in situ materials 4 4. Table 4 4 Task rates for earthworks 4 5, Table 4 5 Conversion of task rates to linear metres 4 5. Table 4 6 Table for computing volumes by mid sectional area 4 7. Table 4 7 Table for computing volumes by mean sectional area 4 8. Table 4 8 Earthworks calculation in part cut and part fill 4 10. Table 4 9 Reduced levels of ground 4 11, Table 4 10 Table for computing quantities Example 4 9 4 11. Table 4 11 Point of change from cut to fill 4 11,Table 4 12 Cut and fill sections 4 13. Table 4 13 Calculation of volume of cut and fill earthworks 4 14. Table 4 14 Reduced ground and formation levels 4 14. Table 4 15 Calculation of embankment fill volumes 4 15. Table 4 16 Bulking and Shrinkage Factors 4 16, Table 4 17 Proposed Task Rates for Quarry Activities 4 20.
Table 5 1 Criteria for determining the type of stabilizer 5 9. Table 5 2 Desirable properties of material before and after stabilization 5 10. Table 5 3 Equivalent mass of gravel material in a 20 litre can or a wheelbarrow 5 18. Table 5 4 Quantities of emulsion cement and lime 5 18. Table 5 5 Quantities of water required per batch 5 19. Table 5 6 Summary of pavement soil treatment types 5 23. Table 6 1 Scour check spacing 6 4,CONSTRUCTION OF LOW VOLUME SEALED ROADS. Table 6 2 Drainage Productivities ILO 6 12, Table 7 1 Concrete mix guide for different applications 7 3. Table 7 2 Concrete mix Guide for different grades of concrete 7 5. Table 7 3 Concrete Mixer recommended Minimum Daily Outputs 7 6. Table 7 4 Comparative strength of OPC concrete 7 7. Table 7 5 Formwork striking off times 7 8, Table 7 6 Task rates productivities for concrete works 7 9. Table 8 1 Comparison of otta seal with conventional chip seal 8 5. Table 8 2 Otta seal aggregate overall grading requirements 8 7. Table 8 3 Alternative grading envelopes 8 8,Table 8 4 Bitumen requirements 8 8. Table 8 5 Bitumen spray rates 8 8,Table 8 6 Aggregate application rate 8 9.
Table 8 7 Characteristics of anionic and cationic bitumen emulsion binders 8 15. Table 8 8 Motorized bitumen hand sprayer specification guide 8 17. Table 8 9 Calculated time for spraying the control section 8 23. Table 8 10 Sample application of penetration coat 8 23. Table 8 11 Check using dipstick readings 8 24,Table 8 12 Description Key of symbols 8 24. Table 8 13 Sand grading envelope 8 25,Table 8 14 Aggregate grading 8 31. Table 8 15 Adjustment to binder for traffic count 8 34. Table 8 16 Time for heating a 210 litre drum 8 35,Table 8 17 Grading limits envelope 8 35. Table 8 18 Amount of 65 cationic grade emulsion for various mixes 8 39. Table 8 19 Recommended spacing of anchor beams 8 47. Table 8 20 Stone properties for road paving 8 51, Table 8 21 Tools and equipment for stone chisselling works 8 53. Table 8 22 Dressed stone dimension 8 54, Table 8 23 Productivity norms for dressed stone paving 8 56.
Table 8 24 Comparison of conventional pavement with UTRCP 8 57. Table 8 25 Sumary of labour based sealing types 8 59.


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