Conservation Of Cultural Heritage In Minority Ethnic -Books Pdf

CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN MINORITY ETHNIC

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CONSERVATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE IN MINORITY ETHNIC REGIONS IN NORTHWESTERN CHINA AN EXPLORATION AT KUQA, XINJIANG WU Nan a, ZHANG Xiaochuan a aTHID, F3&4, Building1, No.41 Shangdi West Road, Haidian Dist rict, Beijing, P.R.China - (w unan, zhangxiaochuan)@thid.cn KEY WORDS: Historic city, Renovation, Minority Ethnic Region, Urban Fabric




ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015
25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan
3 1 Shortage of Residential Land in Response to there were also tearing down of old buildings to make place
Population Growth for new ones due to residential needs Some damages even
happened when people can afford to refurbish their houses
There are two aspects to the problem of land shortage The destroying traditional architectural fabrics and styles
first is local culture Families grow over time but in
alignment with traditional customs most residents choose to 3 6 Impact of Terrorism on Tourism
stay rather than leave the community
Tourism is heavily impacted by recent terrorist attacks not
The other aspect is policy Most families had more than two only at Kuqa but throughout the entire Xinjiang Housing
children which were allowed by national policy and laws for prices fall drastically and original facilities provided for
minority ethnic groups therefore families grow in faster pace tourism were very rarely if ever used by visitors
than those of Han people
The result is ever more cramped residential space for families 4 EXPLORATION IN CONSERVATION FOUR
that hardly satisfies the needs of modern lifestyle When PROJECTS
children grow into adults and form independent families the
usual practice was to split the former family courtyard into 4 1 Project 1 The Sukuwuke Community Block 1
two halves with a partitioning wall Former courtyards were
either replaced by rooms or divided into smaller courtyards 4 1 1 Origination At 2011 the Planning Bureau of Kuqa
informed us that new government officials intended to
3 2 Low Income Families Unable To Support demolish a preserved historic block and build a modern 6
Renovation of Residential Buildings storey residential building block in its place The planners at
Beijing were urged to work out an alternative plan that
More than half of native inhabitants have little income and attended to the conservation needs Fortunately the original
lives on social security alone thus cannot afford to repair plan was never executed After the formal acceptance as
common damages to their buildings Buildings decay over National Historic City government officials gave up the
time to the extent of breeding potential physical dangers original plan to build modern 6 storey buildings and
Thus the successive and spontaneous mode of renovation requested us to work out our conservation plan in detail
though commonly advocated in conservation of historic
blocks is scarcely feasible in this case Though we did not agree with the original plan to demolish
the block we were fully aware of how such an intention was
Most residents earned a little extra income by small trades motivated from many sides Firstly a higher government
within the community If relocated somewhere else they official once saw the dilapidated scene when visiting the old
would lose the original clients and market The problem was city of Kuqa and ordered the local government to renovate
not so much getting used to a new environment compared to the area Secondly ensuring safe living conditions for people
losing the only way of earning a living had ever been a long term policy while many residential
buildings in the old city were indeed in poor conditions
3 3 Bad Living Conditions Thirdly such projects were qualified for funds from Ningbo
the appointed aiding city thus relieving financial pressure for
Most families were not connected to public water systems the Kuqa County
Almost all families had no sewers for everyday waste water
which they drained directly to the alleys despite pollution of 4 1 2 Background Information The renovation section
public space is situated in the north of the The site is 1100 meters long
370 meters wide and an area of 7 54 hectares
Central heating and natural gas lines were lacking as well
Coal burners were used for heating causing smoke to shroud Land use within the community is almost entirely residential
the blocks in winter heavily worsening the air quality The community contains a middle school two mosques
Land use around the community is mainly residential To the
Most houses had wooden structures and lot of wooden southwest of the community situates the oldest Mosque
components However fire trucks were unable to access the citywide Kuqa Grand Mosque in opposition to the Qing
narrow lanes between buildings therefore fire dangers were Dynasty Junior City The community is the first residential
ever threatening area to appear in view on a car drive from the airport to the
city of Kuqa
The historic blocks had only a few scattered public toilets
and dump sites which cannot form a complete sanitation Residential use institutional use public greens and road use
system take up 78 0 5 0 and 20 of total land use
respectively which means that the area is filled by residential
3 4 Amenities Still Wanting and road land with almost nothing left for institutional use
and public greens
The historic blocks had almost no land for commercial There is currently one building registered for protection
institutional and green uses No cultural activities centers and Various forms of damages occur to other existing buildings
health service stations exist at the community level Open such as natural corrosion illegal alterations or complete
space for relaxation exercise and leisure also wait to be built abandonment
3 5 Damage of Traditional Architectural Fabrics 4 1 3 Design Conditions and User Requirements
Three kinds of damages were prevalent in the area There
were gradual corrosions due to lack of maintenance And
This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper
doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 344
ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015
25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan
Roads Roads within the community are either dirt Zoning The whole area is divided according to
roads in small alleys or main roads paved with bricks The existing roads into zones A K 11 in total
roads had varying widths due to spontaneous development
that formed the community and the roads were further Zone A and B are adjusted to controlled construction area All
narrowed by roadside poplar or mulberry plantations This other zones follow the original courtyard fabric strictly in
poses serious difficulty to municipal pipeline laying renovation This is because Zone A and B are closer to the
Tianshan Road which is 3 meters higher than the
Land Use Residential land constitutes a large surrounding ground surface This adjustment would enlarge
proportion while there is almost no land for commercial total floor area and form more prominent building fa ades
institutional and green uses Public service amenities are facing Tianshan road Nevertheless those yards near the
lacking There are no cultural activities centers and health mosques remain one story in height
service stations at the community level Open space for
relaxation exercise and leisure also wait to be built Collective housing units are positioned within part of zone G
and H They are composed of small yards that enclosed by
Municipal infrastructure and amenities such as water boundaries of old courtyards They adhere strictly to the
systems central heating and public toilets are lacking on the general 7 meter building height limit and 4 5 meter height
whole limit near the mosques and roads
House splitting Requirements The limited area has Overall Structure and Nodes The whole community
to fulfill the house splitting and relocation needs House is divided into three residential sections two serving sections
splitting demands were put forward by more than half of the and six controlling nodes
families 30 among who required that their house split in
more than three parts Some of the courtyards were decided Two of the three residential sections are situated in the north
to be demolished in order that the whole area could the other in the south
accommodate 303 families
The two serving sections are the one composed of a mosque
4 1 4 Concessions and Modifications of Upper level a kindergarten a funeral parlor and a small square and the
Conservation Plan Demands put forward at the initial stage other composed of a clinic and a street office
by upper level plans on floor area per capita and relocation
cannot be totally met The six controlling nodes are the three serving nodes two
landscape nodes and one conservation exhibition node
Local residents the original demand to provide housing for respectively
336 families is lowered to 303 families according to census
while area per capita remains 28 m2 which is in accordance Cultural activities node The narrow area to the south of
with building codes Wurongbage Mosque is adjusted to a community cultural
activities center which includes a public exhibition hall a
Local government Policy of total local relocation is kindergarten in order to meet fundamental education and
changed to encouragement of moving out entertainment needs
Designer Preserve the protected buildings in the blocks Tourist node Taking into consideration the inevitable
while other yards depend on residents own will development of tourism a tourist node is placed at the
Requirements in the conservation plan were not strictly crossroad of the Tianshan Road the area s main traffic route
adhered to to the outside and the Tenth Alley of Pahetabazha Street the
main automobile road
Population growth and addition of public facilities would
necessarily raise the building intensity In order that an Community service node The community service node is
original fabric is preserved the community is divided into formed by a new neighborhood committee office built at the
different parts for construction control A small part is area west of the community clinic
planned for high building intensity The original intention for
spatial allocation namely one courtyard per family can Conservation exhibition node The only protected building
hardly be insisted throughout the area In this case collective locates at the southwestern corner of the area near the old
housing and shared courtyards are inevitable site of Sukuwuke Gate It is typical of Kuqa Han Chinese
style of residential buildings The surrounding space is
Restriction on building height is altered on account of visual cleared to give prominence to the building
and spatial considerations At the time of planning
reconstruction of Tianshan Road which is north of the site Laying of Municipal Pipelines The upper level
had recently completed which involved a 3 meter raise of conservation plan requires that boundaries of existing roads
the road plane Only the upper story of residential buildings and canals should remain the same and red lines of roads
could then emerge from the road plane hindering thorough should overlap with those of buildings
presentation of the characteristic architectural style on
facades Therefore the 7 meter building height limit of the Specific spatial means are used to ensure that the feel of
conservation plan is transgressed to allow for taller buildings enclosure does not disappear because of widening of roads
that had better exterior visual quality and larger floor area The narrowest of existing lanes is 2 8 meters wide while the
which provided housing for all relocation residents least road width for proper laying of municipal pipelines is 4
meters Thus pergolas seats and vegetation are placed at
4 1 5 Planning and Design both sides of courtyard walls to create more enclosing
surfaces thus retain the geometrical proportion between
This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper
doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 345
ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015
25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan
roads and fixed structures at their sides Among the residential buildings forms of independent yards
are adapted from variations of the traditional prototype
Street space 17 different elevation patterns for Mehmanhana to serve modern living functions Collective
roadside building facades are carefully designed to ensure housing yards are also designed to meet relocation needs
traditional Kuqa street scenes which are defined at elemental Prices of collective housing are lower compared to
level such as yard gates doors walls overhangs corridors independent yards thanks to national aids for small
arches and meter room doors apartments and are thus more suitable for low income
Buildings the protected building had a separate
renovation design Four new buildings are designed the
tourist service center community clinic kindergarten and
funeral parlor
4 2 Project 2 The Sukuwuke Community Block 2
4 2 1 Origination Block 1 and 2 belong to one
community originally However due to funding constraints
only block 1 was renovated at first It cost 100 million Yuan
which was considered expensive by the local government In
the renovation of block 1 many building components such
as windows and doors were custom made wooden ones
instead of cheaper machine made ones made of aluminium
alloy These components cannot be simply bought in batches
from the market Introduction of municipal pipelines were
also costly
The mode could not be duplicated at block 2 The local
government and residents all hoped to spend the least to
improve basic living conditions and landscape
This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper
doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 346
ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015
25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan
4 2 2 Background Information
Residents Almost 1 3 of all residents were
unemployed Nearly 1 3 were self employed 23 percent of
them were retired Full employment and part time
employment were low in percentage
Economic status of residents was better compared to block 1
yet residents were equally reluctant to move out and lacked
the will to renovate their buildings
Buildings The yards were rather small and had lots of
additions compared with the situation at 2008 Most
buildings had brick structures with a few wooden ones Most
buildings were in fairly good conditions Floor area ratios of
yards centered around 0 9 which was quite reasonable rate
Main alleys were 2 to 4 meters wide while the favorable
widths were 4 to 5 meters taking the laying of pipelines of
water drainage and natural gas No new public facilities
needed to be built since those in block 1 would be enough
No major alteration to existing buildings was needed except
necessary demolition at fire safety bottlenecks and exhibition
spots of city walls
Meanwhile 60 of roadside buildings were insufficient for
proper street scenes They had white tiles and iron
scaffolding with additions of color plates that stretched to
roads Option 2 Yards west of the north south road are reduced in
width by 1 5 meters Yards at each side of the two east west
Renovation Plan Taking various factors into account roads recede from the roads by 1 meter Five yards are
the plan had two emphases Firstly municipal pipelines removed including four houses and one warehouse Yards
should enter every family Secondly roadside fa ades were owned by 64 families are reduced and yards owned by 9
to be restored in better order The good news was that most families have to be expropriated
existing buildings were brick ones and could be torn down
Also there were green space reserved by upper level plans
which made room for buildings After discussion with local
residents we came up with three options
Option 1 Yards west of the north south road are reduced in
width by 3 meters Yards at each side of the two east west
roads recede from the roads by 1 5 meters Five yards are
removed including four houses and one warehouse Yards
owned by 48 families are reduced and yards owned by 9
families have to be expropriated
Option 3 Yards west of the north south road are translated by
3 meters Yards at each side of the two east west roads recede
from the roads by 1 5 meters Five yards are removed
including four houses and one warehouse Yards owned by
This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper
doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 347
ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015
25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan
27 families had to be translated Yards owned by 21 families tasks of social stability maintenance
had to be reduced Yards owned by 9 families had to be
expropriated 4 3 Project 3 The Sakesake Project
4 3 1 Origination The site is located in the center of
Sakesake a historic block To the north of the site lies an
important commercial street To the south of the site lies an
important modern urban street The renovation task was
initially entrusted to a local design company Demolition of
front part of the area was already finished The construction
came to a halt when large quantities of Tang dynasty coins
were excavated when digging the foundation Only then did
the team know that the area had been demolished except the
building registered for protection and all other buildings to
be constructed was designed from scratch
4 3 2 General Information The site is located in the
north of Sakesake block near Renmin Road In the middle of
this strip of land lies a protected building The site covers
6420 m2 the total built area being 10800 m2
This site is different from the Sukuwuke Community in that
it is not a purely residential aream but viewed highly in
economic value by local government officials We set the
objective of planning as balance between development and
conservation based on survey data and estimation of
construction cost
4 3 3 Planning and Design For such an important area in
a historic block we hoped to preserve the original urban
fabric thus limited the height to no more than two stories
Relocation ratio is set at 1 1 Commercial and business areas
There were 9 yards that had been expropriated whose are added and requirements on floor areas in the former
buildings almost collapsed completely The plan was to design are retained
distribute the yards to ten families as relocation and
commercial housing However the project is at a standstill
now since the government is concentrating on more urgent
4 3 4 Current Status Construction has nearly finished
which present a good overall condition except for some
In plans and elevations the original architectural fabric serve railing components that needed reinforcement Courtyard
as a guide for symbolic expressions spaces in the residential area are comfortable Residential
flows and commercial flows are separated and do not
At both sides of the protected building enough room is left interfere with each other
for fire channels
5 SOURCES OF DIFFICLUTY IN CONSERVATION
The residential section is divided into eastern and western
halves both centering a courtyard in which trees that are 5 1 Population Growth
seldom seen in Xinjiang are preserved
The major ethic group in the old city of Kuqa is the Uighurs
Large commercial spaces are placed in the western part of the who enjoyed a more liberal child bearing policy compared to
site Small shops are placed along the side facing the street Han Chinese and Hui people Therefore population grows
Business spaces are arranged underground faster than that of mainland Chinese cities resulting in ever
scarce residential and infrastructure land use Existing
In terms of construction costs our new design is more buildings suffer constant pressure for alteration and addition
economic than the former one and practical considerations naturally come before other
values for local residents
This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper
doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 348
ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015
25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan
5 2 Local Customs professionals behave Design actions are part of attempts in
conservation with the role of design actions in the
The local custom is for children to use separate spaces from conservation being more to restore and reuse than to replace
their parents when they form independent families while and remove It is also the designers task to extract essential
remaining in the community So the usual practice is to split forms that are in alignment with the lifestyle of residents
the original yards and units in order that the new families inherent in the physical configuration of cultural heritage
enjoy an independent part Whole buildings may be cut in and apply them in new projects It is often the case that in
half or more portions by new yard walls losing original projects of alteration parts of the land originally for
spatial pattern and scenes residential use should be shifted to commercial or
infrastructural use and it is the architect s and urban
Reluctance of moving out is another cause of increase in designer s job to transplant to new projects the forms styles
population density Community members do not want to and scenes that are manifested in traditional residential
move out of their familiar blocks The government has made buildings and building blocks
attempts to locate some residents elsewhere but they
eventually returned to the old city for they are deprived of Nevertheless the authenticity of existing fabric depends on
means of living when having moved to a new place while in local administration as well as spontaneous protection by the
the old city they can still rely on running small stands residents in everyday life Heritage documentation is of
fundamental importance in both preservation and design
5 3 Lack of Awareness of the Cultural Value of actions in that any new project that attends to the cultural
Buildings heritage require that designers clients and users have
adequate understanding of the relevant cultural tradition
Local residents remain largely unaware of the historic and which can only be discovered if good documentation is
aesthetic value of their houses The most obvious already in place
manifestation is their following the inextricable patterns of
West Asian Islamic architectural style seen in Kashgar
ignoring the elegant culturally rich and unique style that
blend Chinese Uighur and Islamic elements
5 4 Lack of Conservation Awareness
Both the local government and residents show lack of
conservation awareness Old buildings were torn down and
replaced by new buildings that conflict with old styles which
locals were not fully aware The local government may
curtail conservation funds leaving some of the buildings that
should enjoy registered protection in an absence of
maintenance More severe damage may happen in urban
development projects initiated by the government An entire
historic block may be demolished and replaced with brand
new buildings without appropriate considerations for
conservation
6 CONCLUSIONS
Cultural conservation in Chinese minority ethnic regions has
both unique value and difficulty and facing them is essential
in both design and preservation actions
The unique cultural value of these regions lies in its diverse
cultural elements that often reveal a long and distinctive
multi cultural history These regions are relatively distanced
from traditional commercial and economic centers thus may
preserve more ancient and local art forms and lifestyle and
exhibit influences from multiple sources
The difficulty in conservation derives largely from the same
factors that made the region culturally valuable Many
regions suffer from underdevelopment precisely because of
the distance from economic and cultural centers that helped
preserved the local culture Therefore demands in economic
development calls for improvements in living conditions
and insistence on traditional social customs on the side of the
local residents and government should all be taken into
consideration in order that conservation efforts become more
feasible and effective
The more development becomes inevitable the more
culturally responsible should designers and conservation
This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper
doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 349


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