The lost symbol Book Excerpts fact In 1991, a document was locked in the safe of the director of the CIA. The document is still there to - day. Its cryptic text ...
Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Conservation Of Cultural Heritage In Minority Ethnic
ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015. 25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan. 3 1 Shortage of Residential Land in Response to there were also tearing down of old buildings to make place. Population Growth for new ones due to residential needs Some damages even. happened when people can afford to refurbish their houses. There are two aspects to the problem of land shortage The destroying traditional architectural fabrics and styles. first is local culture Families grow over time but in. alignment with traditional customs most residents choose to 3 6 Impact of Terrorism on Tourism. stay rather than leave the community, Tourism is heavily impacted by recent terrorist attacks not. The other aspect is policy Most families had more than two only at Kuqa but throughout the entire Xinjiang Housing. children which were allowed by national policy and laws for prices fall drastically and original facilities provided for. minority ethnic groups therefore families grow in faster pace tourism were very rarely if ever used by visitors. than those of Han people, The result is ever more cramped residential space for families 4 EXPLORATION IN CONSERVATION FOUR. that hardly satisfies the needs of modern lifestyle When PROJECTS. children grow into adults and form independent families the. usual practice was to split the former family courtyard into 4 1 Project 1 The Sukuwuke Community Block 1. two halves with a partitioning wall Former courtyards were. either replaced by rooms or divided into smaller courtyards 4 1 1 Origination At 2011 the Planning Bureau of Kuqa. informed us that new government officials intended to. 3 2 Low Income Families Unable To Support demolish a preserved historic block and build a modern 6. Renovation of Residential Buildings storey residential building block in its place The planners at. Beijing were urged to work out an alternative plan that. More than half of native inhabitants have little income and attended to the conservation needs Fortunately the original. lives on social security alone thus cannot afford to repair plan was never executed After the formal acceptance as. common damages to their buildings Buildings decay over National Historic City government officials gave up the. time to the extent of breeding potential physical dangers original plan to build modern 6 storey buildings and. Thus the successive and spontaneous mode of renovation requested us to work out our conservation plan in detail. though commonly advocated in conservation of historic. blocks is scarcely feasible in this case Though we did not agree with the original plan to demolish. the block we were fully aware of how such an intention was. Most residents earned a little extra income by small trades motivated from many sides Firstly a higher government. within the community If relocated somewhere else they official once saw the dilapidated scene when visiting the old. would lose the original clients and market The problem was city of Kuqa and ordered the local government to renovate. not so much getting used to a new environment compared to the area Secondly ensuring safe living conditions for people. losing the only way of earning a living had ever been a long term policy while many residential. buildings in the old city were indeed in poor conditions. 3 3 Bad Living Conditions Thirdly such projects were qualified for funds from Ningbo. the appointed aiding city thus relieving financial pressure for. Most families were not connected to public water systems the Kuqa County. Almost all families had no sewers for everyday waste water. which they drained directly to the alleys despite pollution of 4 1 2 Background Information The renovation section. public space is situated in the north of the The site is 1100 meters long. 370 meters wide and an area of 7 54 hectares, Central heating and natural gas lines were lacking as well. Coal burners were used for heating causing smoke to shroud Land use within the community is almost entirely residential. the blocks in winter heavily worsening the air quality The community contains a middle school two mosques. Land use around the community is mainly residential To the. Most houses had wooden structures and lot of wooden southwest of the community situates the oldest Mosque. components However fire trucks were unable to access the citywide Kuqa Grand Mosque in opposition to the Qing. narrow lanes between buildings therefore fire dangers were Dynasty Junior City The community is the first residential. ever threatening area to appear in view on a car drive from the airport to the. city of Kuqa, The historic blocks had only a few scattered public toilets. and dump sites which cannot form a complete sanitation Residential use institutional use public greens and road use. system take up 78 0 5 0 and 20 of total land use, respectively which means that the area is filled by residential. 3 4 Amenities Still Wanting and road land with almost nothing left for institutional use. and public greens, The historic blocks had almost no land for commercial There is currently one building registered for protection. institutional and green uses No cultural activities centers and Various forms of damages occur to other existing buildings. health service stations exist at the community level Open such as natural corrosion illegal alterations or complete. space for relaxation exercise and leisure also wait to be built abandonment. 3 5 Damage of Traditional Architectural Fabrics 4 1 3 Design Conditions and User Requirements. Three kinds of damages were prevalent in the area There. were gradual corrosions due to lack of maintenance And. This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper. doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 344, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015. 25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan. Roads Roads within the community are either dirt Zoning The whole area is divided according to. roads in small alleys or main roads paved with bricks The existing roads into zones A K 11 in total. roads had varying widths due to spontaneous development. that formed the community and the roads were further Zone A and B are adjusted to controlled construction area All. narrowed by roadside poplar or mulberry plantations This other zones follow the original courtyard fabric strictly in. poses serious difficulty to municipal pipeline laying renovation This is because Zone A and B are closer to the. Tianshan Road which is 3 meters higher than the, Land Use Residential land constitutes a large surrounding ground surface This adjustment would enlarge. proportion while there is almost no land for commercial total floor area and form more prominent building fa ades. institutional and green uses Public service amenities are facing Tianshan road Nevertheless those yards near the. lacking There are no cultural activities centers and health mosques remain one story in height. service stations at the community level Open space for. relaxation exercise and leisure also wait to be built Collective housing units are positioned within part of zone G. and H They are composed of small yards that enclosed by. Municipal infrastructure and amenities such as water boundaries of old courtyards They adhere strictly to the. systems central heating and public toilets are lacking on the general 7 meter building height limit and 4 5 meter height. whole limit near the mosques and roads, House splitting Requirements The limited area has Overall Structure and Nodes The whole community. to fulfill the house splitting and relocation needs House is divided into three residential sections two serving sections. splitting demands were put forward by more than half of the and six controlling nodes. families 30 among who required that their house split in. more than three parts Some of the courtyards were decided Two of the three residential sections are situated in the north. to be demolished in order that the whole area could the other in the south. accommodate 303 families, The two serving sections are the one composed of a mosque. 4 1 4 Concessions and Modifications of Upper level a kindergarten a funeral parlor and a small square and the. Conservation Plan Demands put forward at the initial stage other composed of a clinic and a street office. by upper level plans on floor area per capita and relocation. cannot be totally met The six controlling nodes are the three serving nodes two. landscape nodes and one conservation exhibition node. Local residents the original demand to provide housing for respectively. 336 families is lowered to 303 families according to census. while area per capita remains 28 m2 which is in accordance Cultural activities node The narrow area to the south of. with building codes Wurongbage Mosque is adjusted to a community cultural. activities center which includes a public exhibition hall a. Local government Policy of total local relocation is kindergarten in order to meet fundamental education and. changed to encouragement of moving out entertainment needs. Designer Preserve the protected buildings in the blocks Tourist node Taking into consideration the inevitable. while other yards depend on residents own will development of tourism a tourist node is placed at the. Requirements in the conservation plan were not strictly crossroad of the Tianshan Road the area s main traffic route. adhered to to the outside and the Tenth Alley of Pahetabazha Street the. main automobile road, Population growth and addition of public facilities would. necessarily raise the building intensity In order that an Community service node The community service node is. original fabric is preserved the community is divided into formed by a new neighborhood committee office built at the. different parts for construction control A small part is area west of the community clinic. planned for high building intensity The original intention for. spatial allocation namely one courtyard per family can Conservation exhibition node The only protected building. hardly be insisted throughout the area In this case collective locates at the southwestern corner of the area near the old. housing and shared courtyards are inevitable site of Sukuwuke Gate It is typical of Kuqa Han Chinese. style of residential buildings The surrounding space is. Restriction on building height is altered on account of visual cleared to give prominence to the building. and spatial considerations At the time of planning. reconstruction of Tianshan Road which is north of the site Laying of Municipal Pipelines The upper level. had recently completed which involved a 3 meter raise of conservation plan requires that boundaries of existing roads. the road plane Only the upper story of residential buildings and canals should remain the same and red lines of roads. could then emerge from the road plane hindering thorough should overlap with those of buildings. presentation of the characteristic architectural style on. facades Therefore the 7 meter building height limit of the Specific spatial means are used to ensure that the feel of. conservation plan is transgressed to allow for taller buildings enclosure does not disappear because of widening of roads. that had better exterior visual quality and larger floor area The narrowest of existing lanes is 2 8 meters wide while the. which provided housing for all relocation residents least road width for proper laying of municipal pipelines is 4. meters Thus pergolas seats and vegetation are placed at. 4 1 5 Planning and Design both sides of courtyard walls to create more enclosing. surfaces thus retain the geometrical proportion between. This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper. doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 345, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015. 25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan. roads and fixed structures at their sides Among the residential buildings forms of independent yards. are adapted from variations of the traditional prototype. Street space 17 different elevation patterns for Mehmanhana to serve modern living functions Collective. roadside building facades are carefully designed to ensure housing yards are also designed to meet relocation needs. traditional Kuqa street scenes which are defined at elemental Prices of collective housing are lower compared to. level such as yard gates doors walls overhangs corridors independent yards thanks to national aids for small. arches and meter room doors apartments and are thus more suitable for low income. Buildings the protected building had a separate, renovation design Four new buildings are designed the. tourist service center community clinic kindergarten and. funeral parlor,4 2 Project 2 The Sukuwuke Community Block 2. 4 2 1 Origination Block 1 and 2 belong to one, community originally However due to funding constraints. only block 1 was renovated at first It cost 100 million Yuan. which was considered expensive by the local government In. the renovation of block 1 many building components such. as windows and doors were custom made wooden ones, instead of cheaper machine made ones made of aluminium. alloy These components cannot be simply bought in batches. from the market Introduction of municipal pipelines were. also costly, The mode could not be duplicated at block 2 The local. government and residents all hoped to spend the least to. improve basic living conditions and landscape, This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper. doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 346, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015. 25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan. 4 2 2 Background Information,Residents Almost 1 3 of all residents were. unemployed Nearly 1 3 were self employed 23 percent of. them were retired Full employment and part time,employment were low in percentage. Economic status of residents was better compared to block 1. yet residents were equally reluctant to move out and lacked. the will to renovate their buildings, Buildings The yards were rather small and had lots of. additions compared with the situation at 2008 Most. buildings had brick structures with a few wooden ones Most. buildings were in fairly good conditions Floor area ratios of. yards centered around 0 9 which was quite reasonable rate. Main alleys were 2 to 4 meters wide while the favorable. widths were 4 to 5 meters taking the laying of pipelines of. water drainage and natural gas No new public facilities. needed to be built since those in block 1 would be enough. No major alteration to existing buildings was needed except. necessary demolition at fire safety bottlenecks and exhibition. spots of city walls, Meanwhile 60 of roadside buildings were insufficient for. proper street scenes They had white tiles and iron. scaffolding with additions of color plates that stretched to. roads Option 2 Yards west of the north south road are reduced in. width by 1 5 meters Yards at each side of the two east west. Renovation Plan Taking various factors into account roads recede from the roads by 1 meter Five yards are. the plan had two emphases Firstly municipal pipelines removed including four houses and one warehouse Yards. should enter every family Secondly roadside fa ades were owned by 64 families are reduced and yards owned by 9. to be restored in better order The good news was that most families have to be expropriated. existing buildings were brick ones and could be torn down. Also there were green space reserved by upper level plans. which made room for buildings After discussion with local. residents we came up with three options, Option 1 Yards west of the north south road are reduced in. width by 3 meters Yards at each side of the two east west. roads recede from the roads by 1 5 meters Five yards are. removed including four houses and one warehouse Yards. owned by 48 families are reduced and yards owned by 9. families have to be expropriated, Option 3 Yards west of the north south road are translated by. 3 meters Yards at each side of the two east west roads recede. from the roads by 1 5 meters Five yards are removed. including four houses and one warehouse Yards owned by. This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper. doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 347, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015. 25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan. 27 families had to be translated Yards owned by 21 families tasks of social stability maintenance. had to be reduced Yards owned by 9 families had to be. expropriated 4 3 Project 3 The Sakesake Project, 4 3 1 Origination The site is located in the center of. Sakesake a historic block To the north of the site lies an. important commercial street To the south of the site lies an. important modern urban street The renovation task was. initially entrusted to a local design company Demolition of. front part of the area was already finished The construction. came to a halt when large quantities of Tang dynasty coins. were excavated when digging the foundation Only then did. the team know that the area had been demolished except the. building registered for protection and all other buildings to. be constructed was designed from scratch, 4 3 2 General Information The site is located in the. north of Sakesake block near Renmin Road In the middle of. this strip of land lies a protected building The site covers. 6420 m2 the total built area being 10800 m2, This site is different from the Sukuwuke Community in that. it is not a purely residential aream but viewed highly in. economic value by local government officials We set the. objective of planning as balance between development and. conservation based on survey data and estimation of. construction cost, 4 3 3 Planning and Design For such an important area in. a historic block we hoped to preserve the original urban. fabric thus limited the height to no more than two stories. Relocation ratio is set at 1 1 Commercial and business areas. There were 9 yards that had been expropriated whose are added and requirements on floor areas in the former. buildings almost collapsed completely The plan was to design are retained. distribute the yards to ten families as relocation and. commercial housing However the project is at a standstill. now since the government is concentrating on more urgent. 4 3 4 Current Status Construction has nearly finished. which present a good overall condition except for some. In plans and elevations the original architectural fabric serve railing components that needed reinforcement Courtyard. as a guide for symbolic expressions spaces in the residential area are comfortable Residential. flows and commercial flows are separated and do not. At both sides of the protected building enough room is left interfere with each other. for fire channels,5 SOURCES OF DIFFICLUTY IN CONSERVATION. The residential section is divided into eastern and western. halves both centering a courtyard in which trees that are 5 1 Population Growth. seldom seen in Xinjiang are preserved, The major ethic group in the old city of Kuqa is the Uighurs. Large commercial spaces are placed in the western part of the who enjoyed a more liberal child bearing policy compared to. site Small shops are placed along the side facing the street Han Chinese and Hui people Therefore population grows. Business spaces are arranged underground faster than that of mainland Chinese cities resulting in ever. scarce residential and infrastructure land use Existing. In terms of construction costs our new design is more buildings suffer constant pressure for alteration and addition. economic than the former one and practical considerations naturally come before other. values for local residents, This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper. doi 10 5194 isprsannals II 5 W3 343 2015 348, ISPRS Annals of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences Volume II 5 W3 2015. 25th International CIPA Symposium 2015 31 August 04 September 2015 Taipei Taiwan. 5 2 Local Customs professionals behave Design actions are part of attempts in. conservation with the role of design actions in the. The local custom is for children to use separate spaces from conservation being more to restore and reuse than to replace. their parents when they form independent families while and remove It is also the designers task to extract essential. remaining in the community So the usual practice is to split forms that are in alignment with the lifestyle of residents. the original yards and units in order that the new families inherent in the physical configuration of cultural heritage. enjoy an independent part Whole buildings may be cut in and apply them in new projects It is often the case that in. half or more portions by new yard walls losing original projects of alteration parts of the land originally for. spatial pattern and scenes residential use should be shifted to commercial or. infrastructural use and it is the architect s and urban. Reluctance of moving out is another cause of increase in designer s job to transplant to new projects the forms styles. population density Community members do not want to and scenes that are manifested in traditional residential. move out of their familiar blocks The government has made buildings and building blocks. attempts to locate some residents elsewhere but they. eventually returned to the old city for they are deprived of Nevertheless the authenticity of existing fabric depends on. means of living when having moved to a new place while in local administration as well as spontaneous protection by the. the old city they can still rely on running small stands residents in everyday life Heritage documentation is of. fundamental importance in both preservation and design. 5 3 Lack of Awareness of the Cultural Value of actions in that any new project that attends to the cultural. Buildings heritage require that designers clients and users have. adequate understanding of the relevant cultural tradition. Local residents remain largely unaware of the historic and which can only be discovered if good documentation is. aesthetic value of their houses The most obvious already in place. manifestation is their following the inextricable patterns of. West Asian Islamic architectural style seen in Kashgar. ignoring the elegant culturally rich and unique style that. blend Chinese Uighur and Islamic elements,5 4 Lack of Conservation Awareness. Both the local government and residents show lack of. conservation awareness Old buildings were torn down and. replaced by new buildings that conflict with old styles which. locals were not fully aware The local government may. curtail conservation funds leaving some of the buildings that. should enjoy registered protection in an absence of. maintenance More severe damage may happen in urban. development projects initiated by the government An entire. historic block may be demolished and replaced with brand. new buildings without appropriate considerations for. conservation,6 CONCLUSIONS, Cultural conservation in Chinese minority ethnic regions has. both unique value and difficulty and facing them is essential. in both design and preservation actions, The unique cultural value of these regions lies in its diverse. cultural elements that often reveal a long and distinctive. multi cultural history These regions are relatively distanced. from traditional commercial and economic centers thus may. preserve more ancient and local art forms and lifestyle and. exhibit influences from multiple sources, The difficulty in conservation derives largely from the same. factors that made the region culturally valuable Many. regions suffer from underdevelopment precisely because of. the distance from economic and cultural centers that helped. preserved the local culture Therefore demands in economic. development calls for improvements in living conditions. and insistence on traditional social customs on the side of the. local residents and government should all be taken into. consideration in order that conservation efforts become more. feasible and effective,The more development becomes inevitable the more. culturally responsible should designers and conservation. This contribution has been peer reviewed The double blind peer review was conducted on the basis of the full paper.
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