Natasha Watson (National Institute ... Jimmy Light (PI) Rush University (K, L) ... volume transplant centers in areas of high HIV prevalence who have the most scientific
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A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd ii 22 01 13 2 00 AM,THIRD CANADIAN EDITION. Fundamentals of Canadian Nursing,Concepts Process and Practice. Barbara Kozier MN RN,Glenora Erb BScN RN,Audrey Berman PhD RN. Dean Nursing,Samuel Merritt University,Oakland California. Shirlee J Snyder EdD RN,Dean Nursing,Nevada State College. Henderson Nevada,Madeleine Buck RN BScN MSc A,Assistant Professor. School of Nursing,McGill University,Clinical Associate. McGill University Health Centre,Lucia Yiu RN BSc BA MScN. Associate Professor,Faculty of Nursing,University of Windsor. Lynnette Leeseberg Stamler PhD RN FAAN,Professor and Associate Dean Graduate Nursing. College of Nursing,South Dakota State University,formerly of University of Saskatchewan. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd iii 22 01 13 2 00 AM,Vice President Editorial Director Gary Bennett. Senior Acquisitions Editor Lisa Rahn,Marketing Manager Jenna Wulff. Supervising Developmental Editor Maurice Esses,Senior Developmental Editor Lise Dupont. Project Manager Rachel Thompson,Production Editor Lila Campbell. Copy Editor Rohini Herbert,Proofreaders Leanne Rancourt Tara Tovell. Compositor Jouve, Photo and Permissions Researcher Jessica Mifsud The Editing Company Toronto. Art Director Julia Hall,Cover Designer Anthony Leung. Interior Designer Anthony Leung, Cover Image Veer Inc Top Left Corbis Corp Top Right GettyImages Bottom Left Masterfile Bottom Right. Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced with permission in this textbook appear on. the appropriate page within the text or on page 1675. Care has been taken to confirm the accuracy of information presented in this book The authors editors and the pub. lisher however cannot accept any responsibility for errors or omissions or for consequences from the application of the. information in this book and make no warranty expressed or implied with respect to its contents. The authors and publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selections and dosages set forth in this text are. in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication However in view of ongoing research. changes in government regulations and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions the. reader is urged to check the package inserts of all drugs for any change in indications of dosage and for added warnings. and precautions This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new or infrequently employed drug. Original edition published by Pearson Education Inc Upper Saddle River New Jersey USA Copyright 2014 Pearson. Education Inc This edition is authorized for sale only in Canada. If you purchased this book outside the United States or Canada you should be aware that it has been imported without the. approval of the publisher or the author, Copyright 2014 2010 2004 Pearson Canada Inc All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of America This. publication is protected by copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited repro. duction storage in a retrieval system or transmission in any form or by any means electronic mechanical photocopying. recording or likewise To obtain permission s to use material from this work please submit a written request to Pearson. Canada Inc Permissions Department 26 Prince Andrew Place Don Mills Ontario M3C 2T8 or fax your request to. 416 447 3126 or submit a request to Permissions Requests at www pearsoncanada ca. 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CKV, Library and Archives Canada Cataloguing in Publication. Fundamentals of Canadian nursing concepts process and practice Barbara Kozier et al 3rd Canadian ed. Originally publ under title Fundamentals of nursing the nature of nursing practice in Canada. Includes bibliographical references and index,ISBN 978 0 13 262761 0. 1 Nursing Canada Textbooks 2 Nursing Textbooks,I Kozier Barbara. RT41 F86 2013 610 73 C2012 905502 6,ISBN 978 0 13 262761 0. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd iv 22 01 13 2 00 AM,Preface xxi. Special Features xxx,UNIT 1 THE FOUNDATION OF NURSING IN CANADA 1. Chapter 1 Chapter 4 Chapter 6, Historical and Nursing Philosophies Accountability and. Contemporary Nursing Theories Concepts Legal Aspects of. Practice 2 Frameworks and Nursing 96, Historical Nursing Practice 3 Models 58 Relationship between Nurses. Contemporary Nursing Practice 8 What Is Philosophy 59 and the Law 97. Roles and Functions of the Nurse 14 Philosophy s Three Primary Areas of Contractual Arrangements in. Nursing as a Profession 15 Inquiry 59 Nursing 101, Factors Influencing Contemporary Paradigms or World Views 60 Areas of Potential Tort Liability. Nursing Practice 17 Philosophy in Nursing 60 in Nursing 102. Nursing Organizations 19 Overview of Selected Nursing Selected Legal Aspects of Nursing. Philosophies 61 Practice 109, Chapter 2 Concepts and Theories 62 Legal Protections in Nursing. Nursing Education in Overview of Selected Nursing Practice 111. Theories 64 Reporting Crimes Torts and,Canada 27 Unsafe Practices 114. Nursing Education 29 Chapter 5 Legal Responsibilities of Nursing. Types of Educational Programs 29 Students 114,Nursing Associations and Their Values Ethics and. Influence on Education 32 Advocacy 76,Issues Facing Nursing Education 33 Values 77. Chapter 3 Ethical Decision Making 86, Nursing Research in Selected Ethical Issues in Nursing 87. Canada 40 Nursing and Advocacy 90,Enhancing Ethical Practice 91. Nursing Research 41,UNIT 2 CONTEMPORARY HEALTH CARE IN CANADA 121. Chapter 7 Chapter 8 The Nurse s Role in Health,Promotion 150. Health Wellness and Health Promotion 138 The Nursing Process and Health. Illness 122 Development of Health Promotion Promotion 151. Concepts of Health Wellness and Initiatives in Canada 139 Promoting Canadians Health 155. Well Being 123 Strategies for Population Health 1994 141. Models of Health and Wellness 125 Defining Health Promotion 143 Chapter 9. Health Promotion Models 128 Sites for Health Promotion The Canadian Health. Health Care Adherence 129 Activities 145, Illness and Disease 129 Pender s Health Promotion Model 145 Care System 160. What Makes Canadians Healthy 131 The Transtheoretical Model Stages of History 161. Summary 133 Health Behaviour Change 148 Rights and Health Care 163. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd v 22 01 13 2 00 AM,vi Contents. Categories of Health Care 164 Chapter 12 Continuity of Care 279. Types of Health Care Organizations Community Health Promotion 281. and Care Settings 166,Individual Care 230, Providers of Health Care 172 Individual Health 232 Chapter 15. Factors Impacting the Health Care Applying Theoretical Frameworks to Rural and Remote Health. System 172 Individuals 237,Contemporary Frameworks for. Chapter 13 Definition of Rural 287, Models for the Delivery of Nursing Care of Rural Health Place Space and. Nursing 177 Families 244 Elements of a Rural Health. What Is Family 245 Framework 288,Chapter 10,Family Nursing 246 Health of Rural Residents 290. Environmental and Global Development of Family Nursing 247 Special Concerns in Aboriginal. Health Nursing 182 Shifting Focus to Family Involvement Communities 294. Environment and Health 183 in Health Care 248 Health Care Delivery 296. Global Health versus Inter Canadian Families A Demographic. national Health What Is the Snapshot 248 Chapter 16. Difference 187 Understanding Families 251 Complementary and. Theories of Development 189 How Does the Family Affect the. Illness 255 Alternative Health,Millennium Development Goals 189. Major Issues in Global Health 192 Nursing Care of Families 255 Modalities 305. Nurses and Global Health 198 Evaluating Nursing Care of Families 261 Basic Concepts 306. Complementary and Alternative Health,Chapter 11 Chapter 14 Modalities 307. Cultural Caring 206 Community Based Manipulative and Body Based. Canada s Cultural Mosaic 207 Nursing 268 Therapies 311. Nursing Role in Complementary and, Definitions and Concepts Related to Shifts in the Canadian Health Care. Alternative Health Modalities 318,Culture 213 System 269. Considerations for Culturally Safe Community Based Health Care 271. Nursing Practice 214 Community Based Roles and,Providing Culturally Safe Care 220 Settings 274. UNIT 3 LIFESPAN AND DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES 323, Chapter 17 Neonates and Infants Birth to One Attitudes toward Aging 384. Year 344 Gerontological Nursing in, Concepts of Growth Toddlers 1 to 3 Years 350 Canada 384. and Development 324 Health Assessment and Promotion 352 Care Settings for Older Adults 385. Factors Influencing Growth and Preschoolers 4 to 5 Years 354 Theories of Aging 386. Development 326 School Age Children 6 to 12 Physiological Aging 386. Stages of Growth and Development 326 Years 357 Psychosocial Aging 392. Growth and Development Theories 327 Adolescence 12 to 18 Years 359 Cognitive Abilities and Aging 394. Ecological Systems Theory 334 Moral Development 394. Theories of Moral Development 335 Chapter 19 Spirituality 395. Theories of Spiritual Development 336 Young and Middle Promoting Healthy Aging 395. Applying Growth and Development Adulthood 368 Planning for Health Promotion 398. Concepts to Nursing Practice 337,Young Adults 20 40 Years 369. Chapter 18 Middle Aged Adults 40 to 65,Development from. Conception through Chapter 20,Adolescence 342 Older Adults 382. Conception and Prenatal Characteristics of Older Adults in. Development 343 Canada 383,A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd vi 22 01 13 2 00 AM. Contents vii,UNIT 4 INTEGRAL ASPECTS OF NURSING 403. Chapter 21 Assessing 458 Using Evidence Informed Nursing. Diagnosing 472 Practice in ICT 541, Critical Thinking 404 Planning 480 Roles in Nursing Informatics 542. Critical Thinking Definitions and Implementing 494 How Technology Influences Humans. Purposes 405 Evaluating 497 and How Humans Influence. Techniques in Critical Thinking 407 Nursing Process Summarized 503 Technology 542. Clinical Reasoning 408 Development Implementation, Attitudes That Foster Critical Chapter 24 and Evaluation of Clinical. Thinking 409 Documenting and Informatics 543, Standards of Critical Thinking 411 Workflow or Nursing Practice. Developing Critical Thinking Attitudes Reporting 508 Process 543. and Skills 412 Ethical and Legal Considerations 509 Consumers Health Informatics and. Purpose of Client Records and Online Information Access 544. Chapter 22 Documentation 510 Nursing Informatics in Canada 545. Caring and Documentation Systems 511 Professional Issues 546. Documenting Nursing Activities 519,Communicating 422 General Guidelines for. Conclusion 547, Professionalization of Caring 423 Documentation 522 Chapter 26. Nursing Theories on Caring 423 Reporting 525,Types of Knowledge in Nursing 425 Conferring 527. Teaching and,Caring in Practice 426 Learning 551,Communicating 427 Chapter 25 Teaching 552. The Helping Relationship 438 Nursing Informatics and Learning 553. Group Communication 441 Nurse as Educator 557,Communication and the Nursing Technology 532. Process 443 Definition of Nursing Chapter 27,Communication among Health Care Informatics 533. Professionals 448 Informatics Fundamentals Data,Leading Managing and. Nurse and Physician Information and Knowledge 534 Delegating 574. Communication 448 Standardized Languages 535 Nurse as Leader 575. Computer Technology and Informatics Nurse as Manager 578. Chapter 23 in Nursing 535 Nurse as Delegator 581, The Nursing Process 454 How Nurses Are Currently Using Change 583. Technology 539,Overview of the Nursing Process 455. UNIT 5 NURSING ASSESSMENT AND CLINICAL STUDIES 591. Chapter 28 Chapter 29 Pharmacological Pain,Management 762. Health Assessment 592 Vital Signs 696 Nonpharmacological Pain. Physical Health Assessment 593 Body Temperature 697 Management 770. General Survey 602 Pulse 708 Evaluating 773,The Integument 604 Respirations 716. Head 613 Blood Pressure 721 Chapter 31,The Neck 632 Oxygen Saturation 730 Hygiene 782. Thorax and Lungs 634,Cardiovascular and Peripheral Chapter 30 Skin 785. Vascular Systems 648 Pain Assessment and Nails 802. Breasts and Axillae 657 Management 737,Abdomen 661 Mouth 803. Musculoskeletal System 662 The Nature of Pain 739 Hair Care 811. Neurological System 672 Physiology of Pain Nociception 743 Eyes 817. Female Genitals and Inguinal Lymph Factors Affecting the Pain Ears 821. Nodes 675 Experience 746 Nose 822, Male Genitals and Inguinal Area 687 Pain Assessment 749 Supporting a Hygienic. The Anus 691 Planning 756 Environment 824,Implementing 760. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd vii 22 01 13 2 00 AM,viii Contents. Chapter 32 Chapter 34 Infection Prevention and Control Is a. Shared Responsibility 998,Safety 836 Infection Prevention and. Factors Affecting Safety 838 Control 953 Chapter 35. Assessing 841 Health Care Associated Skin Integrity and. Diagnosing 842 Infections 955,Planning 842 Types of Microorganisms Causing. Wound Care 1003, Implementing 843 Infections 956 Skin Function and Integrity 1004. Evaluating 861 Body Defences against Infection 957 Types of Wounds 1004. Pathophysiology of Infection 960 Pressure Ulcers 1005. Chapter 33 The Clinical Spectrum of Lower Extremity Ulcers 1010. Medications 871 Infection 961 Wound Healing 1012,Infection An Imbalance between Assessing 1017. Key Concepts in Pharmacology 872,Microorganisms and Diagnosing 1019. Effects of Drugs 875,Defences 961 Planning 1023,Drug Misuse 876. The Chain of Infection 961 Implementing 1024,Actions of Drugs in the Body 876. Breaking the Chain Prevention and Heat and Cold Applications 1045. Factors Affecting Medication,Control of Health Care Associated Evaluating 1050. Action 878,Routes of Administration 879 Infections 966. Chapter 36, Medication Order 881 Routine Practices and Additional. Systems of Measurement 884 Precautions 989 Caring for Perioperative. Methods of Calculating Dosages 886 Practical Issues for Implementaion of Clients 1056. Administering Medications Safely 889 Precautions 992 Types of Surgery 1058. System Factors Related to Medication Nursing Responsibility for Infection Preoperative Phase 1060. Safety 890 Prevention and Control 993 Intraoperative Phase 1072. Enteral Medications 896 Occupational Health Issues Related to Postoperative Phase 1075. Parenteral Medications 903 Infection 997, Topical Medications 935 Roles of the Infection Control. Inhaled Medications 945 Practitioner 997,UNIT 6 PROMOTING PHYSIOLOGICAL HEALTH 1097. Chapter 37 Chapter 39 Vegetarian Diets 1224,Altered Nutrition 1225. Sensory Perception 1098 Activity and Assessing 1226. Components of the Sensory Perceptual Exercise 1139 Diagnosing 1236. Process 1099 Normal Movement 1141 Planning 1236, Sensory Alterations 1100 Exercise 1147 Implementing 1239. Factors Affecting Sensory Factors Affecting Body Alignment and Evaluating 1257. Function 1101 Activity 1151, Assessing 1103 Effects of Immobility 1152 Chapter 41. Diagnosing 1105 Assessing 1158 Fecal Elimination 1265. Planning 1105 Diagnosing 1162 Physiology of Defecation 1266. Implementing 1106 Planning 1163 Factors that Affect. Evaluating 1110 Implementing 1163 Defecation 1269,Using Body Mechanics 1164 Fecal Elimination. Chapter 38 Evaluating 1197 Problems 1272,Sleep 1118 Bowel Diversion Ostomies 1275. Chapter 40 Assessing 1277,Physiology of Sleep 1119. Normal Sleep Patterns and Nutrition 1203 Diagnosing 1280. Planning 1280,Requirements 1121 Essential Nutrients. Implementing 1284,Factors Affecting Sleep 1123 Macronutrients 1204. Evaluating 1298, Common Sleep Disorders 1125 Essential Nutrients Micronutrients 1208. Assessing 1127 Energy Balance 1208 Chapter 42,Diagnosing 1129 Factors Affecting Nutrition 1210. Planning 1130 Nutritional Variations throughout, Implementing 1131 the Lifespan 1213 Elimination 1303. Evaluating 1135 Standards for a Healthy Diet 1221 Physiology of Urinary Elimination 1304. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd viii 22 01 13 2 00 AM,Contents ix. Factors Affecting Voiding 1306 Physiology of the Cardiovascular Acid Base Balance 1418. Altered Urine Production 1309 System 1354 Factors Affecting Body Fluid. Altered Urinary Factors Affecting Respiratory and Electrolytes and the Acid Base. Elimination 1309 Cardiovascular Function 1358 Balance 1419. Alterations in Function 1361 Disturbances in Fluid Electrolyte and. Chapter 43 Acid Base Balance 1420,Oxygenation and Chapter 44. Circulation 1349 Fluid Electrolyte and, Physiology of the Respiratory Acid Base Balance 1408. System 1350 Body Fluids and Electrolytes 1409,UNIT 7 PROMOTING PSYCHOSOCIAL HEALTH 1473. Chapter 45 Chapter 47 Assessing 1546,Diagnosing 1547. Self Concept 1474 Spirituality 1516 Planning 1547, Self Concept 1475 Spirituality and Related Implementing 1549. Formation of Self Concept 1475 Concepts 1517 Evaluating 1553. Components of Self Concept 1477 Spiritual Religious and Faith. Factors that Affect Self Concept 1480 Development 1518 Chapter 49. Nursing Management 1481 Spiritual and Religious Care in Loss Grieving and. Contemporary Context 1520, Chapter 46 Spiritual and Religious Practices Death 1557. Sexuality 1489 Affecting Nursing Care 1522 Loss and Grief 1558. Spiritual Health and the Nursing Dying and Death 1563. Development of Sexuality 1490,Sexual Health 1494 Process 1525. Variations in Sexuality 1496,Chapter 48,Factors Influencing Sexuality 1498. Sexual Response Cycle 1499 Stress and Coping 1536, Alternative Sexual Function 1500 Concept of Stress 1537. Effects of Medications on Sexual Models of Stress 1538. Function 1502 Indicators of Stress 1541,Nursing Management 1503 Coping 1544. Glossary 1585,Appendix A,Laboratory Values 1625,Appendix B. Formulae 1632,Appendix C,Vital Signs 1633,Index 1634. Photo Credits 1675,A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd ix 22 01 13 2 00 AM. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd x 22 01 13 2 00 AM,About the Canadian. Madeleine Buck, Madeleine Buck is an Assistant Professor and Assistant Director at the McGill University Ingram. School of Nursing and a clinical associate at the McGill University Health Centre Her 35 year. career in nursing has provided her with opportunities to work in acute and critical care com. munity health and educational settings She is currently the Program Director of the Bachelor of. Science Nursing Program at McGill and teaches in the undergraduate and graduate programs. principally in the areas of acute care and illness management She is active in the Canadian. Association of Schools of Nursing CASN as past Chair of the CASN Accreditation Bureau she. now sits as co chair of the CASN Advisory Committee on Accreditation Policies She is involved. in international work and leads McGill Nurses for Highlands Hope which works with a group. of Tanzanian nurses and peer health educators in dealing with the HIV AIDS pandemic in the. Highlands of Tanzania With her nursing students in the McGill Global Health Masters stream she. works to foster collaboration and development of nursing education and practice relationships. including implementing nursing best practices in low resourced settings in Tanzania As with. previous editions half of her royalties from the publication of this book will go toward supporting. sustainable nursing projects originating from the Tanzanian Highlands Hope Nurse network. Lucia Yiu RN BScN BA Psychology Windsor BSc Physiology Toronto MScN. Administration Western Ontario is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Nursing. University of Windsor and an Educational and Training Consultant in community nursing. She has published on family and public health nursing Her practice and research interests. include multicultural health international health experiential learning community develop. ment breast health and program planning and evaluation She has worked overseas and. served on various community and social services committees involving local and district health. planning Currently Lucia is board member and committee member with various community. organizations related to children s mental health community health centres quality assurance. status of women equity and diversity occupational health and employment equity She is cur. rently president of the World Breast Cancer Organization. Lynnette Leeseberg Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg Stamler began her nursing career with a BSN from St Olaf College. Northfield MN Her interest in patient teaching began within that program and inspired her. to complete a MEd degree from the University of Manitoba Although she has worked in many. areas of nursing she has always gravitated to clinical areas where the relationship with patients. and families is essential such as rehabilitation long term care dialysis and VON visiting nurs. ing After teaching in a diploma program at Red River College in Winnipeg she completed a. PhD in nursing from the University of Cincinnati where she was their third graduate She has. since taught at the University of Windsor Nipissing University Canadore College Collaborative. BSN program and the University of Saskatchewan She has been very active in the Canadian. Association of Schools of Nursing CASN serving as Treasurer and the first elected President. who was not a Dean or Director She is also active in Sigma Theta Tau International Her research. and international work have focused on aspects of education from patient to health to nursing. In this spirit she began work on Canadian nursing textbooks recognizing that this is one way to. influence the next generation of nurses She has served as an accreditation site visitor In 2011. her work was recognized when she was inducted as an International Fellow in the American. Academy of Nursing one of eight Canadian nurses to hold that distinction at that time In the. fall of 2012 she embarked on a new adventure moving to South Dakota to take the position of. Associate Dean Graduate Studies College of Nursing South Dakota State University. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd xi 22 01 13 2 00 AM,Dedication. Madeleine Buck dedicates this edition to the Highlands Hope Umbrella. an organization that brings together community professional and volunteer net. works to address the challenge of HIV AIDS and related social problems in the. Njombe region of the Southern Highlands of Tanzania The knowledge skill crea. tivity and dedication of nurses nursing students and other members within the. Umbrella is truly commendable, Lucia Yiu dedicates this edition to her family and especially to her students and. nursing colleagues who have inspired her to strive for excellence in nursing. Lynnette Leeseberg Stamler dedicates this edition to her bio. logical sisters Karen and Marilyn to her many nonbiological sisters through marriage. and friendship and to her many students and colleagues Each has contributed to. her learning and joy in nursing and teaching All have supported her in many ways. along the journey, Audrey Berman dedicates this edition to Bo Gunnar Edvard Dahlstr m. without whom it would not have been possible There are few people on earth who. can simultaneously challenge and support Audrey even with all my sharp edges. and he is one Audrey is grateful for his intellect and English skills which exceed. her own He loves three nurses unconditionally his sister his daughter and Audrey. Shirlee Snyder dedicates this edition in loving memory of her late mother. Jean Snyder and to her husband Terry J Schnitter for his unconditional love and. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd xii 22 01 13 2 00 AM,Chapter Features. Walk Through, We carefully prepared a variety of special features to facilitate learning and to highlight the. 5 major themes that form the framework for this edition namely Primary Health Care Critical. Thinking Clinical Reasoning Nursing Process and Lifespan Considerations. LEARNING OUTCOMES,LEARNING OUTCOMES, outline the essential concepts addressed in After studying this chapter you will be able to. the chapter, 1 Explain the relationship of individuality and holism to nursing practice. 2 Compare and contrast the elements of physiological and psychological. homeostasis, 3 Identify six common factors that can make an individual more vulnerable to. some health problems and describe a nursing implication for each. 4 Identify Maslow s five categories in the hierarchy of human needs. 5 Discuss how a nurse might use the three selected types of theories to begin to. assess an individual s health needs,EVIDENCE INFORMED PRACTICE. boxes highlight relevant Canadian research systematic EVIDENCE INFORMED PRACTICE. reviews and meta analyses are cited within each box What Causes Temper Tantrums. and clinical relevance is carefully described, The purpose of the study was to determine how emotional. reactivity and emotional competence of the children contrib. uted to temper tantrums and 127 families with 3 to 5 year. old children in British Columbia took part in the study Results. showed that children who were more emotionally compe. tent were less likely to display anger and distress But more. importantly emotionally competent children while they may. be just as emotionally reactive as other children were less. likely to display the full blown temper tantrum,NURSING IMPLICATIONS A child s level of emotional. competence not the tendency to be emotionally reac. tive was the key to understanding why some reactive. children have tantrums and others do not Nurses need. to understand that two children with similar thresholds. for emotional reactivity may display widely different fre. quencies of temper tantrums and that maturity i e age. and verbal ability had little effect on temper tantrums. Source Based on Giesbrecht G Miller M M ller U 2010 The anger distress. model of temper tantrums Associations with emotional reactivity and emotional. competence Infant and Child Development 19 478 497. CASE STUDIES,present scenarios applicable to Canadian. Case Study 18 nursing and relevant to the chapter topic. Billy is a 6 year old boy entering Grade 1 He is scared and hesitant to let go of his mother s hand As. the nursing student working in this setting you have the opportunity to work with Billy and other young. children as they start school,Critical thinking questions that accom. CRITICAL THINKING QUESTIONS,pany each Case Study guide students. 1 How would you help Billy s mother reassure him After working through these questions visit www. to reflect about the case from dif, 2 On the basis of his age what strategies might you use to pearsoncanada ca mynursinglab to check your answers ferent points of view to ensure. teach Billy and his classmates about health promotion comprehensive analysis. Suggested answers to the case based,critical thinking questions can be. found in the Instructor s Manual and,on the Study on the Go feature. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd xiii 22 01 13 2 00 AM,xiv Special Features in the Chapters. NURSING AND CANADIAN,SOCIETY Nursing and Canadian Society. boxes summarize relevant facts Fact Implications for Nursing Practice. about issues in Canadian soci Most older Canadian adults live independently in the community Nurses need to be aware of the resources and community ser. and desire to remain in their homes PHAC 2009 In 2008 09 vices available to their older clients Aging in place interventions. ety and their implications for about 0 7 of the Canadian population lived in an institution can assist older adults to maintain their independence. nursing of this about 75 were 65 years and older Organization for. Economic Co operation and Development 2011, Canada has a shortage of health care professionals including All nurses need to acquire the requisite knowledge skills and. nurses who specialize in the care of older persons Numerous expertise to care for the rapidly growing numbers of older adults. Canadian organizations and professional associations actively in Canada to understand trends that impact health care delivery. engage in and disseminate research to better meet the needs of plan for evidence based interventions and advocate for safe and. older Canadians PHAC 2009 ethical care, Although cancer death rate is falling in Canada cancer inci Nurses are challenged to successfully implement cancer preven. dence and mortality rates continue to be highest among the tion strategies to promote healthy lifestyle changes into the daily. older adults Canadian Cancer Society s Steering Committee on lives of older persons e g promoting cancer screening healthy. Cancer Statistics 2012 diet and active living,REFLECT ON PRIMARY HEALTH CARE. REFLECT ON PRIMARY HEALTH CARE boxes ask readers to reflect about the clinical application. of one or more of the five principles of primary health. Nurses apply critical thinking skills as they use a primary health care i e health promotion accessibility public partici. care approach to care for their clients This activity involves pation appropriate use of technology and intersectoral. knowing what are the health promotion needs of their cli collaboration in relation to chapter specific topics. ents how where and when to engage their clients and the. members of the multidisciplinary team for input regarding their. clients needs strengths and barriers and what and how to. adapt the resources or appropriate technology in order to. design services and care that will meet the clients socioeco. nomic and cultural needs, SKILL BOXES SKILL 39 5 TRANSFERRING BETWEEN BED AND CHAIR. provide clear step by step directions,PURPOSE Wheelchair. and feature the following A client may need to be transferred between the bed and a. wheelchair or chair the bed and the commode or a wheelchair. Clear purpose statement and the toilet This technique has numerous variations W hich Bed. variation the nurse selects depends on factors related to the. Clinical reasoning questions for client the environment and the health care provider which are. assessed before beginning the transfer x Client,many of the skill instructions Nurse s Client s. ASSESSMENT, Steps to consider during imple Before transferring a client assess the following. mentation of the skill Client s body size,Client s ability to follow instructions. A complete list of equipment,Client s activity tolerance. required to ensure success Client s muscle strength and ability to bear weight. Patient identification procedures and Client s joint mobility The wheelchair is placed parallel to the bed as close to the bed as. Presence of paralysis or paresis, infection prevention and control Client s level of comfort. possible Note that placement of the nurse s feet mirrors that of the. client s feet,reminders to promote patient safety, Easily identified rationales throughout the skill instructions to ensure complete understanding of each step. Coloured photos and illustrations provide the visual cues needed to ensure accurate completion of the skill. An evaluation focus at the end of each skill ensures that the relevant assessment and follow up occurs. LIFESPAN LIFESPAN CONSIDERATIONS,CONSIDERATIONS, boxes identify clearly when Positioning Moving and Turning Clients. and how nursing care should INFANTS OLDER ADULTS, Position infants on their back for sleep even after feeding Clients who have had cerebrovascular accidents CVAs. be adapted for the needs of They have little risk of regurgitation and choking and the rate strokes have a risk of shoulder displacement on the para. infants children adolescents of sudden infant death syndrome SIDS is significantly lower lyzed side from improper moving or repositioning techniques. in infants who sleep on their backs Use care when moving positioning in bed and transferring. and or older adults The skin of newborns can be fragile and may be abraded or Pillows or foam devices are helpful to support the affected. torn sheared if the infant is pulled across a bed arm and shoulder and prevent injury. Decreased subcutaneous fat and thinning of the skin place. CHILDREN older adults at risk for skin breakdown Repositioning. Carefully inspect at least three times in each 24 hour period approximately every 2 hours more or less depending on the. the dependent skin surfaces of all infants and children con unique needs of the individual client helps reduce pressure. fined to bed on bony prominences and avoid tissue trauma. A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd xiv 22 01 13 2 00 AM,Special Features in the Chapters xv. CLINICAL ALERTS CLI NI CAL ALERT, focus on patient safety and highlight the potential risks Ta ke s afe ty mea s ure s before fax ing confide ntial information. that nurses must watch out for Consent is needed from the client to fax information Make sure that person. ally identifiable information e g client name social insurance number has. been removed If needed confirm that the material is being sent to a confiden. tial fax number or call ahead to ensure the person is present to receive the fax. Check that the fax number is correct before pressing the send button. HOME CARE HOME CARE CONSIDERATIONS,CONSIDERATIONS, boxes guide readers to consider Positioning Moving and Turning Clients. the issues that could affect the Assess the height of the bed and the person s leg length to W arn caregivers of the dangers of lifting and repositioning. ensure that self movement in and out of the bed are smooth and encourage the use of assistive devices and a no solo. client s successful home recov Inspect the client s mattress for support lift policy. ery and living Assess the caregivers knowledge and application of body Teach the caregiver to check the client s skin for redness. mechanics to prevent injury and integrity after repositioning the client Stress the impor. tance of informing the nurse about the length of time skin. Demonstrate how to turn and position the client in bed redness remains over pressure areas after the person has. Observe the caregiver performing a return demonstration been repositioned Emphasize that reddened areas should. Re evaluate this technique periodically to reinforce correct not be massaged as it may lead to tissue trauma. application of body mechanics, Teach caregivers the basic principles of body alignment and. how to check for proper alignment after the client has been. changed to a new position,CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS,CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS. boxes feature bulleted lists of common signs and symptoms. to provide a quick and easy reference to key manifestations. of illness situations,Hypothermia, Hypothermia typically manifests in the following ways. Decreased body temperature,Severe shivering initially. F eelings of cold and chills,Pale cool waxy skin,Hypotension. Decreased urinary output,L ack of muscle coordination. Disorientation,Drowsiness progressing to coma,PRACTICE GUIDELINES. PRACTICE GUIDELINES 32 2 provide clear and succinct. Applying Restraints summaries of evidence based,clinical actions and their. Guidelines Rationales,rationales, Ensure that all alternative measures other than restraints have Underlying reasons for restraints must be addressed. been exhausted and that the least restraint option is being and corrected if possible as their use is associated. used Assure the client and the family that the restraint is with psychological guilt anger shame feeling punished. temporary and protective and physiological strangulation skin breakdown. constipation risks, Obtain consent from the client or guardian and ensure that Legal and ethical considerations require informed consent. necessary collective or physician prescriptions are in order unless in an emergency situation Health agencies generally. have specific protocols and lines of authority to ensure practices. are consistent and safe,If restraints are applied ensure the following. Apply the restraint so that the client can move as freely as Inability to move can cause anxiety and agitation and enhance. possible without defeating the purpose of the restraint the risk of physiological complications such as aspiration if. Apply a restraint using quick release buckles or a half bow Time is of the essence in emergency situations and tight. quick release knot that does not tighten when pulled and physical restraints can impede blood circulation and are. supports the normal anatomy of the body part uncomfortable contractures and discomfort can arise from poor. body alignment,A01 KOZI7610 03 SE FM indd xv 22 01 13 2 00 AM.
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110 FEATURED PHOTO GREAT GRAy Owls NEsTiNG iN FREsNO COUNTy, CAliFORNiA DaviD E. QuaDy, 39 The Crescent, Berkeley, California 94708; firstname.lastname@example.org
26-Mar-2020 4 Views 5 Pages
Art and Design Skills Progression Subject area: Art and Design skills Curriculum leader: Tom James Year 1 (KS1 skills) Year 2 (KS1 skills) Year 3 (Lower KS2 skills) Year 4 (Lower KS2 skills) Year 5 (Upper KS2 skills) Year 6 (Upper KS2 skills) Generic skills Record and explore ideas from first hand observations Ask and answer questions about the starting points for their work Develop their ...
26-Mar-2020 2 Views 28 Pages
Courses on Soft skills are intended to improve the communication skills enrich personality development, Computing skills, Quantitative aptitude and knowledge of Foreign language of the students. These courses are intended to enhance the employability of the students. The courses will help to bridge the gap between the skill requirements of the employer or industry and the competency of the ...
26-Mar-2020 2 Views 187 Pages
AnIntegratedFrameworkforPlanningand ControlofSemi-AutonomousVehicles By Andrew Jacob Gray ... University of California, Berkeley