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Computernetworktechnologies andservices lecture notes
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Acknowledgements, Special thanks go to Elia Neishaboori for her help in the section about H 323 and to Ebrahim. Kargarnasrabadi for his help in the section about SIP. Special thanks go to Giacomo Ratta because he granted to integrate his work into the chapter. about IPv6 migration, Besides the aforementioned authors this work may include contributions from related works. on WikiAppunti and Wikibooks therefore thanks also to all the users who have made contribu. tions to lecture notes Computer network technologies and services and to book Computer network. technologies and services, About this work, This work is published free of charge You can download the last version of the PDF document. along with the LATEX source code from here http lucaghio webege com redirs 1. This work has not been checked in any way by professors and therefore it may include. mistakes If you find any of them you are invited to directly fix them by yourself by making a. commit to the public Git repository or by editing lecture notes Computer network technologies. and services on WikiAppunti or alternatively you can contact the main authors by sending an. e mail to artghio tiscali it or lorenzodavid91 gmail com. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 4 0 International License. pictures unless otherwise specified are licensed under this license too. You are free to, share copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format. adapt remix transform and build upon the material, for any purpose even commercially under the following terms.
Attribution you must give appropriate credit provide a link to the license and indicate. if changes were made You may do so in any reasonable manner but not in any way that. suggests the licensor endorses you or your use, ShareAlike if you remix transform or build upon the material you must distribute your. contributions under the same license as the original. 1 1 ISDN 6, 1 4 Frame Relay 8, 1 4 1 CIR 8, 1 5 1 AAL 5 9. 1 6 Optical networks 9, 2 1 Benefits 11, 2 2 Network architecture 12. 2 3 Data plane 13, 2 3 1 MPLS header 13, 2 3 2 Label switching 13. 2 4 Control plane 15, 2 5 Protocols 15, 2 5 1 Label distribution protocols 15.
2 5 2 Routing protocols 16, 3 1 Comparison to IPv4 17. 3 1 1 IPv6 additional features 17, 3 2 Addressing 18. 3 2 1 Address format 18, 3 2 2 Links 18, 3 2 3 Addressing space organization 18. 3 2 4 Advanced topics related to IPv6 addresses 20. 3 3 Standard IPv6 header 21, 3 4 Extension headers 22. 3 4 1 Hop by hop option and Destination option 23, 3 4 2 Routing 24.
3 4 3 Fragment 25, 3 4 4 IPsec 25, 3 5 ICMPv6 28, 3 5 1 Packet Too Big 29. 3 5 2 Multicast Listener Discovery 29, 3 5 3 Neighbor Discovery 30. 4 Migration to IPv6 32, 4 1 Introduction 32, 4 1 1 Migrating hosts 32. 4 1 2 Migrating network devices 33, 4 1 3 Migrating DNSes 34. 4 1 4 Tunneling 34, 4 2 Bringing IPv6 support to the network edges 35.
4 2 1 NAT based solutions 35, 4 2 2 NAT64 36, 4 2 3 DS Lite 37. 4 2 4 DS Lite A P 39, 4 3 Transporting IPv6 traffic in the core network 40. 4 3 1 6PE 40, 4 4 Security issues 42, 5 1 Classification 43. 5 1 1 Deployment scenarios 44, 5 1 2 Internet access 45. 5 1 3 Models 46, 5 1 4 Provision 46, 5 1 5 Layers 47.
5 1 6 Virtual topologies 47, 5 2 Protocols 47, 5 2 1 PPP 47. 5 2 2 GRE 48, 5 2 3 L2TP 49, 5 2 4 PPTP 51, 5 2 5 IPsec 52. 5 2 6 SSL 52, 5 3 Access VPNs 52, 5 3 1 Dial up connection scenario 52. 5 3 2 Customer provision 53, 5 3 3 Provider provision 54. 5 4 Site to site VPNs 55, 5 4 1 IPsec based VPNs 55.
5 4 2 MPLS based VPNs 56, 5 5 SSL pseudo VPNs 59, 5 5 1 Comparison to alternative solutions 59. 5 5 2 SSL pseudo VPN flavors 59, 6 1 Circuit switching versus packet switching 61. 6 1 1 Circuit switching telephone network 61, 6 1 2 Packet switching data network 61. 6 2 Migration from circuit switching to packet switching 62. 6 2 1 Gateway 62, 6 3 Steps for VoIP flow creation 63. 6 3 1 At the transmitter side 63, 6 3 2 At the receiver side 64.
6 4 RTP 65, 6 4 1 Features 65, 6 4 2 Multicast transmission 65. 6 4 3 RTP header 66, 6 5 H 323 67, 6 5 1 H 323 network components 67. 6 5 2 H 323 protocol architecture 68, 6 5 3 Addressing 69. 6 5 4 Main steps of an H 323 call 69, 6 5 5 Main issues and criticisms 69. 6 6 SIP 70, 6 6 1 Features 70, 6 6 2 SIP network components 71.
6 6 3 Accounting and domains 72, 6 6 4 SIP messages 73. 6 6 5 Steps for a SIP call 74, 7 Quality of service 77. 7 1 Principles 77, 7 2 Mechanisms 77, 7 2 1 Packet scheduling mechanisms 77. 7 2 2 Policing mechanisms 78, 7 3 IntServ 79, 7 4 DiffServ 79. 7 4 1 Architecture 79, 7 4 2 Marking 79, 7 4 3 PHB 80.
Strictly speaking a Wide Area Network WAN is a network that is extended over a broad. area spanning regions countries or in the case of the Internet even the world More in general. any computer networking technology used to transmit data over long distances can be called as. A WAN technology should meet some requirements in terms of service duration bit rate. and delay constraints according to the application telemetry telephony data transfer etc it. is designed for, ATM represents the convergence for a wide variety of technologies that in the past both. telecom and IT worlds in parallel introduced in order to transmit data over long distances. in the telecom world the telephony turned from analog to digital then ISDN and B ISDN. started to carry data along with the voice, in the IT world Frame Relay superseded analog and digital leased lines by taking advantage. of packet switching and X 25 by moving the complexity from core to edge nodes. Nowadays ATM is going to be abandoned in favour of IP thanks to its lower complexity and. greater simplicity, Integrated Service Digital Network ISDN allows to carry data along with the voice a. variety of digital devices can be connected to a bus and can transmit over the available ISDN. Basic Rate Access BRA or Basic Rate Interface BRI it offers 2 data B channels. at 64 kbps and 1 signaling D channel at 16 kbps total 144 kbps good for single users. or small offices, Primary Rate Access PRA or Primary Rate Interface PRI it offers 30 data. B channels at 64 kbps and 1 signaling D channel at 16 kbps total 2 Mbps good for. The transmission is based on Time Division Multiplexing TDM all channels go to a Network. Termination and enter the network over a digital wire called local loop The channels inherit. the logics from telecom operators they keep being alive also when no data is exchanged. Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy PDH is an old standard designed to transfer digital voice. channels at 64 Kb s PCM over TDM based digital telephone networks The system is called. Figure 1 1 PDH hierarchy, plesiochronous because a tight synchronization between transmitter and receiver is required.
even if each device has its own clock, Data flows are organized in a hierarchical way channels are aggregated into flows from the. lowest layer to the highest one grooming and the higher the hierarchical layer the higher is. the bit rate For example at layer T1 24 T0 layer channels are put into a single frame one next. to another as the frame has to last 125 s for all layers at layer T1 the bit rate will be 24 times. higher than the one at layer T0 1, Figure 1 2 SDH physical and protocol architectures. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy SDH the European equivalent of the international standard. SONET differs from PDH for its higher speeds, a single clock exists for the whole system a synchronization network is required for a. tighter synchronization, copper cables need to be replaced with optical fibers. the flow multiplexing is more complex than PDH because it is designed to optimize the. hardware processing, The protocol architecture is organized as a layer stack and each node in the physical network.
architecture implements them according to its functionality. 1 Signaling bits are not considered, path layer end to end interconnection between two terminals. line layer a path is split into lines by multiplexers. section layer a line is split into sections by repeaters for long distances. photonic layer the lowest layer for optical fibers. Each time frame lasts 125 s and its header includes synchronization information used to. combine and separate channels and OAM Operation Administration and Management infor. mation used to detect failures and recover from them. SDH and PDH represent the transport layer which ATM and Frame Relay operate on. 1 4 Frame Relay, Frame Relay is a layer 2 connection oriented standard to set up permanent virtual circuits over. packet switching networks Each permanent circuit is identified by a Data Link Connection. Identifier DLCI, The standard is very flexible in fact it does not specify the technology at upper layer ATM. X 25 used internally in the network, Figure 1 3 The service is guaranteed for the blue user but not for the green one because his. burstiness is too high, The maximum supported bit rate is not enough to describe the performance of a Frame Relay.
network because an user may send bits consecutively at the maximum bit rate wire speed for. a long period of time causing congestion in the network Therefore the network provider provides. also the Committed Information Rate CIR that is the maximum number BC of bits the. user can transmit within a certain interval of time TC so that the service is guaranteed. where BC is called committed burst size, low burstiness the user rarely sends packets the service is always guaranteed. high burstiness the user keeps sending packets consecutively at wire speed when he. exceeds the committed burst size the service will not be guaranteed anymore. The user s Data Terminal Equipment DTE can stop the transmission when the maximum. burstiness is reached, Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM is a connection oriented standard to set up virtual. circuits over B ISDN networks Each circuit is identified by a Virtual Path Identifier VPI. and a Virtual Circuit Identifier VCI and it can be permanent or dynamically set up through. signaling messages, ATM cells are very small each ATM cell is 53 bytes long made up of a 5 bytes long header. containing the connection identifiers and a 48 bytes long payload low latency and low pack. etization delays, ATM networks have a very complex model derived from a telecom operator mentality to. have the full control of the network and guarantee a high fault tolerance. 1 5 1 AAL 5, When ATM was designed it was thought to be implemented ubiquitously in the network also at.
its edges in the network cards of the user PCs Nowadays PCs at the edges are implementing only. the IP protocol because its implementation is cheaper and ATM can be found only as transport. layer in the core of the network hidden from the user. ATM Adaptation Layer AAL of type 5 is used for Segmentation and Reassembly SAR. Segmentation IP packets are split into ATM cells, Reassembly ATM cells are combined into IP packets. AAL makes interaction between IP and ATM complex because IP addresses should be trans. lated to ATM connection identifiers and vice versa nowadays the tendency is abandoning the. ATM control plane and adopting the MPLS control plane. 1 6 Optical networks, In optical networks data are transmitted over electromagnetic waves multiplexed by using. WDM transported via optical fibers and switched by mirror based optical switching systems. Wavelength Division Multiplexing WDM allows to put multiple optical signals into a. single optical fiber the transmission capacity of fibers is increased. Coarse WDM CWDM it allows to transmit a lower number of signals with wavelengths. well separated one from each other cheaper because demultiplexing is easier. Dense WDM DWDM it allows to transmit a higher number of signals with any wave. length more expensive because demultiplexing is more complex. Optical switching is based on mirrors controlled by micro electro mechanical systems. MEMS reflecting electromagnetic signals from an input fiber to an output fiber Optical switch. ing is very flexible it exploits physical properties of electromagnetic waves without caring about. bits networks can be upgraded to higher speeds because optical switches keep working inde. pendently of the bit rate, Several types of optical switches exist. add drop multiplexer it is the simplest optical switch it can be interposed between. two fibers to optically insert add signals coming from transmitters into the network and. extract drop signals from the network towards the receivers. cross connect it can connect multiple input fibers to multiple output fibers. fiber cross connect all the electromagnetic waves coming from an input fiber are. switched to an output fiber, waveband cross connect a set of electromagnetic waves with close wavelengths. coming from an input fiber is switched to an output fiber. wavelength cross connect a set of electromagnetic waves with the same wavelength. coming from an input fiber is switched to an output fiber. wavelength switch configuration is dynamic that is switches can change circuits faster. than cross connects fault recovering is fast, Two signals with the same wavelength may be coming from two different input fibers but.
they may need to be switched to the same output fiber through the wavelength conversion. PolitecnicodiTorino Master s Degree in Computer Engineering Computernetworktechnologies andservices lecture notes Main authors Lorenzo David Luca Ghio Professors Mario Baldi Guido Marchetto Academic year 2013 2014 Version 1 0 2 0 Date February 26 2020

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