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Components of Curriculum Implementation
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Key Topics,Curriculum defined,Explicit hidden and absent curricula. Curricular components of instructional content interventions arrange. ment management and monitoring, Interrelationship among curricular types curricular components and. multi tiered instruction, RTI and the implementation of five curricular components. Learner Outcomes,After reading this chapter you should. 1 Be knowledgeable about an integrated definition of curriculum. implementation, 2 Be able to assess the extent to which explicit hidden and absent curricula.
function in everyday classrooms, 3 Be able to describe the interrelationship among the five curricular. components of effective teaching and learning, 4 Understand how a variety of curriculum factors in addition to content. contribute significantly to the implementation of multi tiered RTI. 5 Be familiar with the historical progression of curriculum implementation for. struggling learners including those with disabilities over the past five decades. S I G N I F I C A N C E T O C O N T E M P O R A RY. CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION, A fundamental aspect of RTI is the effective and proper implementation of cur. riculum to meet the needs of all learners Educators in today s classrooms must. ensure that the curriculum has been implemented with integrity for all students. prior to making general assumptions about suspected learning or behavior prob. lems as intrinsic to the student As a result we are faced with the challenge of. implementing the curriculum in the manner in which it is intended to be imple. mented as well as providing corroboration that effective implementation has. actually occurred This is significant in the process of multi tiered RTI due to the. increased emphasis on providing sufficient opportunities to learn within a cur. riculum that has been implemented with integrity To best meet this challenge we. must understand the critical factors that provide the basis for making effective. curriculum implementation decisions if we are to meet the needs of all learners. A complex issue for teachers is to understand the curriculum they are required. to implement along with the outcomes reflecting student learning Many educators. 4 CHAPTER 1 Components of Curriculum Implementation. view the curriculum primarily as the content they must teach with little or no. consideration of other critical curricular elements that are essential to effective. teaching This chapter begins by presenting an integrated and practical discussion. of curriculum and its implementation that serves as a foundation for implement. ing RTI First however several key terms used throughout the book are defined. These terms are categorized within several broad headings to simplify their use. Response to Intervention, Multi tiered instruction Levels or layers of instruction that increase in. duration and intensity based on the learner s response to that instruction. Response to intervention RTI Process within multi tiered instruction. that determines the extent to which a learner responds to instruction. i e what is taught and uses the RTI results as a basis for subsequent. multi tiered curricular decisions, Fidelity Implementation of the curriculum and assessment in the man.
ner in which they were designed and researched to be used i e consis. tently and accurately, Universal screening Process by which all students are screened usually. three times per year for progress toward curriculum benchmarks. Progress monitoring More frequent monitoring e g monthly biweekly. of students progress toward benchmarks or objectives. Diagnostic assessment Process by which specific learners needs are. pinpointed which may include evaluation for a possible disability. Cut score Assessment proficiency level or score e g the 25th percentile. that learners are expected to achieve to be considered as making adequate. progress toward benchmarks,Curriculum and Instruction. Curriculum implementation The integration of instructional content. arrangement interventions management and monitoring in the classroom. Curriculum differentiation Modifications or adaptations of curriculum. implementation to meet a variety of students needs. Curricular types Three types of curriculum found in every classroom. explicit hidden absent, Differentiated classroom A classroom that contains structures and. procedures designed to deal simultaneously with the variety of factors that. students bring to the learning environment e g varied preferences for. learning varied experiential backgrounds cultural linguistic diversity. range of reading levels self management abilities time on task levels. Differentiated instruction Use of evidence based interventions in the. implementation of research based curricula to meet the varied educa. tional needs preferences of students in differentiated classrooms. Significance to Contemporary Classroom Instruction 5. Collaboration in curriculum The process of cooperatively implementing. the curriculum and performing assessment to meet the needs of all students. Culturally responsive curriculum A curriculum that is contextually relevant. to all students including culturally and linguistically diverse learners. Evidence based curricular interventions Specific teaching and learning. techniques with demonstrated effectiveness for their intended purposes in. research and validation studies, Research based curriculum Comprehensive curricular programs that. have been developed researched and validated to be effective in teaching. and learning e g a reading curriculum, Interventionist An educator with specialized skills who provides targeted.
curricular supports to struggling learners using either push in or pull out. Benchmarks Grade or age level academic and behavioral standards. Learner and the Curriculum, Struggling learner A student who fails to exhibit adequate proficiency or. rate of progress toward academic and or behavioral benchmarks. Study skills Educational tools used by students to promote more efficient. and effective task completion e g various reading rates time manage. ment skills library usage abilities, Learning strategies Strategies used by students to increase access to and. retention of curricular content and skills e g active processing rehearsal. abilities coping skills,Essential Curriculum Factors. Viewing curriculum and its essential components in an integrated manner. provides educators with a comprehensive perspective that allows them to. understand more clearly what they teach as well as allowing them to make. more informed curricular decisions for all learners In addition the demands. of multi tiered RTI require today s teachers to have greater knowledge about. curriculum as illustrated in Figure 1 1, As Figure 1 1 shows three critical factors must be addressed in imple. menting the curriculum for all learners in multi tiered RTI. Factor 1 Curriculum implementation must be done the way it was. designed to be done i e with fidelity in a consistent manner and with. challenges to students to facilitate the development and use of higher level. thinking abilities, Factor 2 Opportunities to learn must include curricular differentiations.
designed to achieve desired needs or outcomes relevant to the learner. and implemented during classroom instruction, 6 CHAPTER 1 Components of Curriculum Implementation. FIGURE 1 1 Three Critical Curricular Factors,Factor 1 Factor 2. Implementation Differentiations,Fidelity Targeted,Consistency Relevant. Accuracy Critical Curriculum Contextual,Multi tiered. Intervention,Assessment,Curriculum Based,Instructionally Linked.
Factor 3 Effectiveness of the curriculum and its implementation requires. assessment that is based on the curriculum taught in the classroom is. linked directly to what has been taught and is conducted on a regular. basis to closely monitor students progress toward curricular benchmarks. Curriculum implementation differentiation and assessment are discussed. in detail throughout this book beginning with an exploration of important. factors that educators should be aware of to meet the needs of all learners in. multi tiered RTI i e those who achieve above at and below benchmark. levels This includes the definition of curriculum five curricular components. and three types of curriculum each discussed relative to multi tiered RTI We. begin with the definition of curriculum referred to throughout this book. How Is Curriculum Defined, How one defines curriculum depends on how one implements differentiates. and assesses curriculum For some educators curriculum is simply all planned. occurrences in the classroom Wiles Bondi 2007 For others curriculum is. How Is Curriculum Defined 7, narrowly defined as the content they teach every day Still others view curricu. lum in a manner that is more refined than all classroom occurrences and. broader than content However curriculum is defined it has three important. components 1 the intended outcomes 2 what is taught and 3 the manner. of implementation Eisner 2002 suggested that curriculum pertains to instruc. tion that is planned with associated intended outcomes recognizing that much. more may occur in the classroom that is meaningful and relevant even though it. may be unintended Hosp Hosp and Howell 2007 viewed curriculum as the. course or path embarked on reflecting what is taught in the classroom Hoover. and Patton 2005 stated that curriculum must also consider the setting strate. gies and management in the context of the content and skills being taught. Reflecting on various definitions of curriculum put forth over the past. several decades McKernan 2008 wrote we have on the one hand a limited. and on the other a more expansive notion of what is to count as a curriculum. p 11 Blending these important aspects of various definitions curriculum as. used throughout this book is defined as, Planned learning experiences with intended outcomes while recognizing. the importance of possible unintended outcomes, Working from this definition elements related to both the what and the. how of curriculum implementation and assessment are emphasized these. elements become important when RTI results are discussed These interrelated. aspects are important Hoover and Patton 2005 wrote that how one defines. this term curriculum relates directly to how one approaches it curriculum. implementation p 7 Educators must be aware of how they define or view. curriculum because their perspectives are directly connected to how they. implement differentiate and assess curriculum effectiveness. Significance to Multi tiered RTI, The curriculum must be implemented with fidelity contain reasonable and.
needed differentiations and include ongoing monitoring of student progress In. implementing any curriculum teachers must make daily decisions about imple. mentation based on students needs e g the need to restate instructions provide. additional practice to learn content or reinforce a concept in a culturally relevant. way The way curriculum is defined or viewed will directly affect the instruc. tional decisions necessary to implement curriculum in multi tiered RTI models. Three Types of Curriculum, Researchers and curriculum specialists have explored the fact that different. types of curriculum operate simultaneously in the classroom Eisner 2002. Hoover 1987 Joseph Bravmann Windschitl Mikel Green 2000 Schubert. 8 CHAPTER 1 Components of Curriculum Implementation. TA B L E 1 1 Types of Curriculum,Type Description Example s. Explicit Formal stated mandated curricula that contain Any grade level curriculum such as Basal Reading. explicit steps and procedures to follow for proper series Investigations Mathematics and Wilson. implementation stated and intended outcomes Reading. Hidden Practices and procedures resulting from decisions Use of cooperative learning groups deviations from. made when implementing the explicit curriculum the explicit curriculum to take advantage of a teach. unintended outcomes that occur as the explicit able moment actual learning that occurs as the. curriculum is implemented explicit curriculum is implemented. Absent Curricular aspects excluded either intentionally or Evidence based interventions not used in the class. unintentionally from classroom instruction that are room groups or peer work not used in teaching. appropriate to the explicit curriculum and learning supplemental materials not used to. support explicit curriculum learning, 1993 In his classic and innovative textbook on curriculum The Educational. Imagination Eisner 2002 identified three types of curriculum 1 explicit. stated curriculum 2 hidden unofficial curriculum and 3 null excluded. curriculum Because the null represents that which does not exist the term. absent curriculum is used to clarify the intent of the null curriculum The three. types of curriculum are summarized in Table 1 1, As Table 1 1 shows the explicit curriculum includes everything in the. curriculum that is stated such as,Steps for implementation.
Suggested supplemental activities or tasks,A proper sequence for presenting material. The amount of time to spend on particular topics,Procedures for evaluation. Suggested groupings e g pairs cooperative groups, These and similar types of instruction and guidance give teachers important. and necessary scope and sequence parameters for implemen. Components of Curriculum Implementation CHAPTER 1 Overview K NOWLEDGE OF KEY CURRICULAR factors is essential to meet the curri culum implementation demands of multi tiered response to intervention RTI This includes an understanding of five key curricular components of teaching and learning found in every classroom three key types of curricu lum operating simultaneously in every classroom

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