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COMPONENT PARTS OF A PERMANENT WAY
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RAILWAY ENGINEERING Dept of Civil Engineering KLU,TYPES OF RAILS. The rails used in the construction of railway track are of following types. 1 Double headed rails D H Rails,2 Bull headed rails B H Rails. 3 Flat footed rails F F Rails,DOUBLE HEADED RAILS, The rail sections whose foot and head are of same dimensions are called Double headed or. Dumb bell rails In the beginning these rails were widely used in the railway track The idea. behind using these rails was that when the head had worn out due to rubbing action of. wheels the rails could be inverted and reused But by experience it was found that their foot. could not be used as running surface because it also got corrugated under the impact of wheel. loads This type of rail is not in use in Indian Railways now a days Fig. 4 1 shows double headed rail,BULL HEADED RAILS, The rail section whose head dimensions are more than that of their foot are called bull headed. rails In this type of rail the head is made little thicker and stronger than the lower part by. adding more metal to it These rails also require chairs for holding them in position Bull. headed rails are especially used for making points and crossings. i B H Rails keep better alignment and provide more smoother and stronger track. ii These rails provide longer life to wooden sleepers and greater stability to the. iii These rails are easily removed from sleepers and hence renewal of track is easy. i B H rails require additional cost of iron chairs. ii These rails require heavy maintenance cost,iii B H rails are of less strength and stiffness.
FLAT FOOTED RAILS, The rail sections having their foot rolled to flat are called flat footed or vignole s rails This. type of rail was invented by Charles Vignole in 1836 It was initially thought that the flat. footed rails could by fixed directly to wooden sleepers and would eliminate chairs and keys. required for the B H rails But later on it was observed that heavy train loads caused the foot. of the rail to sink into the sleepers and making the spikes loose To remove this defect steel. RAILWAY ENGINEERING Dept of Civil Engineering KLU, bearing plates were used in between flat footed rails and the wooden sleeper These rails are. most commonly used in India Fig 4 3 shows flat footed rail. i F F rails have more strength and stiffness, ii No chairs are required for holding them in position. iii These rails require less number of fastenings, iv The maintenance cost of track formed with F F rails is less. i The fittings get loosened more frequently, ii These rails are not easily removed and hence renewal of track becomes.
iii It is difficult to manufacture points and crossings by using these rails. RAILWAY ENGINEERING Dept of Civil Engineering KLU, Sleepers are transverse members of the track placed belos the rails to support and fix them in. FUNCTIONS OF SLEEPERS,Sleepers serve the following functions. i To hold the rails to proper gauge, ii To transfer the loads from rails to the ballast. iii To support and fix the rails in proper position. iv To keep the rails at a proper level in straight tracks and at proper super. elevation on curves, v To provide elastic medium between the rails and the ballast. vi To provide stability to the permanent way on the whole. REQUIREMENTS OF GOOD SLEEPERS, The following are the requirements of good sleepers.
i The sleepers should be sufficiently strong to act as a beam under loads. ii The sleepers should be economical,iii They should maintain correct guage. iv They should provide sufficient bearing area for the rail. v The sleepers should have sufficient weight for stability. vi Sleepers should facilitate easy fixing and taking out of rails without disturbing. vii They should facilitate easy removal and replacement of ballast. viii They should not be pushed out easily of their position in any direction under. maximum forces of the moving trains, ix They should be able to resist impact and vibrations of moving trains. x They should be suitable to each type of ballast, xi If track circuiting is done it should be possible to insulate them from the rails. TYPES OF SLEEPERS,Sleepers are of the following types. 1 Wooden sleepers,2 Steel sleepers,3 Cast iron sleepers.
4 R C C sleepers,5 Priestesses concrete sleepers,RAILWAY ENGINEERING Dept of Civil Engineering KLU. 1 Wooden Sleepers These sleepers are regarded to be the best as they satisfy all the. requirements of good sleepers and are the only sleeper suitable for track circuiting. The life of wooden sleepers depends upon their ability to resist wear attack by white ants and. quality of timber used Timbers commonly used in India for sleepers are sal Teak Deodar. and chair wood, The standard sizes of wooden sleepers for different gauges are as follows. For B G 2740 mm X 250 mm X 130 mm,For M G 1830 mm X 203 mm X 114 mm. For N G 1520 mm X 150 mm X 100 mm,ADVANTAGES, i Timber is easily available in all parts of India. ii Wooden sleepers are suitable for all types of ballest. iii Wooden sleepers require less fastening and simple in design. iv These sleepers give less noisy track, v These sleepers absorb shocks and vibrations more than any other sleepers.
vi These sleepers are best suited for track circuiting. DISADVANTAGES, i The life of wooden sleeper is less as compared to other types of sleepers. ii It is difficult to maintain guage of the track in case of wooden sleepers. iii These sleepers are subjected to wear decay and attack by white ants etc. iv Track laid over wooden sleepers is easily disturbed. v Maintenance cost is more as compared to other sleepers. 2 Steel Sleepers These sleepers consist of steel throughs made of 6 mm thick sheets. with its both ends bend down to check the running out of ballast At the time of pressing of. sleepers an inward slope of 1 in 20 on either side is provided to achieve required tilt of rails. The standard length of these is 2680 mm Steel sleepers are of two types. a Key type steel sleepers,b Clip and bolt type steel sleepers. a Key type steel sleepers In this type of sleepers lugs or jaws are. Pressed out of metal and keys are used for holding the rails These are of two types. i Lug type,ii Loose jaw type,RAILWAY ENGINEERING Dept of Civil Engineering KLU. Lugs are formed by pressing out the metal of the channel section loose jaw type is an. improvement on pressed lug type Fig 5 2 shows key type steel sleepers. b Clip and bolt type steel sleepers In this type of sleeper clips and bolts are used for. holding the rails as shown in Fig 5 3 Cracks are not developed in the sleepers as the holes for. the bolts are small and circular It requires four clips and four bolts for holding each rail. ADVANTAGES, i Steel sleepers are light in weight and can be handled easily. ii These require less fastenings, iii He life of steel sleepers is more than the wooden sleepers.
iv The gauge can be easily maintained and adjusted. v The scrap value is more than the wooden sleepers. vi The track laid on steel sleepers has good lateral and longitudinal rigidity. vii Creep of rails can be checked by using steel sleepers. DISADVANTAGES, i Initial cost of these sleepers is more than wooden sleepers. ii Cracks are developed at rail seat of these sleepers. iii Steel sleepers are not suitable for track circuiting. iv These are not suitable for all types of ballast. v These are liable to corrosion,3 Caste Iron Sleepers. The sleepers made of cast iron known as cast iron sleepers have been extensively used in. India as compared to other countries in the world Cast iron sleepers are of the following. i Pot or bowl sleeper,ii Plate sleeper,iii Box sleeper. iv CST 9 sleeper,v Duplex sleeper, i Pot or bowl sleeper Pot sleeper consist of two bowls placed under each rail and. connected together by a tie bar The total effective area of both the pots is 0 464 sq m Each. pot is provided with two holes foe inspection and packing of ballast On the top of each pot a. rail seat is provided to hold rails at an inward slope of 1 in 20 Gibs and cotters are so casted. that by interchanging them gauge is slackened by 3 mm. RAILWAY ENGINEERING Dept of Civil Engineering KLU, ii Plate sleeper Plate sleepers consists of two rectangular plates of 864 mm X 305 mm in.
size with short side parallel to rail The plates are provided with projecting ribs in the bottom. to provide a grip in the ballast for lateral stability The plates are held in position by tie bar. Stiffners are provided at the top of the plate to increase the strength For mixing of rails. suitable arrangement is done as shown in Fig 5 6 It provides the effective bearing area of. 0 464sq m per sleeper, iii Box Sleeper These sleepers are not in user these days Box sleepers are similar to plate. sleepers In this type of sleeper a box is provided at the top of each plate to hold the rails. iv CST 9 Sleeper CST 9 sleeper is more satisfactory than other C I Sleepers and is. extensively used in Indian Railways since last thirty years It is a combination of pot plate. and box sleeper CST 9s sleeper consists of a triangular inverted pot one on each side of rail. seat Rail seat is provided at the top to hold rails at 1 in 20 inward slope The pots are. connected across the track by means of a tie bar Fig 5 7 shows CST 9 sleeper. v Duplex Sleepers Duplex sleepers are also known as rail free duplex sleepers and have. been used at rail joints in conjunction with CST 9 sleepers These sleepers are used at rail. joints to prevent cantilever action between two supports of the CST 9 sleepers These consists. of two plates each of size 850 mm X 750 mm The plates are placed with the longer side. parallel to the rails and are connected with a tie bar Fig 5 8 shows duplex sleepers. Advantages of C I sleepers are more,i The life of C I sleepers is more. ii The maintenance cost of these sleepers is low, iii Guage can be easily maintained and adjusted with these sleepers. iv These sleepers are more durable, v Creep rails can be checked by using these sleepers. Disadvantages, i More ballast is required than any other type of sleepers.
ii The number of fittings required is more,iii These sleepers are liable to break. iv C I Sleepers are liable to break,v These are not suitable for all types of ballast. 4 R C C Sleepers, Reinforced cement concrete sleepers are of two types. i Through type,ii Block and tie type,RAILWAY ENGINEERING Dept of Civil Engineering KLU. i Through type R C C Sleeper This is also known as one piece or mono block. sleeper In this type of sleeper cracks develop on the tension side when stressed These cracks. are very small and almost invisible but tend to enlarge with the repetition of impact loading. causing failure, ii Block and tie type R C C Sleeper This type of sleeper consists of two R C C.
blocks connected by a metal tie of inverted T section These sleepers are not subjected to any. degree of tensile stress as in through type,Advantages of R C C Sleepers. i Concrete sleepers have long life generally 40to 60 years. ii These are free from natural decay and attack by insects etc. iv These sleepers require less fittings,v Track circuiting is possible in these sleepers. vi These sleepers provide more lateral and longitudinal rigidity as compared to. other sleepers,vii The maintenance cost is low, viii Due to higher elastic modulus these can withstand the stresses due to fast. moving trains,Disadvantages, i Due to heavy weight handling and transportation of these sleepers are. ii If not handled properly the chance of breaking is more. iii The renewal of track laid with these sleepers is difficult. iv The scrap value is nil,5 Prestressed Concrete Sleepers.
Prestressed concrete sleepers are now a days extensively used in Indian Railways These. sleepers have high initial cost but are very cheap in long run due to their long life In these. sleepers high tension steel wires are used These wires are stretched by hydraulic jack to give. necessary tension in the wires The concrete is then put under a very high initial compression. These sleepers are heavily damaged in caser of derailment or accidents of trains. RAILWAY ENGINEERING Dept of Civil Engineering KLU, Ballast is the granular material usually broken stone or any other suitable material which is. spread on the top of railway formation and around the sleepers. FUNCTIONS OF BALLAST, Ballast in railway track performs the following functions. i To hold the sleepers in position and preventing the lateral and longitudinal. ii To distribute the axle load uniform from sleepers to a large area of formation. iii To provide elasticity to the track It acts as as elastic mat between subgrade. and sleepers, iv To provide easy means of maintaining the correct levels of the two rails in a. v To drain rain water from the track, vi To prevent the growth of weeds inside the track. CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD BALLAST, i It should have sufficient strength to resist crushing under heavy loads of.
moving trains, ii It should be durable enough to resist abrasion and weathering action. iii It should have rough and angular surface so as to provide good lateral and. longitudinal stability to the sleepers, iv It should have good workability so that it can be easily spread of formation. v It should be cheaply available in sufficient quantity near and along the track<. COMPONENT PARTS OF A PERMANENT WAY Following are the components of a permanent way i Subgrade ii Ballast iii Sleepers iv Rails v Fixture and Fastening In a permanent way rails are joined either by welding or by using fish plates and are fixed with sleepers by using different types of fastenings Sleepers are properly placed

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