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COMPLETE DIGITAL DESIGN UFPR
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COMPLETE DIGITAL DESIGN, This page intentionally left blank . COMPLETE, DIGITAL DESIGN,A Comprehensive Guide to Digital Electronics. and Computer System Architecture, Mark Balch, McGRAW HILL. New York Chicago San Francisco, Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan. New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore, Sydney Toronto.
Copyright 2003 by The McGraw Hill Companies Inc All rights reserved Manufactured in the United States of. America Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976 no part of this publication may be. reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means or stored in a database or retrieval system without the prior. written permission of the publisher ,0 07 143347 3. The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title 0 07 140927 0. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occur . rence of a trademarked name we use names in an editorial fashion only and to the benefit of the trademark. owner with no intention of infringement of the trademark Where such designations appear in this book they. have been printed with initial caps , McGraw Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions or for. use in corporate training programs For more information please contact George Hoare Special Sales at. george hoare mcgraw hill com or 212 904 4069 ,TERMS OF USE. This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw Hill Companies Inc McGraw Hill and its licensors reserve all. rights in and to the work Use of this work is subject to these terms Except as permitted under the Copyright Act. of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work you may not decompile disassemble reverse. engineer reproduce modify create derivative works based upon transmit distribute disseminate sell publish. or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw Hill s prior consent You may use the work for your. own noncommercial and personal use any other use of the work is strictly prohibited Your right to use the work. may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms . THE WORK IS PROVIDED AS IS McGRAW HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES. OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE. OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED. THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WAR . RANTY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF. MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE McGraw Hill and its licensors do not. warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation. will be uninterrupted or error free Neither McGraw Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for. any inaccuracy error or omission regardless of cause in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom . McGraw Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work Under no cir . cumstances shall McGraw Hill and or its licensors be liable for any indirect incidental special punitive conse . quential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work even if any of them has been. advised of the possibility of such damages This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatso . ever whether such claim or cause arises in contract tort or otherwise . DOI 10 1036 0071433473, This page intentionally left blank . For more information about this title click here . Preface xiii, Acknowledgments xix,PART 1 Digital Fundamentals.
Chapter 1 Digital Logic 3,1 1 Boolean Logic 3,1 2 Boolean Manipulation 7. 1 3 The Karnaugh map 8,1 4 Binary and Hexadecimal Numbering 10. 1 5 Binary Addition 14,1 6 Subtraction and Negative Numbers 15. 1 7 Multiplication and Division 17,1 8 Flip Flops and Latches 18. 1 9 Synchronous Logic 21,1 10 Synchronous Timing Analysis 23.
1 11 Clock Skew 25,1 12 Clock Jitter 27,1 13 Derived Logical Building Blocks 28. Chapter 2 Integrated Circuits and the 7400 Logic Families 33. 2 1 The Integrated Circuit 33,2 2 IC Packaging 38,2 3 The 7400 Series Discrete Logic Family 41. 2 4 Applying the 7400 Family to Logic Design 43, 2 5 Synchronous Logic Design with the 7400 Family 45. 2 6 Common Variants of the 7400 Family 50,2 7 Interpreting a Digital IC Data Sheet 51. Chapter 3 Basic Computer Architecture 55,3 1 The Digital Computer 56.
3 2 Microprocessor Internals 58,3 3 Subroutines and the Stack 60. 3 4 Reset and Interrupts 62,3 5 Implementation of an Eight Bit Computer 63. 3 6 Address Banking 67,3 7 Direct Memory Access 68. 3 8 Extending the Microprocessor Bus 70,3 9 Assembly Language and Addressing Modes 72. Copyright 2003 by The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Click Here for Terms of Use . viii CONTENTS, Chapter 4 Memory 77, 4 1 Memory Classifications 77.
4 2 EPROM 79, 4 3 Flash Memory 81, 4 4 EEPROM 85, 4 5 Asynchronous SRAM 86. 4 6 Asynchronous DRAM 88, 4 7 Multiport Memory 92. 4 8 The FIFO 94, Chapter 5 Serial Communications 97. 5 1 Serial vs Parallel Communication 98, 5 2 The UART 99. 5 3 ASCII Data Representation 102, 5 4 RS 232 102.
5 5 RS 422 107, 5 6 Modems and Baud Rate 108, 5 7 Network Topologies 109. 5 8 Network Data Formats 110, 5 9 RS 485 112, 5 10 A Simple RS 485 Network 114. 5 11 Interchip Serial Communications 117, Chapter 6 Instructive Microprocessors and Microcomputer Elements 121. 6 1 Evolution 121, 6 2 Motorola 6800 Eight bit Microprocessor Family 122. 6 3 Intel 8051 Microcontroller Family 125, 6 4 Microchip PIC Microcontroller Family 131.
6 5 Intel 8086 16 Bit Microprocessor Family 134, 6 6 Motorola 68000 16 32 Bit Microprocessor Family 139. PART 2 Advanced Digital Systems, Chapter 7 Advanced Microprocessor Concepts 145. 7 1 RISC and CISC 145, 7 2 Cache Structures 149, 7 3 Caches in Practice 154. 7 4 Virtual Memory and the MMU 158, 7 5 Superpipelined and Superscalar Architectures 161. 7 6 Floating Point Arithmetic 165, 7 7 Digital Signal Processors 167.
7 8 Performance Metrics 169, Chapter 8 High Performance Memory Technologies 173. 8 1 Synchronous DRAM 173, 8 2 Double Data Rate SDRAM 179. 8 3 Synchronous SRAM 182, 8 4 DDR and QDR SRAM 185. 8 5 Content Addressable Memory 188, CONTENTS ix,Chapter 9 Networking 193. 9 1 Protocol Layers One and Two 193,9 2 Protocol Layers Three and Four 194.
9 3 Physical Media 197,9 4 Channel Coding 198,9 5 8B10B Coding 203. 9 6 Error Detection 207,9 7 Checksum 208,9 8 Cyclic Redundancy Check 209. 9 9 Ethernet 215, Chapter 10 Logic Design and Finite State Machines 221. 10 1 Hardware Description Languages 221,10 2 CPU Support Logic 227. 10 3 Clock Domain Crossing 233,10 4 Finite State Machines 237.
10 5 FSM Bus Control 239,10 6 FSM Optimization 243. 10 7 Pipelining 245,Chapter 11 Programmable Logic Devices 249. 11 1 Custom and Programmable Logic 249,11 2 GALs and PALs 252. 11 3 CPLDs 255,11 4 FPGAs 257,PART 3 Analog Basics for Digital Systems. Chapter 12 Electrical Fundamentals 267,12 1 Basic Circuits 267.
12 2 Loop and Node Analysis 268,12 3 Resistance Combination 271. 12 4 Capacitors 272,12 5 Capacitors as AC Elements 274. 12 6 Inductors 276,12 7 Nonideal RLC Models 276,12 8 Frequency Domain Analysis 279. 12 9 Lowpass and Highpass Filters 283,12 10 Transformers 288. Chapter 13 Diodes and Transistors 293,13 1 Diodes 293.
13 2 Power Circuits with Diodes 296,13 3 Diodes in Digital Applications 298. 13 4 Bipolar Junction Transistors 300,13 5 Digital Amplification with the BJT 301. 13 6 Logic Functions with the BJT 304,13 7 Field Effect Transistors 306. 13 8 Power FETs and JFETs 309, x CONTENTS, Chapter 14 Operational Amplifiers 311. 14 1 The Ideal Op amp 311, 14 2 Characteristics of Real Op amps 316.
14 3 Bandwidth Limitations 324, 14 4 Input Resistance 325. 14 5 Summation Amplifier Circuits 328, 14 6 Active Filters 331. 14 7 Comparators and Hysteresis 333, Chapter 15 Analog Interfaces for Digital Systems 339. 15 1 Conversion between Analog and Digital Domains 339. 15 2 Sampling Rate and Aliasing 341, 15 3 ADC Circuits 345. 15 4 DAC Circuits 348, 15 5 Filters in Data Conversion Systems 350.
PART 4 Digital System Design in Practice, Chapter 16 Clock Distribution 355. 16 1 Crystal Oscillators and Ceramic Resonators 355. 16 2 Low Skew Clock Buffers 357, 16 3 Zero Delay Buffers The PLL 360. 16 4 Frequency Synthesis 364, 16 5 Delay Locked Loops 366. 16 6 Source Synchronous Clocking 367, Chapter 17 Voltage Regulation and Power Distribution 371. 17 1 Voltage Regulation Basics 372, 17 2 Thermal Analysis 374.
17 3 Zener Diodes and Shunt Regulators 376, 17 4 Transistors and Discrete Series Regulators 379. 17 5 Linear Regulators 382, 17 6 Switching Regulators 386. 17 7 Power Distribution 389, 17 8 Electrical Integrity 392. Chapter 18 Signal Integrity 397, 18 1 Transmission Lines 398. 18 2 Termination 403, 18 3 Crosstalk 408, 18 4 Electromagnetic Interference 410.
18 5 Grounding and Electromagnetic Compatibility 413. 18 6 Electrostatic Discharge 415, Chapter 19 Designing for Success 419. 19 1 Practical Technologies 420, 19 2 Printed Circuit Boards 422. CONTENTS xi, 19 3 Manually Wired Circuits 425, 19 4 Microprocessor Reset 428. 19 5 Design for Debug 429, 19 6 Boundary Scan 431. 19 7 Diagnostic Software 433, 19 8 Schematic Capture and Spice 436.
19 9 Test Equipment 440,Appendix A Further Education 443. Index 445, This page intentionally left blank , PREFACE. Digital systems are created to perform data processing and control tasks What distinguishes one. system from another is an architecture tailored to ef ciently execute the tasks for which it was de . signed A desktop computer and an automobile s engine controller have markedly different attributes. dictated by their unique requirements Despite these differences they share many fundamental. building blocks and concepts Fundamental to digital system design is the ability to choose from and. apply a wide range of technologies and methods to develop a suitable system architecture Digital. electronics is a eld of great breadth with interdependent topics that can prove challenging for indi . viduals who lack previous hands on experience in the eld . This book s focus is explaining the real world implementation of complete digital systems In do . ing so the reader is prepared to immediately begin design and implementation work without being. left to wonder about the myriad ancillary topics that many texts leave to independent and sometimes. painful discovery A complete perspective is emphasized because even the most elegant computer. architecture will not function without adequate supporting circuits . A wide variety of individuals are intended to bene t from this book The target audiences include. Practicing electrical engineers seeking to sharpen their skills in modern digital system design . Engineers who have spent years outside the design arena or in less than cutting edge areas often. nd that their digital design skills are behind the times These professionals can acquire directly. relevant knowledge from this book s practical discussion of modern digital technologies and de . sign practices , College graduates and undergraduates seeking to begin engineering careers in digital electronics . College curricula provide a rich foundation of theoretical understanding of electrical principles. and computer science but often lack a practical presentation of how the many pieces t together in. real systems Students may understand conceptually how a computer works while being incapable. of actually building one on their own This book serves as a bridge to take readers from the theo . retical world to the everyday design world where solutions must be complete to be successful . Technicians and hobbyists seeking a broad orientation to digital electronics design Some people. have an interest in understanding and building digital systems without having a formal engineer . ing degree Their need for practical knowledge in the eld is as strong as for degreed engineers . but their goals may involve laboratory support manufacturing or building a personal project . There are four parts to this book each of which addresses a critical set of topics necessary for. successful digital systems design The parts may be read sequentially or in arbitrary order depend . ing on the reader s level of knowledge and speci c areas of interest . A complete discussion of digital logic and microprocessor fundamentals is presented in the rst. part including introductions to basic memory and communications architectures More advanced. computer architecture and logic design topics are covered in Part 2 including modern microproces . sor architectures logic design methodologies high performance memory and networking technolo . gies and programmable logic devices , Copyright 2003 by The McGraw Hill Companies Inc Click Here for Terms of Use . xiv PREFACE, Part 3 steps back from the purely digital world to focus on the critical analog support circuitry.
COMPLETE DIGITAL DESIGN A Comprehensive Guide to Digital Electronics and Computer System Architecture Mark Balch McGRAW HILL New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico CityMilan New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto Balch book Page iii Thursday May 15 2003 3 46 PM

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